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Highly-Urbanized City
City of Muntinlupa
Skyline of Alabang, Muntinlupa
Skyline of Alabang, Muntinlupa
Official seal of Muntinlupa
Nickname(s): Emerald City of the Philippines; Munti
Motto: Lakas, Talino at Buhay
(Strength, Wisdom and Life)
Location within Metro Manila
Location within Metro Manila
Muntinlupa is located in Philippines
Location within the Philippines
Coordinates: 14°23′N 121°03′E / 14.38°N 121.05°E / 14.38; 121.05Coordinates: 14°23′N 121°03′E / 14.38°N 121.05°E / 14.38; 121.05
Country Philippines
Region National Capital Region
Districts Lone district of Muntinlupa City
Incorporated (town) 1601
Incorporated (city) March 1, 1995
Barangays 9
 • Mayor Jaime Fresnedi (Partido Liberal Muntinlupa - LP)
 • Member of the House of Representatives Rodolfo Biazon (Partido Liberal Muntinlupa - Liberal Party)
 • Vice Mayor Artemio A. Simundac (Partido San Pedro - UNA)
 • Sangguniang Panlungsod
 • Total 46.70 km2 (18.03 sq mi)
Elevation 16.0 m (52.5 ft)
Population (2010 census)[2]
 • Total 459,941
 • Density 9,800/km2 (26,000/sq mi)
Time zone PST (UTC+8)
ZIP code 1771–1780
Dialing code +63 (0)02

Muntinlupa, officially the City of Muntinlupa[3] (Filipino: Lungsod ng Muntinlupa, Malay: Kota Muntinlupa), is the southernmost city in Philippine National Capital Region. According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 459,941.[2] It is classified as a highly urbanized city[4]

It is bordered on the north by Taguig City; to the northwest by Parañaque City; by Las Piñas City to the west; to the southwest by the city of Bacoor; by the city of San Pedro, Laguna; and by Laguna de Bay to the east, the largest lake in the country. and is given the nickname "Emerald City of the Philippines" by the tourism establishment.[5]

Muntinlupa is known as the location of the national insular penitentiary, the New Bilibid Prison, where the country's most dangerous criminals were incarcerated, as well as the location of Ayala Alabang Village, one of the country's biggest and most expensive residential communities, where many of the wealthy and famous live.


The name “Muntinlupa” came from at least three versions. First, its association with the thin topsoil in the area. Second, residents, purportedly replying to a question by Spaniards in the 16th century what the name of their place was, said “Monte sa Lupa”—apparently mistaking the question for what card game they were playing. Third, the topographical nature of the area, where the term Monte or mountain was expanded to Muntinlupa or mountain land.

Some documents suggest that the first and third versions of Muntinlupa and Monte sa Lupa respectively eventually became Muntinlupa either through misspelling or mispronunciation. But no record to date can firmly establish which of the three versions is historically correct.

Muntinlupa is an old term, which refers to a barangay hence called as Munting Lupa (which means a smaller branch of a city or a municipality; often referred to as a county) now known as the Población. As early as 1800, the Catholic priest Father Joaquín de Zúñiga chronicled it as La Poblacion Que Sigue Se Llama Muntinlupa and Muntinglupa was used as the Tagalog term for the city during the American era.


