Muscicapa

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Muscicapa
SpottedFlycatcheronfence.jpg
Spotted flycatcher (M. striata)
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Muscicapidae
Genus: Muscicapa
Brisson, 1760
Species

see text

Muscicapa is a genus of passerine birds belonging to the Old World flycatcher family Muscicapidae, and therein to the typical flycatchers of subfamily Muscicapinae. They are widespread across Europe, Africa and Asia with most species occurring in forest and woodland habitats. Several species are migratory, moving south from Europe and northern Asia for the winter.[1]

They are small birds, 9 to 15 centimetres in length. They have a large head, short tail and a flattened bill, broader at the base. Their plumage is mostly drab brown or grey and rather plain. Young birds tend to be more spotted or mottled.[1]

Muscicapa flycatchers typically feed on flying insects which are caught by sallying out from an exposed perch. The nest is usually cup-shaped and built on a tree branch but some African species nest in tree holes.[1]

Taxonomy and systematics[edit]

The genus was introduced by the French zoologist Mathurin Jacques Brisson in 1760.[2] The word Muscicapa comes from the Latin musca, a fly and capere, to catch.[3]

In 2010 two large molecular phylogenetic studies of species within Muscicapidae showed that Muscicapa was non-monophyletic. The authors were unable to propose a revised genus as not all the species were sampled.[4][5] A subsequent study published in 2016, that included 37 of the 42 Muscicapini species, confirmed that Muscicapa was non-monophyletic and proposed a reorganised arrangement with several new or resurrected genera.[6]

Extant species[edit]

There are 27 extant species of Muscicapa flycatchers:[7]

Extinct species[edit]

There are at least two fossil species which are included in this genus:

Former species[edit]

Formerly, some authorities also considered the following species (or subspecies) as species within the genus Muscicapa:

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Sinclair et al. (2003), Perrins (2004), del Hoyo et al. (2006)
  2. ^ Brisson, Mathurin Jacques (1760). Ornithologie; ou, Méthode contenant la division des oiseaux en ordres, sections, genres, espéces & leurs variétés. &c (in Latin and French). Paris: Jean-Baptiste Bauche. Vol. 1 p. 32, Vol. 2 p. 357. 
  3. ^ Jobling, James A. (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London, United Kingdom: Christopher Helm. p. 260. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4. 
  4. ^ Sangster, G.; Alström, P.; Forsmark, E.; Olsson, U. (2010). "Multi-locus phylogenetic analysis of Old World chats and flycatchers reveals extensive paraphyly at family, subfamily and genus level (Aves: Muscicapidae)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 57 (1): 380–392. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2010.07.008. PMID 20656044. 
  5. ^ Zuccon, D.; Ericson, P.G.P. (2010). "A multi-gene phylogeny disentangles the chat-flycatcher complex (Aves: Muscicapidae)". Zoologica Scripta. 39 (3): 213–224. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2010.00423.x. 
  6. ^ Voelker, G.; Huntley, J.W.; Peñalba, J.V.; Bowie, R.C.K. (2016). "Resolving taxonomic uncertainty and historical biogeographic patterns in Muscicapa flycatchers and their allies". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 94: 618–625. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2015.09.026. PMID 26475615. 
  7. ^ Gill, Frank; Donsker, David, eds. (2016). "Chats, Old World flycatchers". World Bird List Version 6.2. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 20 May 2016. 
  8. ^ Mlíkovský, J. (2012). "Correct name for the Asian Brown Flycatcher (Aves:Muscicapidae, Muscicapa)". Zootaxa. 3393: 53–56. 
  9. ^ Dickinson, E.C.; et al. (2014). "Correcting the "correct" name for the Asian Brown Flycatcher (Aves: Passeriformes, Muscicapidae, Muscicapa)". Zootaxa. 3869 (3): 343–347. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3869.3.8. 
  10. ^ a b Kessler, E. 2013. Neogene songbirds (Aves, Passeriformes) from Hungary. – Hantkeniana, Budapest, 2013, 8: 37-149.
  11. ^ "Malurus melanocephalus (Red-backed Fairywren) - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-12-05. 
  12. ^ "Pachycephala pectoralis - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-02-03. 
  13. ^ "Pachycephala caledonica - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-02-04. 
  14. ^ "Pachycephala rufiventris xanthetraea - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-02-07. 
  15. ^ "Colluricincla megarhyncha - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-02-16. 
  16. ^ "Hypothymis azurea - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-01-01. 
  17. ^ "Trochocercus cyanomelas - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-01-07. 
  18. ^ "Terpsiphone viridis - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-01-08. 
  19. ^ "Terpsiphone bourbonnensis - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-03-03. 
  20. ^ "Chasiempis sandwichensis - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-01-11. 
  21. ^ "Pomarea nigra - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-01-11. 
  22. ^ "Pomarea pomarea - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-01-12. 
  23. ^ "Metabolus rugensis - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-01-12. 
  24. ^ "Symposiachrus guttula - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-01-13. 
  25. ^ "Symposiachrus manadensis - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-01-15. 
  26. ^ "Monarcha cinerascens inornatus - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-01-19. 
  27. ^ "Monarcha melanopsis - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-01-19. 
  28. ^ "Carterornis chrysomela - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-01-21. 
  29. ^ "Arses telescopthalmus - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-01-21. 
  30. ^ "Myiagra alecto chalybeocephala - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-01-26. 
  31. ^ "Pycnonotus melanicterus - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-03-11. 
  32. ^ "Pycnonotus [sinensis or formosae] - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-03-13. 
  33. ^ Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London (1832). Longman. 1854-01-01. 

Further reading[edit]

  • del Hoyo, Josep; Elliott, Andrew & Sargatal, Jordi (eds.) (2006): Handbook of Birds of the World (Vol. 11: Old World Flycatchers to Old World Warblers). Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. ISBN 84-96553-06-X (Vol.11: 2006)
  • Perrins, Christopher (ed.) (2004): The New Encyclopedia of Birds. Oxford University Press, Oxford. ISBN 0-19-852506-0
  • Sinclair, Ian; Ryan, Pete; Christy, Patrice & Hockey, Phil (2003): Birds of Africa: a complete illustrated field guide to the birds of the Sahara. Struik, Cape Town. ISBN 1-86872-857-9