Muscular dystrophy

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Muscular dystrophy
MuscularDystrophy.png
In affected muscle (right), the tissue becomes disorganized and the concentration of dystrophin (green) is greatly reduced, compared to normal muscle (left).
Classification and external resources
Specialty Pediatrics, medical genetics
ICD-10 G71.0
ICD-9-CM 359.0-359.1
MedlinePlus 001190
eMedicine orthoped/418
MeSH D009136

Muscular dystrophy (MD) is a group of muscle diseases that weaken the musculoskeletal system and hamper locomotion (walking or moving).[1][2] Muscular dystrophies are characterized by progressive skeletal muscle weakness, defects in muscle proteins, and the death of muscle cells and tissue.[3]

As of 2016, no specific treatment or cure for muscular dystrophy is known. However, physiotherapy, aerobic exercise, low-intensity catabolic steroids such as prednisone, and deflazacort (for which the U.S. FDA has designated fast-track status in January 2016 to conduct clinical trials) can help to maintain muscle tone.[4][5]

Apart from the nine major types of muscular dystrophy, several MD-like conditions, also known as "outliers", exist. Normal intellectual, behavioral, bowel, and sexual functions are noticed among these "outliers".[6] MD-affected individuals with susceptible intellectual impairment are diagnosed through molecular characteristics, but not through problems associated with disability. However, a third of patients who are severely affected with DMD may have cognitive impairment or behavioral, vision, and speech problems.[medical citation needed]

Signs and symptoms[edit]

The signs and symptoms consistent with muscular dystrophy are:[7]r

Cause[edit]

Dystrophin

These conditions are generally inherited, and the different muscular dystrophies follow various inheritance patterns. Muscular dystrophy can be inherited by individuals as an X-linked disorder, a recessive or dominant disorder. Furthermore, it can be a spontaneous mutation which means errors in the replication of DNA and spontaneous lesions. Spontaneous lesions are due to natural damage to DNA, where the most common are depurination and deamination.[8][9]

Dystrophin protein is found in muscle fibre membrane; its helical nature allows it to act like a spring or shock absorber. Dystrophin links actin in the cytoskeleton and dystroglycans of the muscle cell plasma membrane, known as the sarcolemma (extracellular). In addition to mechanical stabilization, dystrophin also regulates calcium levels.[10][11]

Recent studies on the interaction of proteins with missense mutations and its neighbors showed high degree of rigidity associated with central hub proteins involved in protein binding and flexible subnetworks having molecular functions involved with calcium.[12]

Types[edit]

Type OMIM Gene Description
Becker muscular dystrophy 300376 DMD Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) is a less severe variant of Duchenne muscular dystrophy and is caused by the production of a truncated, but partially functional form of dystrophin.[13] Survival is usually into old age and affects only boys (with extremely rare exceptions)[14]
Congenital muscular dystrophy Multiple Multiple
Hydrocephalus

Age at onset is birth, the symptoms include general muscle weakness and possible joint deformities, disease progresses slowly, and lifespan is shortened. Congenital muscular dystrophy includes several disorders with a range of symptoms. Muscle degeneration may be mild or severe. Problems may be restricted to skeletal muscle, or muscle degeneration may be paired with effects on the brain and other organ systems.[15]

Several forms of the congenital muscular dystrophies are caused by defects in proteins thought to have some relationship to the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex and to the connections between muscle cells and their surrounding cellular structure. Some forms of congenital muscular dystrophy show severe brain malformations, such as lissencephaly and hydrocephalus.[13]

Duchenne muscular dystrophy 310200 DMD Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common childhood form of muscular dystrophy; it generally affects only boys (with extremely rare exceptions), becoming clinically evident when a child begins walking. By age 10, the child may need braces for walking and by age 12, most patients are unable to walk.[5] Lifespans range from 15 to 45, though a few exceptions occur.[5] Researchers have identified the gene for the protein dystrophin, which when absent, causes DMD.[16] Since the gene is on the X chromosome, this disorder affects primarily males, and females who are carriers have milder symptoms. Sporadic mutations in this gene occur frequently.[17]

Dystrophin is part of a complex structure involving several other protein components. The "dystrophin-glycoprotein complex" helps anchor the structural skeleton (cytoskeleton) within the muscle cells, through the outer membrane (sarcolemma) of each cell, to the tissue framework (extracellular matrix) that surrounds each cell. Due to defects in this assembly, contraction of the muscle leads to disruption of the outer membrane of the muscle cells and eventual weakening and wasting of the muscle.[13]

