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A few months after the Brazilian Declaration of Independence, people started to suggest a monument on the site where the declaration took place, although they were not sure about what sort of memorial construction to build. In 1884, Italian architect Tommaso Gaudenzio Bezzi, who was hired to develop the project, chose to build an eclectic-styled construction similar to the French Palace of Versailles with impressive and perfectly manicured gardens and fountain.
In 1884, Italian architect Tommaso Gaudenzio Bezzi was chosen to design a monumental building to be built at the place where Brazilian Independence would have been proclaimed. The 123m-long palace was inspired in a Renaissance palace and is considered an example of Eclectic architecture. The museum was opened to the public on September 7, 1895, six years after the Proclamation of the Republic. In 1909, Belgian landscape designer Arsenio Puttermans projected the gardens around the main building, which were later redesigned by landscape designer Reinaldo Dierberger in the 1920s.