  • 1601: Some 80 years after the discovery of the islands for King Philip II of Spain by Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan, the original lands constituting Muntinlupa could be deduced to have been friar lands administered by the Augustinians, then sold and assigned to the Sanctuary of Guadalupe.
  • 1869: The lands were transferred to the state and large individual landholders. In an effort by the Spanish Government to bring under closer administrative control the people living in the contiguous sitios, as well as those in Alabang, Tunasan, Sucat and Cupang, the municipality was created upon the recommendation of a government official, Professor de Medicina and a prominent Castillan, Don Eduardo de Canizares.
  • August 6, 1898: The town supported the Philippine Revolution against the Spaniards and formally joined the revolutionary government headed by Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo.
  • June 1, 1901: The Philippine Commission promulgated Rizal Province on June 11, 1901 through Act 137. Muntinlupa becomes a district of Morong, Rizal.
  • November 25, 1903: Under the American regime, Muntinlupa was incorporated under Act 1008 and included within the boundary of Laguna province under the municipality of Biñan. Muntinlupa residents protested this Executive Act, and through their town head, Marcelo Fresnedi, filed a formal petition to the Governor for the return of the municipality to the province of Rizal.
  • March 22, 1905: Act 1308 paved the way for Muntinlupa's return to Rizal province to become a part of Taguig along with Pateros.
  • January 1, 1918: Governor General Harrison's Executive Order 108, which grants the petition of residents for an independent status of their municipality, takes effect. Vidal Joaquin, a native of Alabang, served as the first appointed mayor in 1918-1919 followed by Primo Ticman, native of Poblacion 1919-1922 while the first elected mayor was Melencio Espeleta (1922-1924).
  • January 22, 1941: The historic New Bilibid Prison, the national penitentiary, was established in the hills of Muntinlupa.
  • November 7, 1975: Muntinlupa became a part of Metropolitan Manila by virtue of Presidential Decree No. 824 issued by then President Ferdinand E. Marcos.
  • June 13, 1986: Following the EDSA Revolution in February that year, President Corazón C. Aquino appoints Atty. Ignacio R. Bunye, Officer-In-Charge of Muntinlupa as part of a nationwide revamp of local government units. In the ratification of the 1987 Constitution, Muntinlupa together with Las Piñas formed one political district.
  • December 6, 1988: President Corazon C. Aquino by Proclamation 351 declares the 19th of December as "Municipality of Muntinlupa Day".
  • February 16, 1995: House Bill No. 14401 converting the Municipality of Muntinlupa into a highly urbanized city was approved by the House of Representatives. Then on March 1, Muntinlupa becomes the 65th city in the Philippines as signed into law by President Fidel V. Ramos, its conversion into a highly urbanized city by virtue of Republic Act No. 7926.
  • March 1, 2001: Republic Act 9191 declaring the First Day of March of every year as a Special Non-working Holiday in the City of Muntinlupa to be known as "The Muntinlupa City Charter Day" by virtue of Senate Bill No. 2165.
  • August 3, 2007: The city hall of Muntinlupa was completely damaged and later abandoned due to a fire. The fire started from the informal settlers area, behind the city hall. Almost all files, important documents and other references of Muntinlupa were burned.[6]


Population Census of Muntinlupa
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1990 278,411 —    
1995 399,846 +7.02%
2000 379,310 −1.12%
2007 452,943 +2.48%
2010 459,941 +0.56%
Source: National Statistics Office[2]

Local government[edit]

Muntinlupa City Hall

Muntinlupa City is governed primarily by the city mayor, the vice-mayor and the city councilors. The mayor acts as the chief executive of the city while the city councilors act as its legislative body. The vice-mayor, besides taking on mayoral responsibilities in case of a temporary vacancy, acts as the presiding officer of the city legislature. The legislative body is composed of 16 regular members (8 per district) and representatives from the barangay and the youth council.[7]

The Bureau of Corrections has its headquarters in the New Bilibid Prison Reservation in Muntinlupa City.[8]

Muntinlupa is the first city in the Philippines to ban the use of plastic bags and Styrofoam for packaging.[9]

"Most Business Friendly City" on 2001, 2002 & 2006 as awarded by the Philippine Chamber of Commerce and Industry[10][11]

List of former mayors[edit]

Municipal Mayors:

  • Vidal Joaquin - 1918 - 1919
  • Primo Ticman - 1919 - 1922
  • Melencio Espeleta - 1922 - 1924
  • Pedro E. Diaz - 1925 - 1930
  • Tomas M. Molina - 1931 - 1933
  • Mariano E. Arciaga - 1934 - 1936
  • Leon Mendiola - 1937 - 1939
  • Francisco Gilbuena - February–April, 1945
  • Baldomero Viñalon - 1945 - 1946; 1952–1959
  • Bonifacio Ticman - 1946 - 1951
  • Francisco de Mesa, Sr. - 1960 - 1964
  • Demetrio Loresca, Sr. - March–September, 1964 (Succession after Mayor de Mesa's assassination); October, 1966–1971
  • Maximino Argana - October, 1964 - October, 1966; 1972–1985
  • Santiago V. Carlos - 1985 - 1986
  • Victor Aguinaldo - Dec. 2, 1987 - Feb. 1, 1988 (as Officer in Charge after People Power Revolution)

City Mayors:

  • Ignacio Bunye - June 13, 1986 – July 1, 1998
  • Jaime R. Fresnedi - July 1, 1998 – July 1, 2007
  • Aldrin L. San Pedro - July 1, 2007 – July 1, 2013
  • Jaime R. Fresnedi - July 1, 2013 – Present

City Seal[edit]

Designed by Manuel Amorsolo, son of a national artist - the City Seal features the Philippine Eagle, the biggest, the strongest and the highest flying bird of the Philippine Republic, a bird that symbolizes our dream, one day, to make Muntinlupa the Premiere Emerald City of the 21st Century.[12]

The Philippine Eagle Symbolizes the City of Muntinlupa soaring into new heights in terms of progress and prosperity; the characteristics properly enlikened to a mother, that is caring, loving and nurturing her children to become good and responsible citizens of the country; and Muntinlupa’s hope, vision and dream of becoming a premiere city of the nation.

