Musa Anter

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Musa Anter
Born 1920
Nusaybin, Ottoman Empire
Died September 20, 1992
Diyarbakır, Turkey
Occupation Writer, political activist

Musa Anter (1920 in Nusaybin – September 20, 1992 in Diyarbakır), also known as "Ape Musa" (Kurdish: Apê Musa‎, literally "Uncle Musa"), was a Kurdish dissident writer and activist.[1][2] He was a prominent Kurdish writer, journalist and intellectual and was assassinated by Turkish JITEM in September 1992.[3][4][5]


He was born in the Eskimağara (in Kurdish:Ziving) village (Nusaybin District of the Mardin Province). He completed his primary education in Mardin, and then studied at junior and senior high school in Adana. When he was a student, he had been to Syria during his summer holidays and got acquaintance with Kurdish nationalist intellectuals[6] such as Celadet and Kamuran Bedir Khan, Kadri and Ekrem Cemilpaşa, Dr. Nafiz, Nuri Zaza, Nuri Dersimi, Qedrîcan, Osman Sabri, Haco Agha and his son Hasan, Emînê Perîxanê's son Şikriye Emîn, Mala Elyê Unus, Teufo Ciziri and Cigerxwîn.[7]


Anter was shot at a festival in 1992, in an incident in which Orhan Miroğlu was seriously injured. Some Turkish sources claimed that Abdülkadir Aygan, who was PKK militant and surrendered in 1985,[8] then recruited as part of the first staff of JİTEM (the Turkish Gendarmerie's Intelligence and Counter-terrorism Service),[8] had said he had been part of a JİTEM unit, along with a "Hamit" from Şırnak, which had assassinated Musa Anter.[9]

Other Turkish sources claimed that the perpetrators was PKK defector Murat Ipek who got order from state's contract killer Mahmut Yıldırım (alias "Yeşil") ,[10] or Yeşil himself.[11]

After long investigations, Turkish Gendarmerie Intelligence and Counter-Terrorism was found guilty of Anter assassination and Turkey was fined related to his murder in 2006 by the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR), who sentenced Turkey to a fine of 28,500 euros.[5] A Diyarbakır court in 2013 allegedly charged four individuals with Anter's murder, including Mahmut Yıldırım (alias "Yeşil") and Abdülkadir Aygan.[12]


  1. ^ The Kurdish Nationalist Movement: Opportunity, Mobilization and Identity. Retrieved 18 March 2016. 
  2. ^ A. Hunsicker (2007). The Fine Art of Executive Protection: Handbook for the Executive Protection Officer. Universal-Publishers. p. 67. ISBN 978-1-58112-984-7. 
  3. ^ David Romero (2006). The Kurdish Nationalist Movement: Opportunity, Mobilization, and Identity. Cambridge University Press. p. 135. ISBN 978-0-521-85041-4. 
  4. ^ Amnesty International (September 1992). "Kurdish Writer Musa Anter, 74, Murdered" (PDF). Retrieved December 2015.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  5. ^ a b Duvakli, Melik (27 August 2008). "JİTEM's illegal actions cost Turkey a fortune". Today's Zaman. Archived from the original on June 6, 2012. Retrieved December 9, 2015. 
  6. ^ Ercilasun, Ahmet B. (July 21, 2010). "Gaflet" [Heedlessness]. Yeniçağ [New Age]. Archived from the original on December 27, 2013. Retrieved December 9, 2015. (Turkish)
  7. ^ Anter, Musa (1992, digitized 2007). Hatıralarım. 2. Doz Basım ve Yayıncılık. p. 123. (Turkish)
  8. ^ a b Cizre, Ümit (2007). Democratic Oversight and Reform of the Security Sector in Turkey: 2005/2006 Status Report. LIT Verlag Münster. p. 244. ISBN 978-3-03735-234-2. 
  9. ^ Ünlü, Ferhat (August 25, 2008). "Suikastların adresi hep JİTEM'e çıkıyor". Sabah (in Turkish). Archived from the original on October 25, 2008. Retrieved December 9, 2015. Sonra da bildiğiniz gibi Şırnaklı Hamit infaz etti Anter'i. [Then, as you also know Şırnak Hamid Anter was executed.] 
  10. ^ "Susurluk". Ozgur Politika. February 11, 1997. Archived from the original on February 14, 1998. Retrieved December 8, 2008. (Turkish)
  11. ^ Duvakli, Melik (January 3, 2009). "JİTEM behind Anter and Aydın murders, claims Kurdish group". Today's Zaman. Retrieved December 9, 2015. In a statement to the Diyarbakır Police Department in 1994, PKK informant Muhsin Gül said both Aydın and Anter were killed by Mahmut Yıldırım... 
  12. ^ "JİTEM list provided in Anter murder trial to be kept confidential". Today's Zaman. October 8, 2013. Retrieved December 9, 2015. 

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