Music of Bollywood

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A group of Bollywood singers at the Indian Singers' Rights Association (ISRA) meet in 2013. Standing (L to R) Kailash Kher, Sonu Nigam, Sowmya Raoh, Javed Ali, Shaan, Udit Narayan, Manhar Udhas, Kunal Ganjawala, Abhijeet Bhattacharya, Hariharan, Mahalaxmi Iyer, Sitting (L to R) Mohammed Aziz, Pankaj Udhas, Alka Yagnik, Sanjay Tandon, Chitra Singh, Suresh Wadkar, Mitali Singh.

Bollywood songs, more formally known as Hindi film songs or filmi songs, are songs featured in Bollywood films. Derived from the song-and-dance routine in Western film circles, Bollywood songs, along with dance, are a characteristic motif of Hindi cinema which gives it enduring popular appeal, cultural value and context.[1] Hindi film songs form a predominant component of Indian pop music, and derive their inspiration from both classical and modern sources.[1] Hindi film songs are now firmly embedded in North India's popular culture and routinely encountered in North India in marketplaces, shops, during bus and train journeys and numerous other situations.[2] Though Hindi films routinely contain many songs and some dance routines, they are not musicals in the Western theatrical sense; the music-song-dance aspect is an integral feature of the genre akin to plot, dialogue and other parameters.[1]:2

Linguistically, Bollywood[3] songs tend to use a colloquial dialect of Hindi-Urdu, or Hindustani, mutually intelligible to both Hindi and Urdu speakers, while modern Bollywood songs also increasingly incorporate elements of Hinglish.[4] Urdu poetry has had a particularly strong impact on Bollywood songs, where the lyrics draw heavily from Urdu poetry and the ghazal tradition.[5] In addition, Punjabi is also occasionally used for Bollywood songs.

The Indian music industry is largely dominated by Bollywood soundtracks, which account for nearly 80% of the country's music revenue. The industry was dominated by cassette tapes in the 1980s and 1990s, before transitioning to online streaming in the 2000s (bypassing CD and digital downloads). As of 2014, the largest Indian music record label is T-Series (which has the world's most-viewed YouTube channel) with up to 35% share of the Indian market, followed by Sony Music India (the largest foreign-owned label) with up to 25% share, and then Zee Music (which has a partnership with Sony).[6] As of 2017, 216 million Indians use music streaming services such as YouTube, Hungama, Gaana and Saavn.[7]

History[edit]

Hindi film songs are present in Hindi cinema right from the first sound film Alam Ara (1931) by Ardeshir Irani which featured seven songs. This was closely followed by Shirheen Farhad (1931) by Jamshedji Framji Madan, also by Madan, which had as many as 42 song sequences strung together in the manner of an opera, and later by Indra Sabha which had as many as 69 song sequences. However, the practice subsided and subsequent films usually featured between six and ten songs in each production.[1]:20

Right from the advent of Indian cinema in 1931, musicals with song numbers have been a regular feature in Indian cinema.[8] In 1934 Hindi film songs began to be recorded on gramophones and later, played on radio channels, giving rise to a new form of mass entertainment in India which was responsive to popular demand.[8] Within the first few years itself, Hindi cinema had produced a variety of films which easily categorised into genres such as "historicals", "mythologicals", "devotional, "fantasy" etc. but each having songs embedded in them such that it is incorrect to classify them as "musicals".[1]

The Hindi song was such an integral features of Hindi mainstream cinema, besides other characteristics, that post-independence alternative cinema, of which the films of Satyajit Ray are an example, discarded the song and dance motif in its effort to stand apart from mainstream cinema.[1]

The Hindi film song now began to make its presence felt as a predominating characteristic in the culture of the nation and began to assume roles beyond the limited purview of cinema. In multi-cultural India, as per film historian Partha Chatterjee, "the Hindi film song cut through all the language barriers in India, to engage in lively communication with the nation where more than twenty languages are spoken and ... scores of dialects exist".[9] Bollywood music has drawn its inspiration from numerous traditional sources such as Ramleela, nautanki, tamasha and Parsi theatre, as well as from the West, Pakistan, and other Indic musical subcultures.[10]

For over five decades, these songs formed the staple of popular music in South Asia and along with Hindi films, was an important cultural export to most countries around Asia and wherever the Indian diaspora had spread. The spread was galvanised by the advent of cheap plastic tape cassettes which were produced in the millions till the industry crashed in 2000.[8] Even today Hindi film songs are available on radio, on television, as live music by performers, and on media, both old and new such as cassette tapes, compact disks and DVDs and are easily available, both legally and illegally, on the internet.[1]

Style and format[edit]

The various use of languages in Bollywood songs can be complex. Most use variations of Hindi and Urdu, with some songs also including other languages such as Persian, and it is not uncommon to hear the use of English words in songs from modern Hindi movies. Besides Hindi, several other Indian languages have also been used including Braj, Avadhi, Bhojpuri, Punjabi, Bengali and Rajasthani.

