Munjamyeong of Goguryeo
|Munjamyeong of Goguryeo|
|Hangul||문자명왕 or 명치호왕|
|Hanja||文咨明王 or 明治好王|
|Revised Romanization||Munja-myeong-wang or Myeongchiho-wang|
|McCune–Reischauer||Munja-myŏng-wang or Myŏngchiho-wang|
|Monarchs of Korea
King Munja of Goguryeo or Munjamyeong of Goguryeo (died 519, r. 491–519) was the 21st monarch of Goguryeo, the northernmost of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. He was the grandson of King Jangsu (413–491). Though Munja's father Gochudaega Joda (hanja: 古鄒大加助多 ) had been named Crown Prince by King Jangsu, Joda died before assuming the throne. He is considered as a ruler of Goguryeo at its zenith from Gwanggaeto the Great.
In 472, Goguryeo had relocated its capital from the area around modern Ji'an along the upper Yalu River to Pyongyang (the modern capital of North Korea). This move came in the context of heightened rivalries with the other two of the Three Kingdoms, the then-allied Silla and Baekje.
Maintaining the success of long-distance diplomacy of Jangsu, Munja nurtured close relations with Chinese dynasties, notably Northern Wei, Southern Qi and Liang. Though North Wei went through several wars with its northern neighbour, Rourans and Song, it finally disrupted further attacks of Song, resulting the shift into Liang dynasty. Because of power shift, Goguryeo initiated diplomatic ties with Liang also: the Book of Qi says the title was bestowed upon the king of Goguryeo, which means bilateral relationship was fulfilled within the two. Simultaneously, Munja continued to stabilize the occupation of Liaodong peninsular based on friendly relationship with North Wei.
In terms of inter-Korean relationship, the 12th century Korean history the Samguk Sagi relates that the remnants of the Buyeo kingdom submitted to Goguryeo in 494 after their defeat by the nomadic Mohe people. After occupying Dongbuyeo (Eastern Buyeo) in Gwanggaeto’s reign, Goguryeo finally completed subjugating whole Buyeo (current Harbin) area. In the mean time, the alliance of Baekje and Silla strengthened its ties by serving each other in terms of battlefields with Goguryeo. Baekje with its continuous efforts underKing Muryeong tried to attack its northern boundary with Goguryeo, notably in 505, mobilizing more than 3,000 soldiers. Korean records also mentions the provocative actions of Baekje several times, which called upon the counterattack of Munjamyeong in 506 but it failed without distinct fruits because of harsh famines.
Buddhism in Goguryeo gained its continuous momentum after its acceptance into the kingdom during the reign of Sosurim. As his grandfathers did, Munja also boosted the expansion and distribution of Buddhism, especially via Liang and Wei. Under his reign, it is said nine monks were firstly sent to Northern Wei with a view to investigating Buddhist books and others. In 7th year (498), he constructed the Buddhist temple Geumgangsa.
- Chong-uk, Yi (2005). Koguryŏ-ŭi yŏksa. Seoul: Kimyŏngsa. pp. 369–370. ISBN 9788934917625.
- ICOMOS; Kim, Lena (2010). Koguryo Tomb Murals: World Cultural Heritage. Giljabi Media. p. 99. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
- Jeon, Hotae (2007). Koguryŏ = Koguryo, the origin of Korean power & pride. Seoul: Northeast Asia History Foundation. pp. 25–27. ISBN 9788991448834.
- Walker, Hugh Dyson (2012). East Asia: A New History. Author House. p. 137. ISBN 9781477265178. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
- Jin Gwan (2008). The history of accepting Buddhism during Goguryeo (in Korean). Seoul: Kyŏngsŏwŏn. pp. 291–304. ISBN 9788992062787.
- Zixian, Xiao. Book of Qi. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
- Sin, Hyŏng-sik (2003). The History of Goguryeo (高句麗史) (in Korean). Seoul: Ehwa yŏja taehakkyo. p. 227. ISBN 9788973005284. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
- Pak, Yŏng-gyu (2008). The annals of Goguryeo in one hand (in Korean). Seoul: Ungjin Tatk'ŏm. ISBN 9788901047508.
- Kim, Bushik (1145). Samguk Sagi (三國史記) (卷第二十六 百濟本紀 第四 ed.). Retrieved 3 February 2016.
- Wang-gi, Yi (1994). The Study on Architecture history in North Korea (북한에서의 건축사 연구). Seoul: Parŏn. p. 202. ISBN 9788977635074. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
- Hong, Yun-sik (2003). Buddhist Art in Korea (한국의 불교미술) (Revised 1st ed.). Seoul: Taewŏnsa. p. 73. ISBN 9788936907648. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
Munjamyeong of GoguryeoDied: 519
|King of Goguryeo