Muscle car is an American term used to refer to a variety of high-performance automobiles. The Merriam-Webster dictionary defines muscle cars as "any of a group of American-made 2-door sports coupes with powerful engines designed for high-performance driving." A large V8 engine is fitted in a 2-door, rear wheel drive, family-style mid-size or full-size car designed for four or more passengers. Sold at an affordable price, muscle cars are intended for street use and occasional drag racing. They are distinct from two-seat sports cars and expensive 2+2 GTs intended for high-speed touring and road racing. Developed simultaneously in their own markets, muscle cars also emerged from manufacturers in Australia, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and elsewhere.
According to Muscle Cars, a book written by Peter Henshaw, a "muscle car" is "exactly what the name implies. It is a product of the American car industry adhering to the hot rodder's philosophy of taking a small car and putting a large-displacement engine in it. The Muscle Car is Charles Atlas kicking sand in the face of the 98 horsepower weakling." Henshaw further asserts that the muscle car was designed for straight-line speed, and did not have the "sophisticated chassis", "engineering integrity", or "lithe appearance" of European high-performance cars.
Opinions on the origin of the muscle car vary, but the 1949 Oldsmobile Rocket 88, created in response to public interest in speed and power, is often cited as the first muscle car. It featured America's first high-compression overhead valve V8 in the smaller, lighter Oldsmobile 76/Chevy body for six-cylinder engines (as opposed to bigger Olds 98 luxury body).
Jack Nerrad wrote in Driving Today, "the Rocket V-8 set the standard for every American V-8 engine that would follow it for at least three decades[...] With a displacement of 303 cubic inches and topped by a two-barrel carburetor, the first Rocket V-8 churned out 135 hp (101 kW; 137 PS) at 3,600 rpm and 263 pound force-feet (357 N·m) of torque at a lazy 1800 rpm [and] no mid-range car in the world, save the Hudson Hornet, came close to the Rocket Olds performance potential..."
Nerad added that the Rocket 88 was "the hit of NASCAR’s 1950 season, winning eight of the 10 races. Given its lightning-like success, one could clearly make the case that the Olds 88 with its 135 horsepower (101 kW) V-8 was the first 'musclecar'..."
Steve Dulcich, writing in Popular Hot Rodding, also cites Oldsmobile, concurrently with Cadillac, as having "launched the modern era of the high-performance V-8 with the introduction of the 'Rocket 88' overhead-valve V8 in 1949."
Other manufacturers showcased performance hardware in flashy limited-edition models. Chrysler led the way with its 1955 C-300, an inspired blend of Hemi power and luxury-car trappings that became the new star of NASCAR. With 300 horsepower (224 kW), it was advertised as "America's Most Powerful Car".
Capable of accelerating from 0 to 60 mph (97 km/h) in 9.8 seconds and reaching 130 miles per hour (209 km/h), the 1955 Chrysler 300 is also recognized as one of the best-handling cars of its era.
Studebaker entered the muscle car scene in 1956 with the Golden Hawk powered by a 352 CI Packard V8 with 275 bhp. In 1957, the Rambler Rebel was the fastest stock American sedan, according to Motor Trend. According to Musclecar Enthusiast magazine, this was "what some people believe to be the very first muscle car" ... the compact-sized (for the era) 255 hp (190 kW; 259 PS) unibody 1957 Rebel might be "better known had AMC been successful in their attempt to offer it with Bendix fuel injection."
The popularity and performance of muscle cars grew in the early 1960s, as Mopar (Dodge, Plymouth, and Chrysler) and Ford battled for supremacy in drag racing. The 1962 Dodge Dart 413 cu in (6.8 L) Max Wedge, for example, could run a 13-second 1/4-mile dragstrip at over 100 miles per hour (161 km/h). In 1961 Chevrolet introduced the SS package on the Impala for $53.80, with included an optional 409 cu in v8 with 425 hp and upgraded brakes, tires, and suspension. By 1964, General Motors' lineup boasted Oldsmobile, Chevrolet, and Pontiac muscle cars, and Buick fielded a muscle car entry a year later. For 1964 and 1965, Ford had its 427 cu in (7.0 L) Thunderbolts, and Mopar unveiled the 426 cu in (7.0 L) Hemi engine. The Pontiac GTO was an option package that included Pontiac's 389 cu in (6.4 L) V8 engine, floor-shifted transmission with Hurst shift linkage, and special trim. In 1966 the GTO became a model in its own right. The project, led by Pontiac division president John DeLorean, technically violated GM's policy, limiting its smaller cars to 330 cu in (5.4 L) displacement, but the new model proved more popular than expected, and inspired GM and its competitors to produce numerous imitators. The GTO itself was a response to the Dodge Polara 500 and the Plymouth Sport Fury, which in 1962 had been shrunk to intermediate size.