Bamboo Surrounding the Seal Symbolizes the ability of the citizens of Muntinlupa to cope up with the fast changing times; that we can withstand the trials that come our way and stand still and ready to triumph again.

Lakas, Talino at Buhay These are words taken from the lyrics of the Muntinlupa March, the city's official anthem. These are values that will guide the city in achieving its goals and visions.

1917 and 1995 The year 1917 marks the time when Muntinlupa became an independent town while the year 1995 was the time when Muntinlupa became a city.

The Philippine Flag The flag behind the eagle symbolizes the City of Muntinlupa being a part of the Republic of the Philippines and its government.

The Nine Stars The nine (9) stars symbolize the nine barangays that comprises the City of Muntinlupa namely, Tunasan, Poblacion, Putatan and Bayanan for District I and Alabang, Cupang, Buli, Sucat and Ayala Alabang for District II.

Districts and Barangays[edit]

Muntinlupa City is composed of a lone congressional district, and two legislative districts which are further subdivided into nine barangays.[13] Legislative District One contains four barangays in the southern half of the city, while legislative District Two occupies the five barangays in the northern portion of the city.

While Barangays are the administrative divisions of the city, and are legally part of the addresses of establishments and homes, many residents indicate their subdivision (village) instead of their Barangay. Listed below are the Barangays in each district and known subdivisions.[14]


Muntinlupa has 16 public schools (12 elementary schools and 4 high schools) and 69 private schools (including colleges)[15]

Tertiary Education[edit]

Pamantasang Lungsod ng Muntinlupa

The establishment of a local university in the Municipality started as a dream of former Mayor Ignacio Bunye who viewed education as potent tool for transforming society for the better. Upon his assumption of office in 1986, he included the objective of organizing and establishing an institution of higher learning in the Ten Point Agenda of his administration.[16]

Former Dean Enrico Vivar led the movement to convert the Muntinlupa Polytechnic College into a local university. Atty. Raul R. Corro, then Councilor and Chairman of the Committee on Education, sponsored City Ordinance No. 03-089 converting the Muntinlupa Polytechnic College to a Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Muntinlupa (PLMun) in March, 2003 during the 67th session.[17]

The Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Muntinlupa is now ISO 9001:2008 CERTIFIED by the BRS Rim of the World Operations in California, USA. PLMun was awarded its Certification on April 27, 2015 at the City Hall Quadrangle of the City Government of Muntinlupa.

Muntinlupa City Technical Institute MCTI offers technical vocational-training of TESDA Accredited Courses[18]

Secondary Education[edit]

Muntinlupa Science High School or MunSci, is a special public high school in the City of Muntinlupa, Philippines that provides a technical and science curriculum that aims to prepare students for careers in Science and Technology, Math, and Communication Arts.[19]

Muntinlupa National High School is a public high school located at Poblacion, Muntinlupa City.

Pedro E. Diaz High School, formerly Annex of Fort Bonifacio College (FBC), is a public high school located at Bayanan, Muntinlupa City.

Muntinlupa Central School is a public high school located at Poblacion, Muntinlupa City. Currently under construction, it will be able to accommodate the increasing number of students in the city in the academic year 2016 - 2017.

Alternative Learning System[edit]

ALS Center Bayanan formerly Bayanan Elementary School Unit I conducts ALS classes during Saturdays and uses modules that students can answer at home. This program will help them finish secondary education to make them eligible to take courses offered by TESDA or be a college graduate. They will be given certificates by the Department of Education (DepEd) once they finish the program in five months. The project is being implemented by the local DepEd office in coordination with the city government.[20][21]

National Bilibid Prison ALS is 10-month course offered by the Department of Education (DepEd). Convicts are given a chance to overcome illiteracy or acquire livelihood skills behind bars.[22]

List of Schools in Muntinlupa, Metro Manila[edit]

An incomplete list of schools in Muntinlupa.


