This is a good article. Click here for more information.

Music Box (Mariah Carey album)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Music Box
Music Box Mariah Carey.png
Studio album by Mariah Carey
Released August 31, 1993
Recorded August 1992–May 1993
Length 42:01
Label Columbia
Mariah Carey chronology
MTV Unplugged
Music Box
Merry Christmas
Singles from Music Box
  1. "Dreamlover"
    Released: July 27, 1993
  2. "Hero"
    Released: October 19, 1993
  3. "Without You" / "Never Forget You"
    Released: January 24, 1994
  4. "Anytime You Need a Friend"
    Released: May 27, 1994

Music Box is the third studio album by American singer Mariah Carey. It was released by Columbia Records on August 31, 1993, in North America. The album comprises ballads primarily co-written by Carey and Walter Afanasieff, with whom she had previously worked on Emotions (1991), and a few urban dance tracks. During the course of the album's development, Carey wanted to broaden her audience, choosing a more pop/R&B oriented sound. During this time frame, they experimented with different organs and other musical instruments, leading the album's sound away from her more contemporary previous efforts. Two unused tracks from the album sessions were released as B-sides: "Do You Think of Me" and "Everything Fades Away".

In order to successfully take the album in a new direction, Carey and Afanasieff sought out new and innovative producers, as well as some from Carey's previous releases. Kenneth "Babyface" Edmonds first began working with Carey on Music Box, where he helped produce some of the album's softer and more melodious tracks, as well as being part of the songwriting process. Additional writers and producers were Robert Clivillés and David Cole (a pair also known as C+C Music Factory) and Daryl Simmons. While the album featured a range of different talented music producers, the bulk of the songwriting was done by Carey and her writing partner, Walter Afanasieff. In future projects, they would continue writing material for Carey's albums, until her 1999 release Rainbow, where he is absent from the writing credits.

Four singles were released from the album. The first three, "Dreamlover", "Hero" and "Without You", became worldwide chart-topping singles, the latter becoming Carey's highest charting international single of her career. "Without You" became Carey's first number-one single in most European markets and reached the top three in the United States. To promote Music Box, Carey embarked on the short but successful Music Box Tour which traveled to select cities in North America. Carey was nominated for Best Female Pop Vocal Performance for "Dreamlover" at the 1994 Grammy Awards and received the same nomination for "Hero" at the 1995 Grammy Awards.

After its release, Music Box received generally mixed reviews from music critics. The album faced criticism regarding Carey's more mellow and lazy tone in comparison to her previous work. Despite some unfavorable reviews, the album became a commercial success, topping the Billboard 200 and becoming Carey's first number-one album in Australia, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. The Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) certified it diamond, for shipments of ten million copies across the United States. Music Box remains Carey's highest seller with 32 million copies sold worldwide and is one of the best-selling albums of all time.


"Mariah and Dave did this loop thing, and it was new to us pop producers at the time. Their version of 'Dreamlover' was missing a lot of stuff. The spirit of the song was up but it wasn't hitting hard enough. [My work on the track] put a whole different shade of colors into it."

—Afanasieff on "Dreamlover" before and after he worked on it.[2]

In 1988, Carey was discovered by Tommy Mottola, CEO of Columbia Records, and was promptly signed to the label. Carey's self-titled debut studio album, released the following year, focused on re-recording and mastering several songs she had already written in high school alongside classmate, Ben Margulies.[3] Aside from the seven songs taken from Carey's demo tape, four other tracks were written and produced by the former and an array of famed record producers. The album was complimented by critics, who called it a mature debut, full of various genre influences ranging from pop, R&B and soul.[4] The album became a commercial success, selling fifteen million units globally.[5] While making a strong impact on pop music, Carey became interested in altering her sound, and deviating from pop music for her second studio effort, Emotions (1991).[4] Following the success of her debut, Columbia allowed her to take more control over her musical departure, enabling her to change her genre infusions, melodies and production.