American Motors, though late entering the 1960s muscle car market, produced "an impressive array of performance cars in a relatively short time," said Motor Trend. "The first stirrings of AMC performance came in 1965, when the dramatic, if ungainly, Rambler Marlin fastback was introduced to battle the Ford Mustang and Plymouth Barracuda." Although the Marlin was a flop in terms of sales and initial performance, AMC gained some muscle-car credibility in 1967, when it made both the Marlin and the "more pedestrian" Rebel available with its new 280 hp (209 kW; 284 PS), 343 cu in (5.6 L) "Typhoon" V8. In 1968, the company offered two pony car muscle car contenders: the Javelin and its truncated two-seat variant, the AMX a sports car in the Grand Touring tradition.
Although the sales of true muscle cars were relatively modest by total Detroit production standards, they had value in publicity. Competition between manufacturers meant that buyers had the choice of ever-more powerful engines. A horsepower war was started that peaked in 1970, with some models advertising as much as 450 hp (336 kW; 456 PS).
Muscle cars attracted young customers into showrooms, and they bought the standard editions of these mid-size cars. To enhance the "halo" effect of these models, the manufacturers modified some of them into turn-key drag racers.
Ford built 200 lightweight Ford Galaxies for drag racing in 1963. All non-essential equipment was omitted. Modifications included fiberglass panels, aluminum bumpers, traction bars, and a competition-specification 427 cu in (7.0 L) engine factory rated at a conservative 425 hp (317 kW; 431 PS). This full-size car could run the quarter mile in a little over 12 seconds. Also built in 1963 were 5,000 road-legal versions that could be used as every day drivers (Ford claimed 0-60 in less than 6 seconds for the similarly powered 1966 Galaxie 500XL 427).
Another Ford lightweight was the 1964 Ford Thunderbolt that utilized the mid-size Fairlane body. A stock Thunderbolt could run the quarter-mile (402 m) in 11.76 seconds at 122.7 mph (197.5 km/h), and Gaspar "Gas" Ronda dominated the NHRAWorld Championship with his Thunderbolt with a best time of 11.6 seconds at 124 mph (200 km/h). The Thunderbolt included the 427 engine with special exhausts; though technically legal for street use, the car was too "raucous" for the public roads, according to a Hot Rodmagazine quote, "for driving to and from the strip, let alone on the street in everyday use". Massive traction bars, asymmetrical rear springs, and a trunk-mounted 95-pound (43 kg) bus battery were intended to maximize traction for the 500 bhp (373 kW)car. Sun visors, exterior mirror, sound-deadener, armrests, jack, and lug wrench were omitted to save weight. The car was given lightweight Plexiglass windows, and early versions had fiberglass front body panels and bumpers, later changed to aluminum to meet NHRA regulations. Base price was US$3,780. A total of 111 Thunderbolts were built, and Ford contracted Dearborn Steel Tubing to help with assembly.
In 1963, General Motors' Chevrolet division produced 57 full-size Impala coupes equipped with option package RPOZ-11, which added $1237.40 to the vehicle base price. They were the only automobiles the division ever built expressly for drag racing. The package included a specially modified W series 409 engine, now displacing 427 cubic inches, and was officially rated at 430 bhp (321 kW). With a compression ratio of 13.5:1, the engine required high-octane fuel. The RPOZ-11 package had numerous modifications to reduce weight, including aluminum hood, fenders, fan shroud, and bumpers. Sound-deadening material was removed, as were non-essentials such as heater and radio. Other racing features included a two-piece intake manifold, special exhaust manifolds, cylinder heads and pistons, a deep-sump oil pan, and cowl-induction air cleaner. The RPOZ-11 package was discontinued when General Motors ceased involvement in racing in 1964.
The 1964 Dodge 426 Hemi Lightweight produced over 500 bhp (373 kW). This "top drag racer" had an aluminium hood, lightweight front bumpers, fenders, doors and lower valance, magnesium front wheels, lightweight Dodge van seat, Lexan side windows, one windshield wiper, and no sun visors or sound deadening. Like other lightweights of the era, it came with a factory disclaimer: Designed for supervised acceleration trials. Not recommended for general everyday driving because of the compromises in the all-round characteristics which must be made for this type of vehicle.
Also too "high-strung" for the street was Chrysler’s small-volume-production 1965 drag racer, the 550 bhp (410 kW) Plymouth Satellite 426 Hemi. Although the detuned 1966 version (the factory rating underestimated it at 425 bhp (317 kW)) has been criticized for poor brakes and cornering, Car and Driver described it as "the best combination of brute performance and tractable street manners we've ever driven." The car's understated appearance belied its performance: it could run a 13.8-second quarter mile at 104 mph (167 km/h). Base price was $3,850.