Distal muscular dystrophy 254130 DYSF Distal muscular dystrophies' age at onset is about 20 to 60 years; symptoms include weakness and wasting of muscles of the hands, forearms, and lower legs; progress is slow and not life-threatening.[18]

Miyoshi myopathy, one of the distal muscular dystrophies, causes initial weakness in the calf muscles, and is caused by defects in the same gene responsible for one form of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy.[13]

Emery–Dreifuss muscular dystrophy 310300, 181350 EMD, LMNA Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy patients normally present in childhood and the early teenaged years with contractures. Clinical signs include muscle weakness and wasting, starting in the distal limb muscles and progressing to involve the limb-girdle muscles. Most patients also suffer from cardiac conduction defects and arrhythmias.[19][20]

The three subtypes of Emery-Dreifuss MD are distinguishable by their pattern of inheritance: X-linked, autosomal dominant, and autosomal recessive. The X-linked form is the most common. Each type varies in prevalence and symptoms. The disease is caused by mutations in the LMNA gene, or more commonly, the EMD gene. Both genes encode for protein components of the nuclear envelope. However, how these mutations cause the pathogenesis is not well understood.[21]

Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy 158900 DUX4
Timelapse expression of DUX4 protein in FSHD cells

Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) initially affects the muscles of the face, shoulders, and upper arms with progressive weakness.[22]

Symptoms usually develop in early adulthood (late teens); affected individuals become severely disabled. The pattern of inheritance is autosomal dominant, though a number of spontaneous mutations occur. Two defects are needed for FSHD, which for the first time provides a unifying theory for the underlying genetics of FSHD.[13][23]

FSHD occurs both in males and females.[24]

Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy Multiple Multiple Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) affects both boys and girls.[25] LGMDs all show a similar distribution of muscle weakness, affecting both upper arms and legs. Many forms of LGMD have been identified, showing different patterns of inheritance (autosomal recessive vs. autosomal dominant). In an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance, an individual receives two copies of the defective gene, one from each parent. The recessive LGMDs are more frequent than the dominant forms, and usually have childhood or teenaged onset. The dominant LGMDs usually show adult onset. Some of the recessive forms have been associated with defects in proteins that make up the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex.[13] Though a person normally leads a normal life with some assistance, in some extreme cases, death from LGMD occurs due to cardiopulmonary complications.[26]
Myotonic muscular dystrophy 160900, 602668 DMPK, ZNF9 Myotonic muscular dystrophy is an autosomal dominant condition that presents with myotonia (delayed relaxation of muscles), as well as muscle wasting and weakness.[27] Myotonic MD varies in severity and manifestations and affects many body systems in addition to skeletal muscles, including the heart, endocrine organs, and eyes.[28]

Myotonic MD type 1 (DM1) is the most common adult form of muscular dystrophy. It results from the expansion of a short (CTG) repeat in the DNA sequence of the myotonic dystrophy protein kinase gene. Myotonic muscular dystrophy type 2 (DM2) is rarer and is a result of the expansion of the CCTG repeat in the zinc finger protein 9 gene.[13]

Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy 164300 PABPN1 Oculopharyngeal MD's age at onset is 40 to 70 years; symptoms affect muscles of eyelids, face, and throat followed by pelvic and shoulder muscle weakness; it has been attributed to a short repeat expansion in the genome which regulates the translation of some genes into functional proteins.[13]

Diagnosis[edit]

The diagnosis of muscular dystrophy is based on the results of muscle biopsy, increased creatine phosphokinase (CpK3), electromyography, and genetic testing. A physical examination and the patient's medical history will help the doctor determine the type of muscular dystrophy. Specific muscle groups are affected by different types of muscular dystrophy.[29]

Other tests that can be done are chest X-ray, echocardiogram, CT scan, and magnetic resonance image scan, which via a magnetic field can produce images whose detail helps diagnose muscular dystrophy.[30]

Management[edit]

Ankle foot orthosis

Currently, no cure for muscular dystrophy is known, so in terms of management, physical therapy, occupational therapy, orthotic intervention (e.g., ankle-foot orthosis),[31][32] speech therapy, and respiratory therapy may be helpful.[31] Low intensity anabolic steroids such as prednisone,and deflazacort may help to maintain muscle tone.[33] Orthoses (orthopedic appliances used for support) and corrective orthopedic surgery may be needed to improve the quality of life in some cases.[6] The cardiac problems that occur with EDMD and myotonic muscular dystrophy may require a pacemaker.[34] The myotonia (delayed relaxation of a muscle after a strong contraction) occurring in myotonic muscular dystrophy may be treated with medications such as quinine.[35]

