Psychoactive Amanita mushroom

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Muscimol mushroom)
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Amanita muscaria is commonly known as the fly agaric.

A psychoactive Amanita mushroom is a fungus that is psychoactive but not deadly. They contain isoxazoles like muscimol and/or ibotenic acid. Isoxazoles has been identified not only in Amanitas but also in Tricholoma muscarium for example.

Species[edit]

Amanita muscaria[edit]

Amanitaceae.org now only recognize three varieties but says that they will be segregated into their own taxa in the near future, the varieties are:[1]

Image Reference name Common name Synonym Description
Amanita muscaria 26643.JPG Amanita muscaria var. flavivolvata[2] American fly agaric red, with yellow to yellowish-white warts. It is found from southern Alaska down through the Rocky Mountains, through Central America, all the way to Andean Colombia. Rodham Tulloss uses this name to describe all "typical" A. muscaria from indigenous New World populations.
Flickr - Nicholas T - Forrest H. Dutlinger Natural Area (Revisited) (19).jpg Amanita muscaria var. guessowii[3] American fly agaric (yellow variant) Amanita muscaria var. formosa has a yellow to orange cap, with the centre more orange or perhaps even reddish orange. It is found most commonly in northeastern North America, from Newfoundland and Quebec south all the way to the state of Tennessee. Some authorities (cf. Jenkins) treat these populations as A. muscaria var. formosa, while others (cf. Tulloss) recognise them as a distinct variety.
Amanita muscaria var. inzengae[4] Inzenga's fly agaric it has a yellow to orange-yellow cap with yellowish warts and stem which may be tan.

Amanita pantherina[edit]

A. pantherina is also known as panther mushroom.

Amanita pantherina variety:

  • Amanita pantherina var. abietum (E.-J. Gilbert) Veselý[5]

Toxicity[edit]

Muscimol (also known as pantherine) is a isoxazole. Amanita pantherina is named after pantherine.

Entheogen[edit]

Although a few species of "Amanita" are edible, many fungi experts advise against eating a member of "Amanita" unless the species is known with absolute certainty.

Amanita muscaria was widely used as an entheogen by many of the indigenous peoples of Siberia. Its use was known among almost all of the Uralic-speaking peoples of western Siberia and the Paleosiberian-speaking peoples of the Russian Far East. There are only isolated reports of A. muscaria use among the Tungusic and Turkic peoples of central Siberia and it is believed that on the whole entheogenic use of A. muscaria was not practised by these peoples.[6]

Amanita pantherina contains the psychoactive compound muscimol,[7] but is used as an entheogen much less often than its much more distinguishable relative Amanita muscaria.

Research[edit]

A number of other species has been identified to contain psychoactive substances, but the toxicity is not well documented.

Legal status[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "infraspecific taxa of muscaria - Amanitaceae.org - Taxonomy and Morphology of Amanita and Limacella". www.amanitaceae.org.
  2. ^ Tulloss RE; Yang Z-L (2012). "Amanita muscaria subsp. flavivolvata Singer". Studies in the Genus Amanita Pers. (Agaricales, Fungi). Retrieved 2013-02-21.
  3. ^ Tulloss RE; Yang Z-L (2012). "Amanita muscaria var. guessowii Veselý". Studies in the Genus Amanita Pers. (Agaricales, Fungi). Retrieved 2013-02-21.
  4. ^ "Amanita muscaria var. inzengae - Amanitaceae.org - Taxonomy and Morphology of Amanita and Limacella". www.amanitaceae.org.
  5. ^ "infraspecific taxa of pantherina - Amanitaceae.org - Taxonomy and Morphology of Amanita and Limacella". www.amanitaceae.org.
  6. ^ Nyberg, H. (1992). "Religious use of hallucinogenic fungi: A comparison between Siberian and Mesoamerican Cultures". Karstenia. 32 (71–80).
  7. ^ Barceloux D. G. (2008). "41 (Isoxazole-containing mushrooms and pantherina syndrome)". Medical toxicology of natural substances: foods, fungi, medicinal herbs, plants, and venomous animals (PDF). Canada: John Wiley and Sons Inc. p. 298. ISBN 978-0-471-72761-3.
  8. ^ "Erowid Psychoactive Amanitas Vault : Amanita gemmata (Gemmed Amanita)". www.erowid.org.
  9. ^ "Erowid Psychoactive Amanitas Vault : Amanita muscaria var. regalis (Fly Agaric variety)". www.erowid.org.
  10. ^ "Erowid Psychoactive Amanitas Vault : Info on Ibotenic Acid & Muscimol". www.erowid.org.
  11. ^ "Amanita pantherina var. pantherina - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics". www.sciencedirect.com.