Munjamyeong of Goguryeo

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Munjamyeong of Goguryeo
Hangul 문자명왕 or 명치호왕
Hanja 文咨明王 or 明治好王
Revised Romanization Munja-myeong-wang or Myeongchiho-wang
McCune–Reischauer Munja-myŏng-wang or Myŏngchiho-wang
Birth name
Hangul 나운
Hanja 羅雲
Revised Romanization Naun
McCune–Reischauer Naun
Monarchs of Korea
Goguryeo
  1. King Chumo 37-19 BCE
  2. King Yuri 19 BCE-18 CE
  3. King Daemusin 18-44
  4. King Minjung 44-48
  5. King Mobon 48-53
  6. King Taejodae 53-146
  7. King Chadae 146-165
  8. King Sindae 165-179
  9. King Gogukcheon 179-197
  10. King Sansang 197-227
  11. King Dongcheon 227-248
  12. King Jungcheon 248-270
  13. King Seocheon 270-292
  14. King Bongsang 292-300
  15. King Micheon 300-331
  16. King Gogug-won 331-371
  17. King Sosurim 371-384
  18. King Gogug-yang 384-391
  19. King Gwanggaeto 391-413
  20. King Jangsu 413-490
  21. King Munja 491-519
  22. King Anjang 519-531
  23. King An-won 531-545
  24. King Yang-won 545-559
  25. King Pyeong-won 559-590
  26. King Yeong-yang 590-618
  27. King Yeong-nyu 618-642
  28. King Bojang 642-668

King Munja of Goguryeo or Munjamyeong of Goguryeo (died 519, r. 491–519) was the 21st monarch of Goguryeo, the northernmost of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. He was the grandson of King Jangsu (413–491). Though Munja's father Gochudaega Joda (hanja: 古鄒大加助多 ) had been named Crown Prince by King Jangsu, Joda died before assuming the throne.[1] He is considered as a ruler of Goguryeo at its zenith from Gwanggaeto the Great.

In 472, Goguryeo had relocated its capital from the area around modern Ji'an along the upper Yalu River to Pyongyang (the modern capital of North Korea).[2][3] This move came in the context of heightened rivalries with the other two of the Three Kingdoms, the then-allied Silla and Baekje.[4]

Maintaining the success of long-distance diplomacy of Jangsu, Munja nurtured close relations with Chinese dynasties, notably Northern Wei, Southern Qi and Liang. Though North Wei went through several wars with its northern neighbour, Rourans and Song, it finally disrupted further attacks of Song, resulting the shift into Liang dynasty.[5] Because of power shift, Goguryeo initiated diplomatic ties with Liang also: the Book of Qi says the title was bestowed upon the king of Goguryeo,[6] which means bilateral relationship was fulfilled within the two. Simultaneously, Munja continued to stabilize the occupation of Liaodong peninsular based on friendly relationship with North Wei.[7]

In terms of inter-Korean relationship, the 12th century Korean history the Samguk Sagi relates that the remnants of the Buyeo kingdom submitted to Goguryeo in 494 after their defeat by the nomadic Mohe people.[7] After occupying Dongbuyeo (Eastern Buyeo) in Gwanggaeto’s reign, Goguryeo finally completed subjugating whole Buyeo (current Harbin) area. In the mean time, the alliance of Baekje and Silla strengthened its ties by serving each other in terms of battlefields with Goguryeo.[8] Baekje with its continuous efforts underKing Muryeong tried to attack its northern boundary with Goguryeo,[9] notably in 505, mobilizing more than 3,000 soldiers. Korean records also mentions the provocative actions of Baekje several times, which called upon the counterattack of Munjamyeong in 506 but it failed without distinct fruits because of harsh famines.[8]

Buddhism in Goguryeo gained its continuous momentum after its acceptance into the kingdom during the reign of Sosurim. As his grandfathers did, Munja also boosted the expansion and distribution of Buddhism, especially via Liang and Wei.[5] Under his reign, it is said nine monks were firstly sent to Northern Wei with a view to investigating Buddhist books and others.[10] In 7th year (498), he constructed the Buddhist temple Geumgangsa.[11]

Munjamyeong was succeeded by his eldest son Anjang of Goguryeo.[1]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Chong-uk, Yi (2005). Koguryŏ-ŭi yŏksa. Seoul: Kimyŏngsa. pp. 369–370. ISBN 9788934917625. 
  2. ^ ICOMOS; Kim, Lena (2010). Koguryo Tomb Murals: World Cultural Heritage. Giljabi Media. p. 99. Retrieved 2 February 2016. 
  3. ^ Jeon, Hotae (2007). Koguryŏ = Koguryo, the origin of Korean power & pride. Seoul: Northeast Asia History Foundation. pp. 25–27. ISBN 9788991448834. 
  4. ^ Walker, Hugh Dyson (2012). East Asia: A New History. Author House. p. 137. ISBN 9781477265178. Retrieved 2 February 2016. 
  5. ^ a b Jin Gwan (2008). The history of accepting Buddhism during Goguryeo (in Korean). Seoul: Kyŏngsŏwŏn. pp. 291–304. ISBN 9788992062787. 
  6. ^ Zixian, Xiao. Book of Qi. Retrieved 3 February 2016. 
  7. ^ a b Sin, Hyŏng-sik (2003). The History of Goguryeo (高句麗史) (in Korean). Seoul: Ehwa yŏja taehakkyo. p. 227. ISBN 9788973005284. Retrieved 3 February 2016. 
  8. ^ a b Pak, Yŏng-gyu (2008). The annals of Goguryeo in one hand (in Korean). Seoul: Ungjin Tatk'ŏm. ISBN 9788901047508. 
  9. ^ Kim, Bushik (1145). Samguk Sagi (三國史記) (卷第二十六 百濟本紀 第四 ed.). Retrieved 3 February 2016. 
  10. ^ Wang-gi, Yi (1994). The Study on Architecture history in North Korea (북한에서의 건축사 연구). Seoul: Parŏn. p. 202. ISBN 9788977635074. Retrieved 3 February 2016. 
  11. ^ Hong, Yun-sik (2003). Buddhist Art in Korea (한국의 불교미술) (Revised 1st ed.). Seoul: Taewŏnsa. p. 73. ISBN 9788936907648. Retrieved 3 February 2016. 
Munjamyeong of Goguryeo
Died: 519
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Jangsu
King of Goguryeo
491–519
Succeeded by
Anjang