Occupational therapy assists the individual with MD to engage in activities of daily living (such as self-feeding and self-care activities) and leisure activities at the most independent level possible. This may be achieved with use of adaptive equipment or the use of energy-conservation techniques. Occupational therapy may implement changes to a person's environment, both at home or work, to increase the individual's function and accessibility; furthermore, it addresses psychosocial changes and cognitive decline which may accompany MD, and provides support and education about the disease to the family and individual.[36]

Prognosis[edit]

Prognosis depends on the individual form of MD. In some cases, a person with a muscle disease will get progressively weaker to the extent that it shortens lifespan due to heart and breathing complications. However, some of the muscle diseases do not affect life expectancy at all, and ongoing research is attempting to find cures and treatments to slow muscle weakness.[6]

Research[edit]

WHO International conducted trials on optimum steroid regimen for MD, in the UK in 2012.[37] In terms of research within the United States, the primary federally funded organizations that focus on muscular dystrophy research, including gene therapy and regenerative medicine, are the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, and National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.[13]

In 1966, the Muscular Dystrophy Association began its annual Jerry Lewis MDA Telethon, which has probably done more to raise awareness of muscular dystrophy than any other event or initiative. Disability rights advocates, however, have criticized the telethon for portraying victims of the disease as deserving pity rather than respect.[38]

On December 18, 2001, the MD CARE Act was signed into law in the USA; it amends the Public Health Service Act to provide research for the various muscular dystrophies. This law also established the Muscular Dystrophy Coordinating Committee to help focus research efforts through a coherent research strategy.[39][40]

History[edit]