Writing and development[edit]

With Carey in the captain's chair, having more control than she had on any other album, she took the album in a new direction, alongside Afanasieff.[2] For Carey's third studio effort, she enrolled the help of a range of songwriters, as well as record producers.[2] Aside from Afanasieff, Kenneth "Babyface" Edmonds, a man who would collaborate with Carey often in the near future, also took part in the project.[2] Babyface, who helped produce much of the album, also co-wrote a track with Carey titled "Never Forget You", a song that was released as a B-side to "Without You" exclusively in the United States.[2] The album, which consisted mostly of slower ballads (with the exception of "Dreamlover", "Now That I Know", and "I've Been Thinking about You"), contained collaborations with some carry-on producers and writers from Emotions.[2] Of these were Clivillés & Cole (of C+C Music Factory), who co-wrote the track "Now That I Know", a danceable pop ballad, which used similar formulas and synthesizers from tracks on Emotions. Another writer–producer that worked on the album was David Hall, who with Carey wrote the U.S. single "Dreamlover".[2]

During the album's recording, Carey worked with several different musicians and producers, aside from Walter Afanasieff, the only hold over from her debut.[6] On the album's first track "Dreamlover", Carey worked with Dave Hall throughout the song's entire production.[2][7] In order to help with some of the song's arrangements, Mottola enrolled the help of Walter Afanasieff, who took on the completed track and transformed it into a more commercial hit.[2]

Music and lyrics[edit]

Emotions contains influences from mostly 1950s, 1960s and 1970s balladry and gospel, as well as her continued work of R&B and soul. The album, while praised by some as more mature and raw, failed to reach the critical or commercial heights of her debut effort, while selling far less and failed to introduce Carey into a different market.[8] Following these events, Columbia decided to try to market Carey in a similar fashion to her debut, only having her produce a more commercial and radio-friendly album. Their plans were to tone down Carey's vocals, and soften the album's production, leaving a more contemporary pop/R&B record.[9] Agreeing to the change, Carey and Afanasieff began writing and recording material for her third studio effort, Music Box.

One of the noticeable differences from Music Box and Carey's previous albums is its sound. The album was described by Afanasieff as a softer and more pop-oriented album, "filling the songs with air", and allowing far more space in the overall sound.[2] Another noticeable change is in the album's production.[2] When Mariah Carey was released, critics took notice of its "overly produced" and "studio perfect" quality, where in comparison, Emotions maintains a "raw, live sound."[2] Music Box however, falls in between the two, a decision made by Carey during the album's production.[2] She would layer each track with live backing vocals, so not to sound too overly produced, but still kept the inclusion of musical synthesizers.[2]

According to Marc Shapiro, Music Box reflects signs of Carey's vocal maturity, as well as representing an album she was truly proud of.[10] The album's first single "Dreamlover" was described as a "slight piece of pop fluff," representing a more commercial side to Carey than the "more ambitious," "Vision of Love". Critics believed the song's chart performance was due to its summer release, as people were still looking for a "not-too-heavy" and more diverse sound.[10] The song's composition was described as "mid tempo and mildly dance-able," with Carey's voice being called "perpetually happy," like a "little-girl voice."[2]


"It's not that I'm experimenting with lower notes. I actually think my natural voice is low. My speaking voice is low, you know what I mean? And I'm really comfortable singing in my lower register..., I sing from the heart. Whatever the music makes me feel at the time, I go into the studio to sing a song, that's what it's going to do. Some people like it, some people don't. But it's just a part of my voice and that's it."

—Carey, on her vocals on Music Box, as well as her voice in general[1]

"Hero", the album's second single, was one of Carey's most inspirational ballads at the time.[2] The song is described as "a lush ballad",[by whom?] with Carey making use of her impressive, "lower alto register."[attribution needed][11] As one of the more emotional tracks on the album, "Hero" builds emotion, verse through verse, where the lyrics and melody finally "broke through."[attribution needed][11] "Anytime You Need a Friend" is another pop ballad in which Carey would, "let her voice roam free",[attribution needed] a feature critics felt lacked on the album.[11] The song featured "rough and low vocals",[attribution needed] as well as some glimpses of Carey's upper registers. As with most of the songs on Music Box, the lyrics boast a positive message, and it is the only song on the album to feature traces of gospel-inspired vocals throughout the chorus.[11]

The album's title track, "Music Box", is another ballad Carey wrote with Afanasieff.[11] The song is described as one of Carey's more difficult compositions, due to its "softness".[by whom?] The song requires a great deal of legato to keep "the tunes softness and sweetness, without resorting to volume."[attribution needed] Carey's vocals on the track are defined as "soft and controlled,"[by whom?] managing to maintain the delicate balance in a manner that seems effortless, floating easily over the keyboard and the shimmer of the guitar.[according to whom?][11] Lyrically, due to the song's message of "commitment and promise," and the "tinkling music-box line played on the synthesizer," the track gives the sensation of a wedding vow recital.[11] "Never Forget You" is a slow song, further connecting it to the song's message of "lamenting the loss of love, in a very tender way."[attribution needed] The song contains keyboard notes that hover over the verses and allow Carey to indulge in her backing vocals.[11] It was described by Nickson as a "stand out track," one that could have easily become a hit single, "with an appeal that would have easily transcended generational barriers."[11]