Barangay Alabang, part of the second district of Muntinlupa, has undergone tremendous growth mainly due to a development boom in the late 1990s. The development of two large-scale commercial real estate projects namely; the Filinvest Corporate City and Ayala Land's Madrigal Business Park, changed the landscape of Muntinlupa City from what was once vast fields of cow pasture in the late 1980s, into a supercity that houses new residential, business, industrial and commercial establishments. It was a transformation reminiscent of Makati City's development boom some 30 years prior.

Some of the country's premier shopping centers, including the Alabang Town Center and the Festival Supermall, the towering Insular Life Towers, the Asian Hospital and Medical Center, and the Northgate Business District, which specializes in hosting information and technology industries, are important places of interest and landmarks of the city.

BPO Industry[edit]

Northgate Cyberzone is the information technology park within Filinvest Corporate City in Alabang. The 18.7 hectare, PEZA registered IT zone is designed, mastered-planned and built around the needs of technology-based companies engaged in Business Process Outsourcing (BPO), Knowledge Process Outsourcing (KPO), education, learning and firm, software design and multimedia, call centers, e-commerce, banking and financial services, as well as other IT support businesses and the like. It is home to Convergys Philippines Corp, HSBC Electronic Data Processing (Philippines), Inc., Genpact, Verizon Business and many more.[23]


Hotel Connected to the Ninoy Aquino International Airport through the Metro Manila Skyway, Filinvest Corporate City in Alabang has multiple hotels to offer such as Acacia Hotel Manila, Crimson Hotel, Parque España Residence Hotel, The Bellevue Manila and Vivere Suites

Historical Land Marks

  • The Bureau of Corrections Administration Building - This is a prison facade that houses the offices of the prison administration. The maximum security compound, consisting of 12 buildings called brigades are located at the western side of the facade. The structures were built in 1941, but it is the area of the medium security compound that is being shown in movies and in television. The maximum security compount was never shown in TV or in movies, except for the Office of the Director and the front view of the Maximum Security Compound.
  • Jamboree Lake - This is the smallest natural lake in the country, a favorite hang-out spot for nature lovers, as well as ordinary passers-by looking for a cool respite from the tropical heat. The lake has been in existence since time immemorial.
  • Memorial Hill - This is a small hill in the NBP reservation compound that cradles a World War II Vintage Japanese canon. The hill is likewise the burial place of Eriberto Misa the famous Prison's Director from 1937 to 1949.
  • Director's Quarters - The structure manifest an influence of a pre-war architecture that characterizes the outstanding edifice. This was built simultaneously with the Administration Building in 1941. This is also the official residence of the Director of Bureau of Corrections.
  • The Japanese Garden Cemetery - The cemetery is a burial place of Gen. Tomoyuki Yamashita, the Japanese general who became famous during the Japanese occupation of the country.
  • Insular Life Corporate Centre - Headquarters of the Insular Life Assurance Company, the first Filipino life insurance company where a marker was installed by the National Historical Commission on November 25, 2010, centenary of the corporation's establishment. Notable feature of the building is a bas relief sculpture of Filipino life and business by National Artist Napoleon Abueva mounted on its facade.
  • Muntinlupa Sports Complex - Located along Tunasan Baywalk the Muntinlupa Sports Complex is used for a variety of activities such as concerts, conferences, reunions and graduations, the sports complex has 3,500 seating capacity and has two separate multipurpose rooms.

Shopping Centers[edit]

Shopping malls plays an important role in the economy of Muntinlupa.

Alabang Town Center main atrium.

Alabang Town Center is a shopping mall owned by Ayala Malls in Muntinlupa. This shopping mall has become popular for the people for the citizens of Southern Manila particularly those from Muntinlupa, Las Piñas, and Parañaque.

The mall includes a number of High-End international Boutique chains, including Marks & Spencer, Gap, and Rustan's Department Store.

The True Value hardware store there was renovated in 2009.

Festival Supermall or Festival Mall is a large shopping mall owned and operated by Filinvest Development Corporation located at the sprawling and vibrant Filinvest Corporate City Now (Filinvest City) in Alabang Muntinlupa City, and is acknowledged as the first theme mall in the Philippines. The mall opened in the middle of May, 1998, and it became Filinvest’s flagship project, setting the standard for shopping centers in the south of Metro Manila. The whole Festival Supermall complex has an area of 20 hectares, the smallest mall in the south of Metro Manila, with the most number of tenants, and still remains as one of the smallest malls in the Philippines.