Likewise, Chevrolet eschewed flamboyant stripes for their 1969 Chevelle COPO 427. The car could run a 13.3 sec. quarter-mile at108 mph (174 km/h). Chevrolet rated the engine at 425 hp (317 kW), but the NHRA claimed a truer450 hp (340 kW). The 1969 COPO Chevelles were "among the most feared muscle cars of any day. And they didn't need any badges." Base price was US$3,800.
For 1970, Chevrolet offered the Chevelle SS 454, also at a base price of US$3,800. Its 454 cu in (7.4 L) engine was rated at 450 hp (336 kW), the highest factory rating at that time. Car Life magazine wrote: "It's fair to say that the Supercar as we know it may have gone as far as it's going."
The general trend towards higher performance in factory-stock cars reflected the importance of the youth market. A key appeal of muscle cars was that they offered the American car culture relatively affordable and powerful street performance in models that could also be used for drag racing. But as size, optional equipment and luxury appointments increased, engines had to be more powerful to maintain performance levels, and the cars became more expensive.
In response to rising cost and weight, a secondary trend towards more basic "budget" muscle cars emerged in 1967 and 1968. These included the Plymouth Road Runner, the "original budget Supercar"; the Plymouth GTX, which at a base price of US$3,355 offered "as much performance-per-dollar as anything on the market, and more than most"; and the Dodge Super Bee. Manufacturers also offered bigger engines in their compact models, sometimes making them lighter, roomier, and faster than their own pony-car lines.
The 340 cu in (5.6 L)-powered 1970 Plymouth Duster was one of these smaller, more affordable cars. Based on the compact-sized Plymouth Valiant and priced at US$2,547, the 340 Duster posted a 6.0-second 0-60 mph (97 km/h)time and ran the quarter mile in 14.7 seconds at 94.3 mph (151.8 km/h). This "reasonably fast" compact muscle car had a stiff, slightly lowered suspension which, in the view of Hot Rod magazine at the time, let the car "ride in an acceptable fashion". However, a retrospective article by Consumer Guide referred to "a punishing ride" and trim that was "obviously low-budget." The 1970 model came with front disc brakes and without hood scoops. The only high-performance cues were dual exhausts and modest decals. Tom Gale, former Chrysler vice president of design, described the car as "a phenomenal success. It had a bulletproof chassis, was relatively lightweight, and had a good power train. These were 200,000-mile (320,000 km) cars." Hot Rod rated the Duster "one of the best, if not the best, dollar buy in a performance car" in 1970.
American Motors' mid-sized 1970 Rebel Machine, developed in consultation with Hurst Performance, was also built for normal street use. It had a 390 cu in (6.4 L) engine developing 340 hp (254 kW)—a "moderate performer" that gave a 0-60 mph (97 km/h) time of 6.8 seconds and a quarter mile in 14.4 seconds at 99 mph (159 km/h). Early examples came in "patriotic" red, white, and blue. Jack Nerad wrote in Driving Today that it was "a straight-up competitor to the GTO, et al. ... the engine was upgraded to 340 hp (254 kW; 345 PS) a four-barrel Motorcraft carburetor and other hot rod trickery. The torque figure was equally prodigious—430 pound-feet at a lazy 3600 rpm. In this car the engine was practically the entire story." With four-speed manual transmission, the car "could spring from zero to 60 miles per hour in just 6.4 seconds..." In Nerad's view, the car "somehow, someway deserves to be considered among the Greatest Cars of All Time." An article in Mopar Muscle said, "by far the most stunning thing for a car with this level of performance and standard equipment was the sticker of just US$3,475."
The "plain wrapper" 1969 Plymouth Road Runner, that was Motor Trend magazine's Car of the Year, was modified with the addition of a high-performance factory camshaft plus non-standard, high-performance induction and exhaust manifolds, carburetor, and slick tires to run a 14.7 quarter at 100.6 mph (161.9 km/h) with its 383 cu in (6.3 L) engine. In this customized form, the car cost US$3,893. In 1968, Dodge's $3,027 Super Bee ran a 15-second quarter at 100 mph (160 km/h) on street tires with the same engine, only stock.
Hot Rod magazine categorized the 340 cu in (5.6 L) 1968 Plymouth Barracuda 4-seater as "a supercar, without any doubt attached...also a 'pony car', a compact and a workhorse" with enough rear seat leg- and head-room for "passengers to ride back there without distress", and "a flip-up door to the trunk area for ferrying some pretty sizeable loads of cargo". It could run a quarter mile in 13.33 seconds at 106.50 mph (171.40 km/h)on the drag strip. The base price was $2,796.00; the price as tested by Hot Rod was $3,652.