Critical reception[edit]

Professional ratings
Review scores
Source Rating
Allmusic 4/5 stars[12]
Billboard (favorable)[13]
Robert Christgau (dud)[14]
Entertainment Weekly C+[15]
The New York Times (favorable)[16]
Rolling Stone 3/5 stars (1993)[17]
Rolling Stone 2/5 stars (2004)[18]

Upon release, the album received mixed reviews from critics.[12] Ron Wynn from Allmusic gave the album 4 out of 5 stars, Roc Wynn of Allmusic said that Carey's "octave-leaping" voice was downplayed in favor of the demonstration of "her ability to sing softly and coolly."[12] Although favorably stating that Carey lowered the volume on her vocals, he said that the energy had declined, with the exception of personality-injected songs like "Hero" and "Dreamlover." Overall, however, he claimed the album's "different" approach was wise.[12] Ashley S. Battel from Billboard gave the album a positive review, writing, "While Carey tones down the predominance of her tremendous vocal range throughout much of this release, there is no question that she remains the driving force behind yet anoth[e]r collection of heavy-rotation Top-40 successes."[13]

David Browne from Entertainment Weekly gave the album a mixed review.[15] He said that due to Carey's lower energy level, her voice no longer soars above the backup chorus, instead it only "drip[s] over them like syrup instead of overpowering them; she lets the melodies speak for themselves.".[15] Browne awarded the album an unenthusiastic score of C+.[15] Stephen Holden of Rolling Stone complimented Carey's vocals, but found her lyrics "made up entirely of pop and soul clichés" and stated "Music Box is so precisely calculated to be a blockbuster that its impact is ultimately a little unnerving".[17] However, in his review for The New York Times, Holden wrote that the album "takes aim at the commercial pop mainstream with an even sharper focus" than Carey's previous albums, while noting "If huge ballads like 'Hero,' 'Anytime You Need a Friend' and a gospel-flavored remake of Harry Nilsson's 1971 hit, 'Without You,' traffic in pop cliches, they are the top-of-the-line in generic 90's pop".[16] In his consumer guide for The Village Voice, critic Robert Christgau gave the album a "dud" rating,[14] indicating "a bad record whose details rarely merit further thought".[19] In a retrospective review, The New Rolling Stone Album Guide (2004) noted a "soft-rock slump" and stated "While there's nothing wrong with Carey singing relatively straight for 10 songs, there is a sore lack of power here: baleful soaring ballads, pop optimism along the lines of smiling through the tears and believing in yourself (or him, or Him), and hardly a decent tune in the lot".[18]

Commercial performance[edit]

Music Box entered the US Billboard 200 at number two, with 174,000 copies sold.[20] In its fifteenth week after release, the album topped the chart and enjoyed its highest sales week in December, selling 295,000 copies in its first week atop, 395,000 the following week and peaking with 505,000 copies sold in year's final week. It stayed at the top for eight non-consecutive weeks.[21] It remained in the top ten for thirty-one weeks and on the Billboard 200 for 128 weeks (more than two years, longer than any other of her albums), re-entering the chart three times.[22] The album also reached number one on Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums. Music Box was the second-best selling album in the United States in 1994, only behind Ace of Base's The Sign.[23] In the United States, Music Box became Carey's best-selling album at the time, being certified diamond by the RIAA, denoting shipments of ten million copies

The album became a success in Canada, peaking at number two on the charts and being certified seven-times platinum by the Canadian Recording Industry Association (CRIA). Music Box became Carey's best-seller in Europe, topping the charts in Australia, Germany, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. In Germany, it became her highest-charting album, spending eighty weeks on the German Albums Chart, eleven of which were spent at number one. Germany's sales of the album were also very impressive, with a certification of double-platinum by the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI), for shipments of one million copies.[24][25] In Australia, the album was certified fourteen-times platinum by the Australian Recording Industry Association (ARIA), denoting shipments of 1,000,000 copies.[26] The album finished at number one on the (ARIA) 1994 End of Year Chart.[27][28] In the United Kingdom, Music Box remains Carey's highest seller, topping the UK Albums Chart and being certified seven-times platinum. It became a million-selling album in France, receiving a diamond certification and topping the French Album Charts. Sales in France have been estimated at 1,418,100.[29] In Brazil, Music Box remains one of the best-selling albums by an international artist, selling 1,500,000 copies.[30] Music Box finished number twenty-three on the all time album chart in the Netherlands, where it was certified six-times platinum.[31][32]