In a film, music, both in itself and accompanied with dance, has been used for many purposes including "heightening a situation, accentuating a mood, commenting on theme and action, providing relief and serving as interior monologue."[10]

Production[edit]

Songs in Bollywood movies are deliberately crafted with lyrics often written by distinguished poets or literati (often different from those who write the film script), and these lyrics are often then set to music, carefully choreographed to match the dance routine or script of the film. They are then sung by professional playback singers and lip-synched by the actors. Bollywood cinema is unique in that the majority of songs are seen to be sung by the characters themselves rather than being played in the background.[citation needed] In Western cinema, often a composer who specializes in film music is responsible for the bulk of music on the film's soundtrack, and while in some films songs may play an important part (and have direct relationship to the subject of the film), in Bollywood films, the songs often drive large-scale production numbers featuring elaborate choreography.

The key figure in Bollywood music production and composition is the music director. While in Western films, a "music director" or "music coordinator" is usually responsible for selecting existing recorded music to add to the soundtrack, typically during opening and closing credits, in Bollywood films, the "music director" often has a much broader role encompassing both composing music/songs specifically for the film and (if needed) securing additional (licensed) music. In this sense, a Bollywood music director also plays the role of a composer and music producer.

The lyricist of Bollywood songs is less likely to be the same composer or music director, as Bollywood films often go to great lengths to include lyrics of special significance and applicability to the film's plot and dialogue, and/or the words of highly regarded poets/lyricists set to music written specifically for such words in the film, as noted above.

Bollywood film songs have been described as eclectic both in instrumentation and style.[11] They often employ foreign instruments and rework existing songs, showing remarkable inventiveness in the reinvention of melodies and instrumental techniques.[12]

Bollywood film songs often tend to be accompanied by expensive music videos. Some are among the most expensive music videos of all time.[13] The most expensive Indian music video is "Party All Night" (for the 2013 film Boss), which cost ₹60 million ($1.02 million) to produce.[14] Adjusted for inflation, the most expensive Indian music video was "Pyar Kiya To Darna Kya" (for the 1960 film Mughal-e-Azam), which at the time cost more than ₹1.5 million[15] ($320,000),[16] equivalent to $3 million (₹200 million) adjusted for inflation.

Genres[edit]

Dance[edit]

Hindi dance music encompasses a wide range of songs predominantly featured in the Bollywood film industry with a growing worldwide attraction. The music became popular among overseas Indians in countries such as South Africa, the United Kingdom and the United States of America and eventually developed a global fan base.[17]

Disco[edit]

In the Indian subcontinent of South Asia, disco peaked in popularity in the early 1980s, when a South Asian disco scene arose, popularized by filmi Bollywood music, at a time when disco's popularity had declined in North America. The South Asian disco scene was sparked by the success of Pakistani pop singer Nazia Hassan, working with Indian producer Biddu, with the hit Bollywood song "Aap Jaisa Koi" in 1980.[18][19][20] Biddu himself previously had success in the Western world, where he was considered a pioneer, as one of the first successful disco producers in the early 1970s, with hits such as the hugely popular "Kung Fu Fighting" (1974),[21][22][23] before the genre's Western decline at the end of the 1970s led to him shifting his focus to Asia. The success of "Aap Jaisa Koi" in 1980 was followed by Nazia Hassan's Disco Deewane, a 1981 album produced by Biddu, becoming Asia's best-selling pop album at the time.[24]

In parallel to the Euro disco scene at the time, the continued relevance of disco in South Asia and the increasing reliance on synthesizers led to experiments in electronic disco, often combined with elements of Indian music.[18] Biddu had already used electronic equipment such as synthesizers in some of his earlier disco work, including "Bionic Boogie" from Rain Forest (1976),[25] "Soul Coaxing" (1977),[26] Eastern Man and Futuristic Journey[27][28] (recorded from 1976 to 1977),[29] and "Phantasm" (1979),[30] before using synthesizers for his later work with Nazia Hassan, including "Aap Jaisa Koi" (1980), Disco Deewane (1981) and "Boom Boom" (1982).[24] Bollywood disco producers who used electronic equipment such as synthesizers include R.D. Burman, on songs such as "Dhanno Ki Aankhon Mein" (Kitaab, 1977) and "Pyaar Karne Waale" (Shaan, 1980);[24] Laxmikant-Pyarelal, on songs such as "Om Shanti Om" (Karz, 1980);[31] and Bappi Lahari, on songs such as "Ramba Ho" (Armaan, 1981).[24] They also experimented with minimalist, high-tempo, electronic disco, including Burman's "Dil Lena Khel Hai Dildar Ka" (Zamane Ko Dikhana Hai, 1981), which had a "futuristic electro feel", and Lahiri's "Yaad Aa Raha Hai" (Disco Dancer, 1982).[18]