The muscle car market segment was in high gear "until shifting social attitudes, crippling insurance rates, the Clean Air Act and the fuel crisis removed the cars from the market in the early 1970s." The OPEC oil embargo led to price controls and gasoline rationing, as well as higher prices. "Muscle cars quickly became unaffordable and impractical for many people." The automobile insurance industry also levied surcharges on all high-powered models, an added cost that put many muscle cars out of reach of their intended buyers. Simultaneously, efforts to combat air pollution focused Detroit's attention on emissions control.
A majority of muscle cars came optioned with high-compression powerplants-some as high as 11:1. Prior to the oil embargo, 100-octane fuel was common (e.g. Sunoco 260, Esso Extra, Chevron Custom Supreme, Super Shell, Texaco Sky Chief, Phillips 66 Flite Fuel, Amoco Super Premium, Gulf No-nox); however, following the passage of the Clean Air Act of 1970, octane ratings were lowered to 91-due in part to the removal of tetraethyllead as a valve lubricant. Unleaded gasoline was phased in as a result.
In the mid-1970s, some of the muscle car market converged into personal luxury performance cars. Some nameplates, such as Chevrolet's SS or Oldsmobile's 442, would become sport appearance packages (known in the mid to late 1970s as the vinyl and decal option-Plymouth's Road Runner was an upscale decor package for their Volare coupes).
Performance-type cars began to make a return in the United States during the 1980s. Increases in production costs and tighter regulations governing pollution and safety, these vehicles were not designed to the formula of the traditional low-cost muscle cars. The introduction of electronic fuel injection and overdrive transmission for the remaining 1960s muscle car survivors, such as the Ford Mustang, Chevrolet Camaro, and Pontiac Firebird, helped sustain a market share for them alongside personal luxury coupes with performance packages, such as the Buick Regal T-Type or Grand National, Ford Thunderbird Turbo Coupe, and Chevrolet Monte Carlo SS circa 1983-88. GM's personal luxury coupes (known as the G-body which also included the Oldsmobile 442 and Pontiac Grand Prix 2 + 2 by the late 1980s) were phased out in 1987 and 1988 where its GM10 (W-body) front wheel drive mass market vehicles were phased into production signaling an end to the surviving midsized body-on-frame RWD platform dating back to 1964.
GM's facelift of its B-platform vehicles in late 1990 (starting with the Chevrolet Caprice) resulted in the fusion of its then-9C1 police package repurposed into the short-lived 1994-96 Impala SS, using the LT1 engine from the Camaro and Corvette using cast iron heads. At the time of the revival of the Impala SS, sport utility vehicles were outselling passenger cars (from full sized body-on-frame passenger sedans to mass market vehicles) and GM phased out its B platform in late 1996. Ford Motor Company tested the waters by selling its version of the Mercury Grand Marquis (Mercury Marauder) in 2004, which was a slow seller. Like the Impala SS a decade earlier, the Marauder used the Crown Victoria Police Interceptor with a few body modifications fitted with 5 spoke alloy wheels.
Related pickup trucks
Another related type of vehicle is the car-based pickup, known colloquially in Australia as a "ute" (short for "utility"). Holden and Ford Australia both make such vehicles, under the names Holden Ute and Ford Falcon Ute respectively. Examples of these in the U.S. were the performance versions of the Ford Ranchero, GMC Sprint / Caballero, and Chevrolet El Camino with high-output V8 engines, that are no longer in production.
Australia developed its own muscle cars around the same period, the big three manufacturers being Ford Australia, Holden or Holden Dealer Team (by then part of General Motors), and Chrysler Australia. The cars were specifically developed to run in the Armstrong 500 (miles) (now the Supercheap Auto Parts 1000km). The demise of these cars was brought about by a change in racing rules requiring that 200 examples had to be sold to the general public before the car could qualify (homologation). In 1972, the government banned supercars from the streets after two notable cases. The first instance was a Wheels magazine journalist driving at 150 mph (240 km/h) in a 1971 Ford XY Falcon GTHO Phase III 351 cu in (5.8 L). While the car was getting exposure in the press, the second incident occurred in George Street, Sydney, when a young male was caught driving at an estimated 150 mph (240 km/h) through the busy street in a 1971 Ford Falcon GTHO Phase III, drag racing a Holden Monaro GTS 350. This was known in Australia as "The Supercar scare".