In Asia, Music Box became one of the best-selling albums of 1994, selling 2.2 million copies in Japan alone.[33] The album's sales continued to skyrocket in Asia, topping sales of 600,000 in South Korea and 150,000 copies in Taiwan as of 1994.[34] In Singapore and Hong Kong, sales reached 110,000 and 100,000 copies respectively.[34] Music Box has sold 32 million copies worldwide, and is one of the best-selling albums of all time.[35][36][37]


"Dreamlover" was released as the album's first single on July 27, 1993.[38] The single debuted at number thirteen on the Billboard Hot 100, and due to its massive airplay, the song reached the top of the Hot 100, staying there for eight weeks.[38][39] Dreamlover topped the charts in Canada, and reached the top-ten in many other countries.[40] The song was certified platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA), denoting shipments of one million copies, as well as receiving a gold certification in Australia and New Zealand.[41][42][43] The music video for "Dreamlover" featured "summer scenery," with scenes of Carey swimming in a pool by a waterfall, lying in a bed of sunflowers, as well as singing in front of hip-hop dancers.[2] The video tried to capture, a "home video" feel, adding to the song's subtle and airy nature, something that only helped the song dominate the charts[2] "Hero" served as the album's second single, and was released on October 19, 1993. Music critics praised the song, calling it her most directly inspirational song since "Make It Happen".[11] The song topped the charts in the United States and the top-five in many other major music markets.[39][44] The music video for "Hero," featured footage from Carey's concert at Proctor's Theatre, as was done for Carey's following music video for "Without You."

"Without You", the album's third single, became the biggest international hit of Carey's career. "Without You" reached number three in the United States, but experienced its real success throughout Europe.[39] The song became Carey's first number one chart topper in France, Germany, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom, propelling the sales of Music Box throughout the world.[45] Carey brought the song renewed popularity, through her highly successful adaptation. It became one of the "fifty most-played songs of the year" and even outsold Harry Nilsson's version, receiving many awards and recognition.[46] "Anytime You Need a Friend", the album's final single, experienced success on the charts, reaching the top-ten in many countries, as well as peaking at number twelve in the United States.[39] It became the second single in Music Box to perform better throughout Europe than in the U.S.[47]


Carey performing "Hero" live during The Neighborhood Inaugural Ball for President Obama in Washington D.C..

To promote the album, Carey embarked on her first headlining concert tour, the Music Box Tour. Due to stage fright, Carey had not toured to promote her previous albums and did not originally plan a tour to support Music Box.[48] However, after the continued success of the album and persuasion from Tommy Mottola, Carey agreed.[48] Because Carey did not feel physically or emotionally ready for an extensive tour, six concerts were scheduled, each with many days in between, in order to give her voice time to rest.[48] An extra performance at Proctor's Theatre was planned; there, Carey filmed the one-hour special Here Is Mariah Carey for release during the Christmas season.[48]

When tickets went on sale, the concerts did not sell out instantly but sold at a healthy pace.[48] On the opening night, she sang at the Miami Arena. Approximately two-thirds of the venue's capacity was filled, which worried Carey's management. However, Carey did not seem to mind and began the show with high spirits.[48] The first show in Miami received scathing reviews;[citation needed] subsequent shows sold out of tickets and attracted rave reviews.[48]

Aside from touring for the first time in her career, Carey visited various American and European television programs, performing different singles from the album. In late 1993, Carey appeared on The Arsenio Hall Show, performing both "Dreamlover" and "Hero." Other 1993 performances included "Hero" on The Jay Leno Show and "Dreamlover" on her first visit to Top of the Pops. Carey continued promoting the album in 1994, performing "Without You" on a second visit to Top of the Pops, as well as visiting France, Germany, Japan, Spain and Sweden. In the midst of the Music Box Tour, Carey had already begun working with Walter Afanasieff on her holiday album Merry Christmas, which was to be released during the Christmas season of 1994.[48] Additionally, Carey and Affanasieff reportedly began experimenting with ideas and music for Carey's 1995 album Daydream.[48]

Track listing[edit]

No. Title Writer(s) Producer(s) Length
1. "Dreamlover"   Mariah Carey, Dave Hall Carey, Walter Afanasieff, Hall 3:54
2. "Hero"   Carey Carey, Afanasieff 4:19
3. "Anytime You Need a Friend"   Carey Carey, Afanasieff 4:26
4. "Music Box"   Carey Carey, Afanasieff 4:57
5. "Now That I Know"   Carey, Robert Clivillés, David Cole Carey, Clivillés, Cole 4:19
6. "Never Forget You"   Carey, Kenneth "Babyface" Edmonds Carey, Babyface 3:46
7. "Without You"   Pete Ham, Tom Evans Carey, Afanasieff 3:36
8. "Just to Hold You Once Again"   Carey Carey, Afanasieff 3:59
9. "I've Been Thinking About You"   Carey Carey, Clivillés, Cole 4:48
10. "All I've Ever Wanted"   Carey Carey, Afanasieff 3:51