Festival Supermall is the biggest of all current 5 malls in Muntinlupa City. It is located at the heart of Filinvest Corporate City, a major business district in Alabang. The mall can be easily accessed via South Luzon Expressway from Filinvest Exit, Alabang Exit, and South Station Exit, and also via the National Highway and Alabang-Zapote Road. Festival Supermall is also adjacent to some of the largest malls South of Metro Manila, namely Alabang Town Center, SM Southmall, and other prominent malls like Starmall Alabang (Formerly Metropolis) and Lianas Alabang.

Starmall Alabang, or formerly known as Metropolis Star Alabang is the first community shopping mall in this city and it is owned by Starmalls, Inc. It has features and anchors like: Robinsons Supermarket, Robinsons Department Store, Finds, Cinemas, and among others.

SM Center Muntinlupa Activity Center

SM Center Muntinlupa or formerly known as SM Supercenter Muntinlupa is a second community shopping mall in this city and it is owned by SM Prime Holdings. SM Center Muntinlupa is the 30th SM Supermall built in the Philippines and 3 among other SM Supermalls in the Southern Region of Metro Manila after SM Southmall in Las Piñas, SM City Sucat and SM City Bicutan in Parañaque. The mall is built beside the Pepsi Warehouse and Land Transportation Office.

The features and anchors of the SM Center Muntinlupa are: SM Hypermarket, SM Cinema, SM Appliance Center, Ace Hardware, and among others.



Pan-Philippine Highway (National Road) on Tunasan

Major roads that connect the City of Muntinlupa are the National Road - Pan-Philippine Highway, Alabang-Zapote Road, Daang Hari Road, South Luzon Expressway, Metro Manila Skyway and C-6 Road

PNR Metro Commuter Train at Alabang Station

Philippine National Railways has 3 stations in the city. The following stations are Sucat, Alabang, and Muntinlupa (Brgy. Poblacion) Stations. There used to be a 4th and 5th stations in Brgy. Tunasan and Brgy. Buli, however both were discontinued to be used and demolished in 2009. Alabang station is the terminus of the Metro Commuter services so only the Provincial Commuter services that goes to Calamba City that stops in the Muntinlupa station which is currently 2 Northbound trips in the morning and 2 Southbound trips in the evening.

360 Eco-loop is Filinvest City’s fully integrated electric-powered public transport system operated by Filinvest as the main mode of transportation around the 244-hectare Filinvest City, Muntinlupa.[24]

electric-Jeepney Ride for Free is launched by the City Government of Muntinlupa on March 30, 2015 it is composed of an initial fleet of 10 e-jeepneys produced in the Philippines.[25][26]


Ospital ng Muntinlupa or “OsMun” provides general in-patient health service. Among the medical services offered by the Ospital ng Muntinlupa included Medicine (Cardiology, Cardiology-Heart Station, Emergency Medicine, Endocrinology, Family Medicine, Gastroenterology, Infectious Diseases, Nephrology and Pulmonology), Obstetric and Gynecology, Anesthesia, Clinical Nutrition, ENT, Pulmonary, Ophthalmology, Orthopedic Surgery, Pathology, Pediatrics, Pharmacy, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation and Surgery. Ospital ng Muntinlupa also operates its own dialysis center.

Asian Hospital and Medical Center, established on March 15, 2002 with Jorge Garcia, MD, an alumnus of the Faculty of Medicine & Surgery of the University of Santo Tomas, as its founding chairman, is the first private tertiary hospital built in the southern part of Metro Manila. It currently stands on a land area within the vicinity of Filinvest Corporate City, Alabang, Muntinlupa City, Philippines, measuring 17,258 square metres (185,760 sq ft) that both includes the main hospital building and the hospital's medical offices.

Research Institute for Tropical Medicine (RITM) was conceptualized through the Philippine Executive Order (EO) 674, authorizing the Philippine Department of Health to establish a research facility within the country for health advancement and medical research. Through the efforts of the Government of Japan, the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) provided partial financial grant to the agency in the construction of the RITM. In 1989, the RITM Center for Training in Tropical Infectious Diseases was established.

The RITM is tasked by the Philippine Department of Health and the Philippine Government to supervise, plan, and successfully implement research programs to prevent and to control prevailing infectious and tropical diseases in the Philippines.