Ford produced what is considered to be the first Australian muscle car in 1967, the 289 cu in (4.7 L) Windsor – powered Ford Falcon GTXR. Months later, in 1968, Australia would see its first homegrown two-door muscle car, the Holden Monaro GTS 327. Ford continued to release faster models, culminating in the Ford Falcon GTHO Phase III of 1971, which was powered by a factory modified 351 Cleveland. Along with its GT and GTHO models, Ford, starting with the XW model in 1969, introduced a "sporty" GS model, available across the Falcon range. The basic GS came with a 188 cu in (3.1 L) six-cylinder engine, but the 302 cu in (4.9 L) and 351 cu in (5.8 L) Windsor (replaced by the Cleveland engines for the XY) V8 engines were optional. Ford's larger, more luxurious Fairlane was also available with these engines and could also be optioned with the 300 bhp (224 kW) 351 cu in (5.8 L) "Cleveland" engine.
General Motors Holden produced the Holden Monaro with 161 cu in (2.6 L), 186 cu in (3.0 L) (186 and 186S specification) 6-cylinder engines, 307 cu in (5.0 L), 327 cu in (5.4 L), and 350 cu in (5.7 L) Chevrolet smallblocks, and later 253 cu in (4.1 L) and 308 cu in (5.0 L) Holden V8. This was followed by the release of four high-performance Toranas, the LC GTR-XU1 (1970–1971), LJ GTR-XU1 (1972–1973), L34 (1975), and the A9X (1977).
The LC XU1 Torana was fitted with a 186 cu in (3.0 L) triple carbureted 6-cylinder engine, later increased with the release of the LJ model to 202 cu in (3.3 L), as opposed to the 308 cu in (5.0 L) single q-barrel carbureted V8 in the SL/R 5000 L34, and SLR5000/SS A9X. There were many homologation changes over the four or so years of XU-1 production culminating in a special "Bathurst 1973" specification LJ XU-1.
The L34 was primarily an engine option released in 1975 on the lesser specification LH SL/R 5000 sedan of 1974, with the initial engine development carried out by Repco, the company famous for designing the V8 engine that took Jack Brabham and Denny Hulme to the 1966 and 1967 Formula One World Championships; a factory HO pack providing an upgraded camshaft, Holley carb, and other race ready items was also available. The basic L34 also gained other homologation features such as improved brakes and wheel arch flares. The A9X was an option on the LX SLR5000 sedan and the LX SS hatchback (2-door) and unlike the L34 package was not an engine performance upgrade, but a suspension, differential, and brake upgrade, as the L34 engine was already homologated for Group C use. Hence, the A9X had a basically standard 308ci engine.
Chrysler produced the R/T Valiant Charger from 1971 to 1973, when the R/Ts were discontinued; the dominant R/T models were the E38 and E49 with high-performance 265 cu in (4.3 L) Hemi engines featuring triple Weber carburetors.
Chrysler apparently considered a high-performance V8 program importing 338 340 cu in (5.6 L) V8 engines from the U.S. This high-performance project never went ahead, and the engines were subsequently fitted to the upmarket 770 model Charger. Initially, this model was designated "SE" E55 340 (V8) and only available with automatic transmission; with a model change to the VJ in 1973, the engine became an option, and the performance was lessened. All Chrysler performance Chargers were discontinued in 1974 with the end of high-performance, the 265 Hemi, and 340 V8 engines.
The Australian muscle car era is considered to have ended with the release of the Australian Design Rule regarding emissions in ADR27a in 1976. An exception to this rule was the small number of factory-built Bathurst 1000 homologation specials that were constructed after 1976; these are considered to be muscle cars. Examples of these homologation specials include the Torana A9X and the Bathurst Cobras.
Several highly modified high-performance road-going Commodores were produced by Peter Brock's HDT Special Vehicles through the early and mid-1980s. These "homologation specials" were produced to meet both Australian Group C and international Group A touring car racing regulations. Models included the VC Group C, the VH SS Group III with a 0–100 km/h of 8.6 seconds, the Blue VK SS Group A, and the burgundy VL SS Group A (the VK and VL Group A cars were powered by a slightly de-stroked 304 cu in (4.9 L) version of the Holden V8 engine to allow the car to run at a lighter weight in touring car racing. The HDT also produced several 5.0 L V8 powered WB Statesmans released under the name Magnum. They also looked at developing a 5.0 L V8 powered Opel Monza in the mid-1980s (to be named the HDT Monza), although as the Monza was a 1970s model car and resembled the outdated Torana A9X Hatchback it never passed the planning stage.