International edition

No. Title Writer(s) Producer(s) Length
11. "Everything Fades Away"   Carey Carey, Afanasieff 5:25

Latin American edition

No. Title Writer(s) Producer(s) Length
12. "Héroe"   Carey Carey, Afanasieff 4:19

Album credits[edit]

Credits adapted from Music Box album liner notes.[49]


Certifications and sales[edit]

Region Certification Certified units/Sales
Australia (ARIA)[103] 14× Platinum 1,000,000[104]
Austria (IFPI Austria)[105] 2× Platinum 100,000*
Brazil (ABPD)[106] 6× Platinum 1,500,000*
Canada (Music Canada)[107] 7× Platinum 700,000^
Finland (Musiikkituottajat)[108] Platinum 100,000[108]
France (SNEP)[109] Diamond 1,418,000[29]
Germany (BVMI)[110] 2× Platinum 1,000,000^
Hong Kong (IFPI Hong Kong)  None 100,000[34]
Japan (RIAJ)[111] Million 2,300,000[33]
New Zealand (RMNZ)[112] 5× Platinum 75,000^
Norway (IFPI Norway)[113] Platinum 50,000*
Singapore  None 110,000[34]
South Korea  None 1,000,000[34]
Spain (PROMUSICAE)[114] 5× Platinum 500,000^
Sweden (GLF)[115] Platinum 100,000^
Switzerland (IFPI Switzerland)[116] 4× Platinum 200,000^
Taiwan  None 500,000[34]
United Kingdom (BPI)[117] 5× Platinum 1,500,000^
United States (RIAA)[118] Diamond 7,276,000[119]
Worldwide 32,000,000[35][120]

*sales figures based on certification alone
^shipments figures based on certification alone

