Muscicapa

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Muscicapa
SpottedFlycatcheronfence.jpg
Spotted flycatcher (M. striata)
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Muscicapidae
Genus: Muscicapa
Brisson, 1760
Species

see text

Muscicapa is a genus of passerine birds belonging to the Old World flycatcher family Muscicapidae, and therein to the typical flycatchers of subfamily Muscicapinae. They are widespread across Europe, Africa and Asia with most species occurring in forest and woodland habitats. Several species are migratory, moving south from Europe and northern Asia for the winter.[1]

They are small birds, 9 to 15 centimetres in length. They have a large head, short tail and a flattened bill, broader at the base. Their plumage is mostly drab brown or grey and rather plain. Young birds tend to be more spotted or mottled.[1]

Muscicapa flycatchers typically feed on flying insects which are caught by sallying out from an exposed perch. The nest is usually cup-shaped and built on a tree branch but some African species nest in tree holes.[1]

Taxonomy and systematics[edit]

The genus was introduced by the French zoologist Mathurin Jacques Brisson in 1760.[2] The word Muscicapa comes from the Latin musca, a fly and capere, to catch.[3]

In 2010 two large molecular phylogenetic studies of species within Muscicapidae showed that Muscicapa was non-monophyletic. The authors were unable to propose a revised genus as not all the species were sampled.[4][5] A subsequent study published in 2016, that included 37 of the 42 Muscicapini species, confirmed that Muscicapa was non-monophyletic and proposed a reorganised arrangement with several new or resurrected genera.[6]

Extant species[edit]

There are 27 extant species of Muscicapa flycatchers:[7]

Image Common Name Scientific name Distribution
Muscicapa striata 1 (Martin Mecnarowski).jpg Spotted flycatcher Muscicapa striata Africa and south western Asia
Jielbeaumadier gobemouche gris 2 calvi 2014.jpeg Mediterranean flycatcher Muscicapa tyrrhenica the Balearic Islands, Corsica and Sardinia, and is migratory, wintering in Africa
Gambaga flycatcher Muscicapa gambagae Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, Mali, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Togo, Uganda, and Yemen.
Muscicapa griseisticta eating insect.JPG Grey-streaked flycatcher Muscicapa griseisticta north-east China, North Korea and south-east Siberia including Sakhalin and Kamchatka. In spring and autumn it migrates through eastern and southern China, South Korea, Japan and Taiwan. In winter it occurs in forests, forest edges and open country with scattered trees in Borneo, the Philippines, Palau, eastern Indonesia and New Guinea. It is a vagrant to Singapore, Vietnam, Alaska and Australia.
Dark-sided Flycatcher Muscicapa sibirica by Dr. Raju Kasambe DSCN2172 (2).jpg Dark-sided flycatcher Muscicapa sibirica Asia
Asian Brown Flycatcher (Muscicapa dauurica) at Periyar National Park.jpg Asian brown flycatcher Muscicapa dauurica[8][9] Japan, eastern Siberia,southern India, Sri Lanka east to Indonesia and Vietnam, and the Himalayas.
Sulawesi streaked flycatcher Muscicapa sodhii Sulawesi
Brown-streaked flycatcher Muscicapa williamsoni southern Myanmar, southern Thailand, northern peninsular Malaysia, and northeast Borneo
Ashy-breasted Flycatcher (Muscicapa randi) facing left in tree.jpg Ashy-breasted flycatcher Muscicapa randi Philippines
Sumba brown flycatcher Muscicapa segregata Indonesia.
Muscicapa muttui.jpg Brown-breasted flycatcher Muscicapa muttui north eastern India, central and Southern China and northern Burma, Thailand and Vietnam, and migrates to southern India and Sri Lanka.
Muscicapa ferruginea -side-8 (2).jpg Ferruginous flycatcher Muscicapa ferruginea Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, Indonesia, Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, the Philippines, India, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam.
Ashy flycatcher (Muscicapa caerulescens) - late evening, dim light. (5964281395).jpg Ashy flycatcher Muscicapa caerulescens Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.
Swamp flycatcher.jpg Swamp flycatcher Muscicapa aquatica Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, South Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, and Zambia
Cassin's Flycatcher bwindi jan06.jpg Cassin's flycatcher Muscicapa cassini Angola, Benin, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Togo, Uganda, and Zambia.
Olivaceous flycatcher Muscicapa olivascens Cameroon, Central African Republic, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone.
Chapin's Flycatcher (Muscicapa lendu) JM.jpg Chapin's flycatcher Muscicapa lendu Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Uganda, and possibly Rwanda
Itombwe flycatcher Muscicapa itombwensis Democratic Republic of the Congo.
African Dusky Flycatcher.jpg African dusky flycatcher Muscicapa adusta Africa from Nigeria, the Central African Republic, South Sudan and Ethiopia south to South Africa
Little grey flycatcher Muscicapa epulata Cameroon, Central African Republic, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria and Sierra Leone.
Yellow-footed flycatcher Muscicapa sethsmithi Cameroon, Central African Republic, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Nigeria, and Uganda.
Dusky-blue Flycatcher - Kibale Uganda 06 4299 (18702191824).jpg Dusky-blue flycatcher Muscicapa comitata Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, South Sudan, Togo, and Uganda.
Tessmann's flycatcher Muscicapa tessmanni Democratic Republic of the Congo to Sierra Leone.
Sooty flycatcher Muscicapa infuscata Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Nigeria, South Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia.
Ussher's Flycatcher.jpg Ussher's flycatcher Muscicapa ussheri Ivory Coast, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone.
Muscicapa boehmi, Longa, Birding Weto, a.jpg Böhm's flycatcher Muscicapa boehmi Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Malawi, Tanzania, and Zambia