Muscle car revival
Both Ford and GM managed to keep producing their pony cars, the Mustang and Camaro respectively, through the 1960s, 70s, 80s, 90s and into the new century. In 2004, the Pontiac GTO was relaunched in the United States, a re-badged third generation Holden Monaro (considered as a captive import), and Chrysler debuted the 300C as a 2005 model. In 2005 Ford introduced the 'new' Mustang, designed to resemble the original 1964.5 model, it brought back the aggressive lines and colors of the original. In 2008, Chrysler re-introduced the Dodge Challenger, which features design links to the 1970 model. “We haven’t seen this kind of spontaneous, passionate response to a car since we unveiled the Dodge Viper concept in 1989,” CEO Tom LaSorda said, “But it’s easy to see what people like about the Dodge Challenger. It’s bold, powerful and capable. It’s a modern take on one of the most iconic muscle cars and sets a new standard for pure pony car.” A year later, running on that same sentiment, Chevrolet released the new designed 2009 Camaro, which bears some resemblance to the 1969 model. All three of these powerful "modern" muscle cars have the powerful body lines and tough looking front ends of their predecessors.
The blend between old and new has fueled the muscle car revival. The mid 1960s muscle car era came to define what baby-boom men would expect from their automobiles. Nostalgia combine with a much needed shot of excitement to Detroit automakers incited consumer demand among all ages. The leading edge of the baby boomers had just entered high school when the first Pontiac GTO rolled off the line. Now, those baby boomers are 50 and older, in their peak earning years. They long for the chance to get their hands on what they dreamt about as teens.
While the aging baby boom generation inspired the modern demand for American Muscle, the consumer market is much more diverse than it was in the 60’s and 70’s. Detroit marketers are striving to capture the imaginations of car enthusiasts who were not yet born in the 60’s and 70’s. Looking at modern muscle as a social trend, Ford and GM are the “innovators”, followed by baby boom men in their 50’s as “early adopters.” The big bulge or “early majority” in the modern muscle movement comes from the men in their teens and early 20s. For these non-baby boomer consumers, the “cool” image is key. In the 60’s “a car was not quite a car unless punching the accelerator resulted in screaming tires and the landscape blurring around you…” says Brent Staples of the New York Times. Fuel was cheap and the staple of drag racing counterculture was to be fast and loud. Now being “cool,” fuel efficient, and cost effective is all a part of the package. Instead of fuel guzzling V8 engines, you see V6 or turbocharged V4 models. Despite the reduction in power, Detroit is successfully selling this package. The Camaro and Challenger saw a 13% and 11% spike in sales during June 2011, which “outpaced” the growth in sales of all other passenger cars, according to Autodata Corp.
Even with all of the success, the modern muscle car could be phased out just like its ‘60s and ‘70s counterparts. The current revival “can last for a few more years until the fuel-economy standards become ever tougher,” says retired GMC Chairman Bob Lutz. President Obama’s administration announced new strict fuel efficiency standards in 2012 stating all automobiles must average 54.5 miles per gallon by 2025. This leaves the newly revived muscle car market with a grim future.
Ford Australia and Holden are currently producing high-performance vehicles. For instance, Holden has its SS and SSV Commodores and Utilities, and HSV has more powerful Holden-based versions and has produced a limited edition HSV W427 – a Commodore fitted with the seven litre LS7 V8 from the C6 Corvette Z06 from 2008–2009.
Ford Performance Vehicles produces enhanced versions of the Ford Falcon under the FPV name. As of 2012, current models include supercharged V8 powered GS sedan and utility, supercharged V8 powered GT sedans, and turbocharged inline 6 cylinder F6 sedans and utility.
Holden Special Vehicles currently produces high-performance versions of various rear-drive Holden Commodore sedans that are fitted with high-performance 400 hp (298 kW) V8 engines. Vauxhall introduced the Monaro to the UK in 2004. This was a re-badged Holden Monaro fitted with a 5.7 litre Chevrolet Corvette engine, or in VXR form with the engine bored out to 6.0 litres. Sales were low and the model was withdrawn from the Vauxhall range in 2007.
The original "tire-burning" cars, such as the Chevrolet Camaro, AMC Machine, Buick Gran Sport, Dodge Charger R/T, Ford Mustang, Oldsmobile 4-4-2, Plymouth GTX, and Pontiac GTO, are "collector's items for classic car lovers". Reproduction sheet metal parts and, in some cases, even complete body shells are available for purchase.