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c Nickson 1998, p. 104
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Nickson 1998, pp. 100–102
  3. ^ Nickson 1998, p. 50
  4. ^ a b Nickson 1998, p. 53
  5. ^ "BET Exclusive: Mariah Celebrates 20 Years; Thanks Fans". Black Entertainment Television. Viacom. Retrieved 2010-08-15. 
  6. ^ Nickson 1998, p. 55
  7. ^ Nickson 1998, p. 86
  8. ^ Nickson 1998, p. 57
  9. ^ Nickson 1998, p. 80
  10. ^ a b Shapiro 2001, pp. 76–78
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Nickson 1998, pp. 107–109
  12. ^ a b c d Wynn, Ron. "Music Box > Overview". Allmusic. All Media Guide. Retrieved 2010-08-17. 
  13. ^ a b Battel, Ashley S. "Music Box – Mariah Carey". Billboard magazine. Retrieved 2010-08-17. 
  14. ^ a b Christgau, Robert (1993). "Robert Christgau: CG: Mariah Carey". Retrieved 2010-08-23. 
  15. ^ a b c d Browne, David (1993-08-27). "Music Review – Music Box". Entertainment Weekly (Time Inc.). Retrieved 2010-08-17. 
  16. ^ a b Holden, Stephen (1993-09-24). "Critic's Notebook – Adult Sounds From (Way) Off the Charts (Page 3 of 4)". The New York Times Company. Retrieved 2010-08-30. 
  17. ^ a b Holden, Stephen (1993-10-28). "Music Box by Mariah Carey". Rolling Stone (Wenner Media Websites). Retrieved 2010-08-30. 
  18. ^ a b Christian Hoard, Nathan Brackett (2004). The New Rolling Stone Album Guide. edition 4, revised. Simon & Schuster. p. 138. ISBN 0-7432-0169-8. 
  19. ^ Christgau, Robert. "CG Grades: 1990s-". Retrieved 2010-08-29. 
  20. ^ Mayfield, Geoff (1999-11-20). CAREY ON:. Billboard. Retrieved 2010-08-18. 
  21. ^ Ruhlmann, William (2004-03-16). Breaking records: 100 years of hits. Routledge. Retrieved 2010-08-18. 
  22. ^ Grein, Paul (2002-12-14). CAREY ON: Mariah Carey. Billboard. Retrieved 2010-08-18. 
  23. ^ "The Billboard 200 – Year-End Charts – 1994". Billboard. Archived from the original on December 11, 2007. Retrieved 2010-08-18. 
  24. ^ " – Tracking Chart – Carey, Mariah". Media Control Charts. Retrieved 2010-08-18. 
  25. ^ "Gold-/Platin-Datenbank ('Music Box')" (in German). Bundesverband Musikindustrie. Retrieved 2010-08-18. 
  26. ^ "ARIA Charts - Accreditations - 2011 Albums". Australian Recording Industry Association Ltd. Retrieved December 27, 2015. 
  27. ^ "ARIA Charts – End Of Year Charts – Top 50 Albums 1994". Australian Recording Industry Association. Retrieved 2010-08-18. 
  28. ^ "Australian Charts > Mariah Carey". Hung Medien. Retrieved 2010-01-21. 
  29. ^ a b "InfoDisc – Les Albums Diament". InfoDisc. Retrieved 2010-08-12. 
  30. ^ "Best selling female international albums in Brazil". Joomla. Retrieved 2010-09-25. 
  31. ^ a b "Mariah Carey – Music Box". (in Dutch). Hung Medien. Retrieved 2010-12-14. 
  32. ^ "Mariah Carey – Music box (x6)". Nederlandse Vereniging van Producenten en Importeurs van beeld- en geluidsdragers. Retrieved 2010-08-19. [dead link]
  33. ^ a b マライア新記録300万枚突破!. Sankei Shimbun (in Japanese). 1998-12-16. Archived from the original on March 15, 2001. Retrieved 2010-09-12. 
  34. ^ a b c d e f White, Adam (1994-07-30). "Billboard Vol. 106, No. 31: TV Campaigns Boost Carey's 'Music Box' In Asian Markets". Billboard (Nielsen Business Media): 40 & 42. Retrieved 2010-08-09. 
  35. ^ a b "The Evolution of Mariah Carey - Music Box". Black Entertainment Television. Viacom. Retrieved 2012-03-27. 
  36. ^ "Mariah Carey – Biography". Yahoo! Music. Archived from the original on June 22, 2011. Retrieved 2010-08-17. 
  37. ^ Williams, Chris (2011-07-03). "Mariah Carey’s Music Box LP (1993) Revisited With Co-Writer Walter Afanasieff | Return To The Classics". Soul Culture. Soul Culture Media. Retrieved 2011-07-14. 
  38. ^ a b Shapiro, Marc (2001-05-01). Mariah Carey: The Unauthorized Biography. ECW Press. Retrieved 2010-08-18. 
  39. ^ a b c d "Billboard – Artists – Mariah Carey". Billboard. Prometheus Global Media. Retrieved 2010-08-14. 
  40. ^ "Mariah Carey – Dreamlover". Ultratop. Hung Medien. Retrieved 2010-10-22. 
  41. ^ a b Ryan, Gavin (2011). Australia's Music Charts 1988–2010. Mt. Martha, VIC, Australia: Moonlight Publishing. 
  42. ^ "Gold and Platinum Certifications". Recording Industry Association of America. Retrieved 2010-08-18. 