Water is provided by Maynilad Water Services also known as Maynilad is a water and waste water services provider of cities and municipalities of the National Capital Region that forms the West Zone and some parts of Cavite. It is one of the two concessionaires that provide water to Metro Manila in the Philippines, the other one is Manila Water which serves the East Zone.

Electricity is distributed by The Manila Electric Company, also known as Meralco, it is the Philippines' only distributor of electrical power of the National Capital Region and the exurbs that form Mega Manila.

Notable People[edit]






Sister cities[edit]


Japan Takasaki, Japan[27] United States Carson, California, USA[28] Romania Piteşti, Romania[29]
China Liuzhou, China[30] Sweden Staffanstorp, Sweden[citation needed] France Paris, France[citation needed]
Portugal Madeira, Portugal Romania Craiova, Romania


Philippines Siruma, Camarines Sur Philippines Calabanga, Camarines Sur Philippines Sta. Cruz, Marinduque
Philippines Calauag, Quezon Philippines Bangued, Abra

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Cities". Quezon City, Philippines: Department of the Interior and Local Government. Retrieved 30 November 2012. 
  2. ^ a b c "Population and Annual Growth Rates for The Philippines and Its Regions, Provinces, and Highly Urbanized Cities" (PDF). 2010 Census and Housing Population. National Statistics Office. Retrieved 2012-11-07. 
  3. ^ Based on 1987 constitution of the Republic of the Philippines, it is spelled as Muntinglupa (instead of Muntinlupa).
  4. ^ "Philippine Republic Act No. 7926". Chan Robles Virtual Law Library. Retrieved 11 Dec 2008. 
  5. ^ "Muntinlupa City". Department of Tourism. Retrieved 19 Dec 2012. 
  6. ^ "Muntinlupa’s city hall burns down". The Manila Times. Archived from the original on 6 January 2008. Retrieved 4 August 2007. 
  7. ^ "Philippine Republic Act No. 7926, Articles III, IV, V". Chan Robles Virtual Law Library. Retrieved 11 Dec 2008. 
  8. ^ "About the Bureau of Corrections." Bureau of Corrections. Retrieved on October 2, 2010. "Bureau of Corrections NBP Reservation Muntinlupa City, Philippines."
  9. ^ "First to ban plastics in NCR, Muntinlupa City takes campaign further". InquirerNews. Retrieved 19 Dec 2012. 
  10. ^ "Editorial: The 19th Cityhood of Muntinlupa". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved 1 Mar 2014. 
  12. ^ "[url=]
  13. ^ "City of Muntinlupa". PSGC Interactive. Makati City, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Retrieved 15 June 2013. 
  14. ^ "[url=]
  15. ^ "Directory of Private School Per Barangay". 
  17. ^ "City Resolution No. 99-143 A Resolution Expressing the Desire of The City of Muntinlupa to For the Conversion of Muntinlupa Polytechnic College into a State College" (PDF). 
  18. ^ "Tech-voc graduates are skilled, job-ready--TESDA". 
  19. ^ Dept. of Education Muntinlupa. "School Mission". 
  20. ^ Rhodina Villanueva. "Muntinlupa supports 100 women scholars". PhilStar. Retrieved 28 Aug 2008. 
  21. ^ "Alternative Learning System". DepEd. 
  22. ^ Jovic Yee. "DepEd chief to Bilibid grads: We’re not that different". Retrieved 15 Mar 2015. 
  23. ^ Template:Url=
  24. ^ "Cruise around Filinvest City in earth-friendly e-vehicles". GMA News Online. Retrieved 29 Nov 2014. 
  25. ^ "Muntinlupa goes green". Manila Times. Retrieved 29 June 2015. 
  26. ^ "Muntinlupa City taps electric jeepneys for free-ride program". BusinessWorld. Retrieved 16 June 2015. 
  27. ^ Sangguniang Bayan ng Muntinlupa (July 21, 1992). "Resolution No. 92-04" (PDF). 
  28. ^ Sangguniang Panglungsod ng Muntinlupa (Nov 10, 1999). "Resolution No. 99-147" (PDF). 
  29. ^ Sangguniang Panglungsod ng Muntinlupa (Dec 12, 2005). "Resolution No. 05-194" (PDF). 
  30. ^ Sangguniang Panglungsod ng Muntinlupa (Dec 7, 2006). "Resolution No. 06-362" (PDF). 

External links[edit]