- Motor Trend identified the following models as "musclecars" in 1965:
- Road & Track identified the following models as "musclecars" in 1965:
- Car and Driver also created a list of the 10 Best muscle cars for its January 1990 issue. The magazine focused on the engines and included:
- 1966–1967 Plymouth/Dodge intermediates with 426 Hemi
- 1968–1969 Plymouth/Dodge intermediates with 426 Hemi
- 1970–1971 Plymouth/Dodge intermediates with 426 Hemi
- 1966–1967 Chevy II SS327
- 1966–1969 Chevrolet Chevelle SS396
- 1968–1969 Chevy II Nova SS396
- 1969 Ford Torino Cobra 428
- 1969 Plymouth Road Runner/Dodge Super Bee 440 Six Pack
- 1970 Chevrolet Chevelle SS454
- 1969 Pontiac GTO
- 1984–1987 Buick Grand National
- 1983–1987 Chevrolet Monte Carlo SS
- Other muscle cars include the following:
Full-size muscle models
Mid-size muscle models
Compact muscle models
Pony car muscle models
Chrysler VH model
- 1971–1972 Charger R/T E37 (101 built)
- 1971–1972 Charger R/T E38 (280 bhp (210 kW))—3 Speed Gearbox (Track pack and Big tank were options and a fully blueprinted engine) (316 built)
- 1972–1973 Charger R/T E48 (two built)
- 1972–1973 Charger R/T E49 (302 bhp (225 kW))—4 Speed Gearbox (Track pack and Big tank were options and a fully blueprinted engine) (149 built)
- 1972–1973 Charger S/E E55 (275 bhp (205 kW))—727 Torqueflite Auto (340 cubic inch Chrysler LA engine) (124 built)
- 1969–1971 Valiant Hardtop (318 or 360ci V8s)
VJ model (R/T nomenclature dropped) were:
- 1973–1974 Charger E48 (169 built)
- 1973 Charger E49 (4 built)
- 1973–1974 Charger 770 E55 (212 built)
- P76 "Force Seven". This was a coupe version of the Leyland P76, and the company's answer to the Holden Monaro GTS, Ford Falcon GT and Chrysler Valiant Charger. The company ran into financial difficulties and ceased Australian production before the 3-door Force Seven could be released. The eight completed examples were sold at auction.
- 1971–1975 1st generation Opala SS with engine 250 I6
- 1975–1979 2nd generation Opala SS with engine 250-S I6
- 1979–1980 3rd generation Opala SS with engine 250-S I6
- 1976–1979 1st generation Caravan SS
- 1980 2nd generation Caravan SS
- 1971–1975 1st generation Maverick GT 302 V8
- 1975–1979 2nd generation Maverick GT 302 V8
- 1966–1971 Galaxie 500 289 V8
- 1971–1980 LTD Landau 302 V8
- 1980–1983 Landau 302 V8
- 1969–1975 Dart 318 V8
- 1971–1979 1st generation Charger R/T 318 V8 (1969 Dart modified sold under the name of Charger)
- 1980 2nd generation Charger R/T 318 V8 (1976 Dart modified sold under the name of Charger)
- 1979–1988 SM4.1
- Koch, Jeff (1 October 2004). "The First Muscle Car: Older Than You". Hemmings Muscle Machines. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
- "muscle car". Merriam-Webster Online. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
- "Muscle Car Definition". Muscle Car Club. Retrieved 6 January 2011.
- Sherman, Don (June 4, 2006). "Muscle Cars Now Worth Millions". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 January 2011.
- "Classic Muscle Cars Library". How Stuff Works. Retrieved 6 January 2011.
- "Muscle Car Definition". Muscle Car Society. Retrieved 6 January 2011.
- Henshaw, Peter (2004). Muscle Cars. Thunder Bay Press. ISBN 978-1-59223-303-8.
- Mueller, Mike (1997). Motor City Muscle: The High-Powered History of the American Muscle Car. MBI Publishing. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-7603-0196-8. Retrieved 6 January 2011.
- Auto editors ofConsumer Guide (16 January 2007). "The Birth of Muscle Cars". musclecars.howstuffworks.com. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
- Nerad, Jack. "Oldsmobile Rocket 88". Driving Today. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
- Dulcich, Steve (August 2007). "Rocket Man". Popular Hot Rodding. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
- "Chrysler 300 History". Edmunds.com. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
- Auto editors of Consumer Guide (22 August 2007). "1957-1960 Rambler Rebel". auto.howstuffworks.com. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
- Truesdell, Richard. "John Goergen's 1966 343 prototype (sidebar)" (PDF). Musclecar Enthusiast: 59. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
- Auto editors of Consumer Guide (20 December 2006). "AMC Muscle Cars". auto.howstuffworks.com. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
- Stephens, Bill (25 March 2012). "How About Some Love for the AMX". Velocity by Discovery. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
- Shaw, Tom (December 2005). "Anatomy of a Lightweight". Legendary Ford.