  43. ^ Scapolo, Dean (2007). The Complete New Zealand Music Charts 1966–2006. RIANZ. ISBN 978-1-877443-00-8. 
  44. ^ "Mariah Carey – Hero". Ultratop. Hung Medien. Retrieved 2010-10-22. 
  45. ^ "Mariah Carey – Without You". Ultratop. Hung Medien. Retrieved 2010-10-22. 
  46. ^ Matovina, Dan (August 2000). Without You: The Tragic Story of Badfinger. "Frances Glover Books". Retrieved 2010-08-19. 
  47. ^ "Mariah carey – Anytime You Need A Friend". Ultratop. Hung Medien. Retrieved 2010-08-18. 
  48. ^ a b c d e f g h i Shapiro 2001, pp. 81–86
  49. ^ Carey, Mariah (1993). Music Box (Liner Notes). Mariah Carey. New York City, New York: Columbia Records. 
  50. ^ "{{{artist}}} – {{{album}}}". Argentine Albums. CAPIF. On Fecha, select 1993-09-12 to see the correspondent chart.
  51. ^ " – Mariah Carey – Music Box". Hung Medien. Retrieved October 12, 2015.
  52. ^ " – Mariah Carey – Music Box" (in German). Hung Medien. Retrieved October 12, 2015.
  53. ^ " – {{{artist}}} – {{{album}}}" (in French). Hung Medien.
  54. ^ "Top RPM Albums: Issue {{{chartid}}}." RPM. Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved October 12, 2015.
  55. ^ " – Mariah Carey – Music Box". Hung Medien. Retrieved October 12, 2015.
  56. ^ " – Mariah Carey – Music Box" (in Dutch). Hung Medien.
  57. ^ " – Mariah Carey – Music Box". Hung Medien. Retrieved October 12, 2015.
  58. ^ "Longplay-Chartverfolgung at Musicline" (in German). Phononet GmbH. Retrieved October 12, 2015.
  59. ^ "Top 40 album DVD és válogatáslemez-lista – 1994. 22. hét" (in Hungarian). MAHASZ. Retrieved October 12, 2015.
  60. ^ "GFK Chart-Track Albums: Week {{{week}}}, {{{year}}}". Chart-Track. IRMA. Retrieved October 12, 2015.
  61. ^ " – Mariah Carey – Music Box". Hung Medien. Retrieved October 12, 2015.
  62. ^ "Oricon Top 50 Albums: {{{date}}}" (in Japanese). Oricon. Retrieved October 12, 2015.
  63. ^ " – Mariah Carey – Music Box". Hung Medien. Retrieved October 12, 2015.
  64. ^ a b " – Mariah Carey – Music Box". Hung Medien. Retrieved October 12, 2015.
  65. ^ " – Mariah Carey – Music Box". Hung Medien. Retrieved October 12, 2015.
  66. ^ "Official Scottish Albums Chart Top 100". Official Charts Company. Retrieved October 13, 2015.
  67. ^ " – Mariah Carey – Music Box". Hung Medien. Retrieved October 12, 2015.
  68. ^ a b " – Mariah Carey – Music Box". Hung Medien. Retrieved October 12, 2015.
  69. ^ " – Mariah Carey – Music Box". Hung Medien. Retrieved October 12, 2015.
  70. ^ "Mariah Carey | Artist | Official Charts". UK Albums Chart Retrieved October 12, 2015.
  71. ^ "Official R&B Albums Chart Top 40". Official Charts Company. Retrieved October 21, 2015.
  72. ^ "Mariah Carey – Chart history" Billboard 200 for Mariah Carey. Retrieved October 12, 2015.
  73. ^ "Mariah Carey – Chart history" Billboard Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums for Mariah Carey. Retrieved October 12, 2015.
  74. ^ "Best-selling Albums". (in German). Hung Medien. Retrieved 2010-12-14. 
  75. ^ Geoff Mayfield (December 25, 1999). 1999 The Year in Music Totally '90s: Diary of a Decade – The listing of Top Pop Albums of the '90s & Hot 100 Singles of the '90s. Billboard. Retrieved October 15, 2010. 
  76. ^ "ARIA Charts - End Of Year Charts - Top 50 Albums 1993". ARIA. Retrieved October 13, 2015. 
  77. ^ "Top 100 Albums of 1993". RPM. Retrieved October 13, 2015. 
  78. ^ "Jaaroverzichten - Album 1993" (in Dutch). Hung Medien. Retrieved October 13, 2015. 
  79. ^ "1993年 アルバム年間TOP100" (in Japanese). Oricon. Retrieved October 13, 2015. 
  80. ^ "Top Selling Albums of 1993". RIANZ. Retrieved October 13, 2015. 
  81. ^ "Topp 40 Album Julen 1993" (in Norwegian). VG-lista. Retrieved October 13, 2015. 
  82. ^ "Najlepiej sprzedające się albumy w W.Brytanii w 1993r" (in Polish). Z archiwum...rocka. Archived from the original on September 27, 2012. Retrieved October 13, 2015. 
  83. ^ a b "1993 Year-end Charts" (PDF). Billboard. Retrieved October 13, 2015. 
  84. ^ "ARIA Charts - End Of Year Charts - Top 50 Albums 1994". ARIA. Retrieved October 13, 2015. 
  85. ^ "Jahreshitparade Alben 1994" (in German). Hung Medien. Retrieved October 13, 2015. 
  86. ^ "Top 100 Albums of 1994". RPM. Retrieved October 13, 2015. 