In the 1860s, descriptions of boys who grew progressively weaker, lost the ability to walk, and died at an early age became more prominent in medical journals. In the following decade,[41] French neurologist Guillaume Duchenne gave a comprehensive account of the most common and severe form of the disease, which now carries his name—Duchenne MD. It soon became evident that the disease had more than one form.[42] The other major forms are Becker, limb-girdle, congenital, facioscapulohumeral, myotonic, oculopharyngeal, distal, and EDMD.[13] Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies, being caused by a mutation of a gene located on the X chromosome, predominantly affect males, although females can sometimes have severe symptoms, as well. Most types of MD are multisystem disorders with manifestations in body systems including the heart, gastrointestinal system, nervous system, endocrine glands, eyes, and brain.[13]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Information, National Center for Biotechnology; Pike, U. S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville; MD, Bethesda; Usa, 20894. "Muscular Dystrophy - National Library of Medicine". PubMed Health. Retrieved 2016-04-10. 
  2. ^ R H Brown Jr.; J R Mendell (2005). Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. p. 2527. doi:10.1036/0071402357. 
  3. ^ Emery AE (2002). "The muscular dystrophies". Lancet. 359 (9307): 687–695. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(02)07815-7. PMID 11879882. 
  4. ^ http://www.empr.com/drugs-in-the-pipeline/deflazacort-designated-fast-track-status-for-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy/article/393302/[full citation needed]
  5. ^ a b c MedlinePlus Encyclopedia Duchenne muscular dystrophy
  6. ^ a b c http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/md/detail_md.htm#180483171
  7. ^ Muscular Dystrophy Clinical Presentation at eMedicine
  8. ^ Choices, NHS. "Muscular dystrophy - Causes - NHS Choices". www.nhs.uk. Retrieved 2016-04-10. 
  9. ^ Griffiths, Anthony JF; Miller, Jeffrey H.; Suzuki, David T.; Lewontin, Richard C.; Gelbart, William M. (2000-01-01). "Spontaneous mutations". 
  10. ^ "DMD gene". Genetics Home Reference. 2016-03-28. Retrieved 2016-04-10. 
  11. ^ Lapidos, Karen A.; Kakkar, Rahul; McNally, Elizabeth M. (2004-04-30). "The Dystrophin Glycoprotein Complex Signaling Strength and Integrity for the Sarcolemma". Circulation Research. 94 (8): 1023–1031. doi:10.1161/01.RES.0000126574.61061.25. ISSN 0009-7330. PMID 15117830. 
  12. ^ Sharma, Ankush (2014). "Publication:Rigidity and flexibility in protein-protein interaction networks: a case study on neuromuscular disorders". www.openaire.eu. Retrieved 10 April 2016. 
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k May 2006 report to Congress on Implementation of the MD CARE Act, as submitted by Department of Health and Human Service's National Institutes of Health
  14. ^ https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000706.htm
  15. ^ Congenital Muscular Dystrophy~clinical at eMedicine
  16. ^ https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/duchenne-and-becker-muscular-dystrophy
  17. ^ http://patient.info/health/duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-leaflet
  18. ^ Udd, Bjarne (2011). "Distal muscular dystrophies". Handbook of Clinical Neurology. 101: 239–62. doi:10.1016/B978-0-08-045031-5.00016-5. PMID 21496636. 
  19. ^ http://www.omim.org/entry/310300
  20. ^ https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/emery-dreifuss-muscular-dystrophy
  21. ^ Emery-Dreifuss Muscular Dystrophy at eMedicine
  22. ^ https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/facioscapulohumeral-muscular-dystrophy
  23. ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=HT3LAwAAQBAJ&pg=PA1174&lpg=PA1174&dq=unifying+theory+FSHD&source=bl&ots=0CyjAnBfug&sig=q9reYzwXnDS2_LZBffvzNOLqMI8&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwir_MiyrobMAhVE5yYKHXrkAHsQ6AEIOTAE#v=onepage&q=unifying%20theory%20FSHD&f=false(page 1174)
  24. ^ https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000707.htm
  25. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1408/{update 2012}
  26. ^ Jenkins, Simon P.R. (2005). Sports Science Handbook:I - Z. Brentwood, Essex: Multi-Science Publ. Co. p. 121. ISBN 0906522-37-4. 
  27. ^ Turner, C.; Hilton-Jones, D. (2010). "The myotonic dystrophies: diagnosis and management". Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. 81 (4): 358–67. doi:10.1136/jnnp.2008.158261. PMID 20176601. 
  28. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1165/
  29. ^ "NIH /How is muscular dystrophy diagnosed?". NIH.gov. NIH. 2015. Retrieved 10 April 2016. 
  30. ^ "Diagnosis Muscular Dystrophy". NHS Choices. NHS.uk. 2015. Retrieved 10 April 2016. 
  31. ^ a b "What are the treatments for muscular dystrophy?". NIH.gov. NIH. 2015. Retrieved 10 April 2016. 
  32. ^ "Muscular Dystrophy-OrthoInfo - AAOS". orthoinfo.aaos.org. Retrieved 2016-04-10. 
  33. ^ McADAM, LAURA C.; MAYO, AMANDA L.; ALMAN, BENJAMIN A.; BIGGAR, W. DOUGLAS (2012-05-01). "The Canadian experience with long term deflazacort treatment in Duchenne muscular dystrophy". Acta Myologica. 31 (1): 16–20. ISSN 1128-2460. PMC 3440807free to read. PMID 22655512. 
  34. ^ Verhaert, David; Richards, Kathryn; Rafael-Fortney, Jill A.; Raman, Subha V. (2011-01-01). "Cardiac Involvement in Patients with Muscular Dystrophies: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Phenotype and Genotypic Considerations". Circulation. Cardiovascular imaging. 4 (1): 67–76. doi:10.1161/CIRCIMAGING.110.960740. ISSN 1941-9651. PMC 3057042free to read. PMID 21245364. 
  35. ^ Eddy, Linda L. (2013-01-25). Caring for Children with Special Healthcare Needs and Their Families: A Handbook for Healthcare Professionals. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781118517970. 
  36. ^ Lehman, R. M.; McCormack, G. L. (2001). "Neurogenic and Myopathic Dysfunction". In Pedretti, Lorraine Williams; Early, Mary Beth. Occupational Therapy: Practice Skills for Physical Dysfunction (5th ed.). Mosby. pp. 802–3. ISBN 978-0-323-00765-8. 
  37. ^ Choices, N. H. S. (2011-11-09). "Muscular Dystrophy - Clinical trial details - NHS Choices". Retrieved 2016-04-10. 
  38. ^ Jon Wiener, "The End of the Jerry Lewis Telethon--It's About Time." TheNation.com, Sept. 2, 2011. http://www.thenation.com/blog/163119/end-jerry-lewis-telethon-its-about-time
  39. ^ H.R. 717--107th Congress (2001): MD-CARE Act, GovTrack.us (database of federal legislation), (accessed Jul 29, 2007)
  40. ^ Public Law 107-84, PDF as retrieved from NIH website
  41. ^ Laing, Nigel G; Davis, Mark R; Bayley, Klair; Fletcher, Sue; Wilton, Steve D (2011-08-01). "Molecular Diagnosis of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: Past, Present and Future in Relation to Implementing Therapies". The Clinical Biochemist Reviews. 32 (3): 129–134. ISSN 0159-8090. PMC 3157948free to read. PMID 21912442. 
  42. ^ Finger, Stanley; Boller, Francois; Tyler, Kenneth L. (2009-12-08). History of Neurology: Handbook of Clinical Neurology (Series Editors: Aminoff, Boller and Swaab). Elsevier. p. 477. ISBN 9780702035418. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]