- Auto editors of Consumer Guide (30 November 2007). "Ford Thunderbolt". musclecars.howstuffworks.com. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
- Holder, Bill; Kunz, Phil (2006). Extreme Muscle Cars: The Factory Lightweight Legacy. Krause Publications. ISBN 978-0-89689-278-1.
- Gunnell, John (2005). American Cars of the 1960s: A Decade of Diversity. Krause Publications. ISBN 978-0-89689-131-9.
- "Chevrolet's 1963 Z-11 Impala". 348-409.com. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
- Auto editors of Consumer Guide (5 January 2007). "1966 Plymouth Satellite 426 Hemi". musclecars.howstuffworks.com. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
- Auto editors of Consumer Guide (11 January 2007). "1969 Chevrolet Chevelle COPO 427". musclecars.howstuffworks.com. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
- Auto editors of Consumer Guide (10 January 2007). "1970 Chevrolet Chevelle SS 454". musclecars.howstuffworks.com. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
- Car Life January 1969.
- Auto editors of Consumer Guide (9 January 2007). "1968 Plymouth GTX". musclecars.howstuffworks.com. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
- Auto editors ofConsumer Guide (10 January 2007). "1970 Plymouth Duster 340". musclecars.howstuffworks.com. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
- Kelly, Steve (March 1970). "A new entry: DUSTER". Hot Rod.
- Genat, Robert; Newhardt, David; Gale, Tom (2006). Mopar Muscle: Fifty Years: Doge, Plymouth & Chrysler Performance. MBI Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7603-2679-4.
- Cheetham, Craig (2007). Ultimate Muscle Cars. MBI Publishing. pp. 12–15. ISBN 978-0-7603-2834-7.
- Auto editors ofConsumer Guide (12 January 2007). "1970 AMC Rebel Machine". musclecars.howstuffworks.com. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
- Kunz, Bruce (14 December 2007). "1970 AMC Rebel". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Archived from the original on 5 March 2008. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
- Nerad, Jack. "American Motors Rebel Machine". Driving Today. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
- Stunkard, Geoff (December 2007). "Welcome To The Machine". Mopar Muscle. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
- Sanders, Bill (February 1969). "Road Runner". Motor Trend.
- Auto editors of Consumer Guide (8 January 2007). "1968 Dodge Super Bee". musclecars.howstuffworks.com. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
- Kelly, Steve (December 1968). "Barracuda on the Line". Hot Rod.
- Yates, Brock W. (1983). The decline and fall of the American automobile industry. Empire Books. p. 97. ISBN 978-0-88015-004-0. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
- Bailey, Katharine (2006). Muscle Cars. Crabtree Publishing. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-7787-3010-1. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
- Nichols, Mel. "HO down the Hume". falcongt.com.au. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
- http://smartbeard.com/ford-falcon-xa-gt-ho-phase-4-muscle-car/. Retrieved 30 December 2014. Missing or empty
- Wright, John (1987). "The Final Finest Phase" (PDF). Super Ford's: 20–27. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
- quickest HDT according to Modern Motor Magazine, January 1983
- Strohl, Daniel (2 July 2006). "Challenger headed to production". Hemmings Muscle Machines. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
- Staples, Brent. "Resisting the Siren Song of the All-American Muscle Cars." The New York Times 1 September 2002: 2. <http://www.nytimes.com/2002/09/01/opinion/editorial-observer-resisting-the-siren-song-of-the-all-american-muscle-cars.html>.
- Gladwell, Malcolm. "The Coolhunt." The New Yorker 17 March 1997: 12.
- White, Joseph B. "Muscle Cars, No Midlife Crisis Required." The Wall Street Journal 6 June 2011: 3. <http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052702304803104576427661646257154>.
- White, Joseph B. "Muscle Cars, No Midlife Crisis Required." The Wall Street Journal 6 June 2011: 3. <http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052702304803104576427661646257154>.
- Eilperin, Juliet. "Autos must average 54.5 mpg by 2025, new EPA standards say." The Washington Post 28 August 2012: 3. <http://www.washingtonpost.com/national/health-science/autos-must-average-545-mpg-by-2025-new-epa-standards-are-expected-to-say/2012/08/28/2c47924a-f117-11e1-892d-bc92fee603a7_story.html>.
- Zuehlke, Jeffrey (2007). Classic Cars. Lerner Publications. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-8225-5926-9. Retrieved 5 March 2012.
- Stakes, Eddie. "Matador Machine: 1971 from American Motors". planethoustonamx. Retrieved 6 March 2012.
- Moriarty, Frank (1995). Supercars: The Story of the Dodge Charger Daytona and Plymouth Superbird. Howell Press. ISBN 978-1-57427-043-3.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Muscle cars.|