  87. ^ "Jaaroverzichten - Album 1994" (in Dutch). Hung Medien. Retrieved October 13, 2015. 
  88. ^ "Classement Albums - année 1994" (in French). SNEP. Archived from the original on December 24, 2013. Retrieved October 13, 2015. 
  89. ^ "Top 100 Album-Jahrescharts 1994" (in German). GfK Entertainment. Retrieved October 13, 2015. 
  90. ^ "Gli album più venduti del 1994". Hit Parade Italia. Retrieved October 12, 2015. 
  91. ^ "1994年 アルバム年間TOP100" (in Japanese). Oricon. Retrieved October 13, 2015. 
  92. ^ "Top Selling Albums of 1994". RIANZ. Retrieved October 13, 2015. 
  93. ^ "Topp 40 Album Vinter 1994" (in Norwegian). VG-lista. Retrieved October 13, 2015. 
  94. ^ "Swiss Year-end Charts 1994". Hung Medien. Retrieved October 13, 2015. 
  95. ^ "Najlepiej sprzedające się albumy w W.Brytanii w 1994r" (in Polish). Z archiwum...rocka. Archived from the original on September 27, 2012. Retrieved October 13, 2015. 
  96. ^ a b "1994 Year-end Charts" (PDF). Billboard. Retrieved October 13, 2015. 
  97. ^ "Jaaroverzichten - Album 1995" (in Dutch). Hung Medien. Retrieved October 13, 2015. 
  98. ^ "Rapports annueles 1995" (in French). Ultratop. Retrieved October 13, 2015. 
  99. ^ "1995 Year-end Charts" (PDF). Billboard. Retrieved October 13, 2015. 
  100. ^ "Mariah Carey – Music Box". Hung Medien. Retrieved 2010-12-14. 
  101. ^ "Mariah Carey – Music Box". (in Swiss). Hung Medien. Retrieved 2010-12-14. 
  102. ^ "Greatest of All Time — Billboard 200". Billboard. Prometheus Global Media. November 12, 2015. Retrieved November 12, 2015. 
  103. ^ "ARIA Charts – Accreditations – 2011 Albums". Australian Recording Industry Association. Retrieved 2010. 
  104. ^ "The Music Australia Loved". Sydney Morning Herald. January 1, 2013. Retrieved July 11, 2014. 
  105. ^ "Austrian album certifications – Mariah Carey – Music Box" (in German). IFPI Austria. Retrieved 2013.  Enter Mariah Carey in the field Interpret. Enter Music Box in the field Titel. Select album in the field Format. Click Suchen
  106. ^ "Brazilian album certifications – Mariah Carey – Music Box" (in Portuguese). Associação Brasileira dos Produtores de Discos. Retrieved 2013. 
  107. ^ "Canadian album certifications – Mariah Carey – Music Box". Music Canada. Retrieved 2010. 
  108. ^ a b "Mariah Carey" (in Finnish). Musiikkituottajat – IFPI Finland. Retrieved 2010. 
  109. ^ "French album certifications – Mariah Carey – Music Box" (in French). Syndicat National de l'Édition Phonographique. Retrieved 2013. 
  110. ^ "Gold-/Platin-Datenbank (Mariah Carey; 'Music Box')" (in German). Bundesverband Musikindustrie. Retrieved 2010. 
  111. ^ "RIAJ > The Record > November 1996 > Highest Certified International Albums/Singles (Mar '89 - Sep '96)" (PDF). Recording Industry Association of Japan (in Japanese). Retrieved January 30, 2014. 
  112. ^ "New Zealand album certifications – Mariah Carey – Music Box". Recorded Music NZ. 
  113. ^ "Norwegian album certifications – Mariah Carey – Music Box" (in Norwegian). IFPI Norway. Archived from the original on 2012-07-25. Retrieved 2013-09-17. 
  114. ^ "Solo Exitos 1959-2002 Ano A Ano: Certificados 1991-1995". Solo Exitos 1959-2002 Ano A Ano. 
  115. ^ "Guld- och Platinacertifikat − År 1987−1998" (PDF) (in Swedish). IFPI Sweden. Retrieved 2013. 
  116. ^ "The Official Swiss Charts and Music Community: Awards (Mariah Carey; 'Music Box')". IFPI Switzerland. Hung Medien. Retrieved 2010. 
  117. ^ "British album certifications – Mariah Carey – Music Box". British Phonographic Industry. Retrieved 2010.  Enter Music Box in the field Keywords. Select Title in the field Search by. Select album in the field By Format. Select Platinum in the field By Award. Click Search
  118. ^ "American album certifications – Mariah Carey – Music Box". Recording Industry Association of America. Retrieved 2010.  If necessary, click Advanced, then click Format, then select Album, then click SEARCH
  119. ^ Paul Grein (October 16, 2013). "Miley Cyrus Twerks Her Way to ... 9th Place?". Chart Watch (Yahoo). 
  120. ^ "Rocking Like a Bat out of Hell for 35 Years". Billboard October - December 2011 (issue). Billboard. July 30, 2012. Retrieved September 17, 2013. 

Works cited[edit]