Extinct species[edit]

There are at least two fossil species which are included in this genus:

Former species[edit]

Formerly, some authorities also considered the following species (or subspecies) as species within the genus Muscicapa:

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Sinclair et al. (2003), Perrins (2004), del Hoyo et al. (2006)
  2. ^ Brisson, Mathurin Jacques (1760). Ornithologie; ou, Méthode contenant la division des oiseaux en ordres, sections, genres, espéces & leurs variétés. &c (in Latin and French). Paris: Jean-Baptiste Bauche. Vol. 1 p. 32, Vol. 2 p. 357.
  3. ^ Jobling, James A. (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London, United Kingdom: Christopher Helm. p. 260. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
  4. ^ Sangster, G.; Alström, P.; Forsmark, E.; Olsson, U. (2010). "Multi-locus phylogenetic analysis of Old World chats and flycatchers reveals extensive paraphyly at family, subfamily and genus level (Aves: Muscicapidae)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 57 (1): 380–392. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2010.07.008. PMID 20656044.
  5. ^ Zuccon, D.; Ericson, P.G.P. (2010). "A multi-gene phylogeny disentangles the chat-flycatcher complex (Aves: Muscicapidae)". Zoologica Scripta. 39 (3): 213–224. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2010.00423.x.
  6. ^ Voelker, G.; Huntley, J.W.; Peñalba, J.V.; Bowie, R.C.K. (2016). "Resolving taxonomic uncertainty and historical biogeographic patterns in Muscicapa flycatchers and their allies". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 94: 618–625. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2015.09.026. PMID 26475615.
  7. ^ Gill, Frank; Donsker, David, eds. (2016). "Chats, Old World flycatchers". World Bird List Version 6.2. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
  8. ^ Mlíkovský, J. (2012). "Correct name for the Asian Brown Flycatcher (Aves:Muscicapidae, Muscicapa". Zootaxa. 3393: 53–56.
  9. ^ Dickinson, E.C.; et al. (2014). "Correcting the "correct" name for the Asian Brown Flycatcher (Aves: Passeriformes, Muscicapidae, Muscicapa". Zootaxa. 3869 (3): 343–347. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3869.3.8.
  10. ^ a b Kessler, E. 2013. Neogene songbirds (Aves, Passeriformes) from Hungary. – Hantkeniana, Budapest, 2013, 8: 37-149.
  11. ^ "Malurus melanocephalus (Red-backed Fairywren) - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-12-05.
  12. ^ "Pachycephala pectoralis - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-02-03.
  13. ^ "Pachycephala caledonica - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-02-04.
  14. ^ "Pachycephala rufiventris xanthetraea - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-02-07.
  15. ^ "Colluricincla megarhyncha - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-02-16.
  16. ^ "Hypothymis azurea - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-01-01.
  17. ^ "Trochocercus cyanomelas - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-01-07.
  18. ^ "Terpsiphone viridis - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-01-08.
  19. ^ "Terpsiphone bourbonnensis - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-03-03.
  20. ^ "Chasiempis sandwichensis - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-01-11.
  21. ^ "Pomarea nigra - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-01-11.
  22. ^ "Pomarea pomarea - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-01-12.
  23. ^ "Metabolus rugensis - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-01-12.
  24. ^ "Symposiachrus guttula - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-01-13.
  25. ^ "Symposiachrus manadensis - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-01-15.
  26. ^ "Monarcha cinerascens inornatus - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-01-19.
  27. ^ "Monarcha melanopsis - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-01-19.
  28. ^ "Carterornis chrysomela - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-01-21.
  29. ^ "Arses telescopthalmus - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-01-21.
  30. ^ "Myiagra alecto chalybeocephala - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-01-26.
  31. ^ "Pycnonotus melanicterus - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-03-11.
  32. ^ "Pycnonotus [sinensis or formosae] - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-03-13.
  33. ^ Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London (1832). Longman. 1854-01-01.

Further reading[edit]

  • del Hoyo, Josep; Elliott, Andrew & Sargatal, Jordi (eds.) (2006): Handbook of Birds of the World (Vol. 11: Old World Flycatchers to Old World Warblers). Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. ISBN 84-96553-06-X (Vol.11: 2006)
  • Perrins, Christopher (ed.) (2004): The New Encyclopedia of Birds. Oxford University Press, Oxford. ISBN 0-19-852506-0
  • Sinclair, Ian; Ryan, Pete; Christy, Patrice & Hockey, Phil (2003): Birds of Africa: a complete illustrated field guide to the birds of the Sahara. Struik, Cape Town. ISBN 1-86872-857-9