Such experiments eventually culminated in the work of Charanjit Singh, whose 1982 record Synthesizing: Ten Ragas to a Disco Beat anticipated the sound of acid house music, years before the genre arose in the Chicago house scene of the late 1980s. Using the Roland TR-808 drum machine, TB-303 bass synthesizer, and Jupiter-8 synthesizer, Singh increased the disco tempo up to a "techno wavelength" and made the sounds more minimalistic, while pairing them with "mystical, repetitive, instrumental Indian ragas", to produce a new sound, which resembled acid house.[32][18] According to Singh: "There was lots of disco music in films back in 1982. So I thought why not do something different using disco music only. I got an idea to play all the Indian ragas and give the beat a disco beat – and turn off the tabla. And I did it. And it turned out good."[33] The first track "Raga Bhairavi" also had a synthesised voice that says "Om Namah Shivaya" through a vocoder.[34]

Along with experiments in electronic disco, another experimental trend in Indian disco music of the early 1980s was the fusion of disco and psychedelic music. Due to 1960s psychedelic rock, popularized by the Beatles' raga rock, borrowing heavily from Indian music, it began exerting a reverse influence and had blended with Bollywood music by the early 1970s. You can download these songs[35] for free from various sources as well. This led to Bollywood producers exploring a middle-ground between disco and psychedelia in the early 1980s. Producers who experimented with disco-psychedelic fusion included Laxmikant-Pyarelal, on songs such as "Om Shanti Om" (Karz, 1980), and R. D. Burman, on songs such as "Pyaar Karne Waale" (Shaan, 1980),[31] along with the use of synthesizers.[24]

Ghazal[edit]

Music directors like Madan Mohan composed notable filmi-ghazals extensively for Muslim socials in the 1960s and the 1970s.[36]

The filmi-ghazal style experienced a revival in the early 1990s, sparked by the success of Nadeem-Shravan's Aashiqui (1990). It had a big impact on Bollywood music at the time, ushering in ghazal-type romantic music that dominated the early 1990s, with soundtracks such as Dil, Saajan, Phool Aur Kaante and Deewana.[37] A popular ghazal song from Aashiqui was "Dheere Dheere", a cover version of which was later recorded by Yo Yo Honey Singh and released by T-Series in 2015.

Qawwali[edit]

It represents a distinct subgenre of film music, although it is distinct from traditional qawwali, which is devotional Sufi music. One example of filmi qawwali is the song "Pardah Hai Pardah" sung by Mohammed Rafi, and composed by Laxmikant-Pyarelal, for the Indian film Amar Akbar Anthony (1977).[38]

Within the subgenre of filmi qawwali, there exists a form of qawwali that is infused with modern and Western instruments, usually with techno beats, called techno-qawwali. An example of techno-qawwali is "Kajra Re", a filmi song composed by Shankar Ehsaan Loy. A newer variation of the techno-qawwali based on the more dance oriented tracks is known as the "club qawwali". More tracks of this nature are being recorded and released.

Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan and A.R. Rahman have composed filmi qawwalis in the style of traditional qawwali. Examples include "Tere Bin Nahin Jeena" (Kachche Dhaage), "Arziyan" (Delhi 6), "Khwaja Mere Khwaja" (Jodhaa Akbar)[39] and "Kun Faya Kun" (Rockstar).[40]

Rock[edit]

Indian musicians began fusing rock with traditional Indian music from the mid-1960s onwards in filmi songs produced for popular Bollywood films. Some of the more well known early rock songs (including styles such as funk rock, pop rock, psychedelic rock, raga rock, and soft rock) from Bollywood films include Mohammed Rafi's "Jaan Pehechan Ho" in Gumnaam (1965), Kishore Kumar's "O Saathi Re" in Muqaddar Ka Sikandar (1978), and Asha Bhosle songs such as "Dum Maro Dum" in Hare Rama Hare Krishna (1971), "Ae Naujawan Hai Sab" in Apradh (1972), and "Yeh Mera Dil Pyar Ka Diwana" in Don (1978).

Plagiarism[edit]

The Pakistani Qawwali musician Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan had a big impact on Bollywood music, inspiring numerous Indian musicians working in Bollywood, especially during the 1990s. However, there were many instances of Indian music directors plagiarising Khan's music to produce hit filmi songs.[41][42][43] For example, Vedpal's "Yeh Jo Halka Halka Suroor Hai" in Souten Ki Beti (1989) and Anu Malik's "Mera Piya Ghar Aaya" in Yaarana (1995) are based on Khan's songs.[42] Viju Shah's hit song "Tu Cheez Badi Hai Mast Mast" in Mohra (1994) was plagiarised from Khan's popular Qawwali song "Dam Mast Qalandar".[41] Several Nadeem-Shravan songs are based on Khan's songs, including "Kisika Yaar Na Bichde" in Shreemaan Aashique (1993), "Kitna Pyara Tujhe Rab Ne Banaya" in Raja Hindustani (1996), "Mujhe Ek Pal Chain Na Awe" in Judaai (1997),[42] and "Bheed Me Tanhai Me" in Tumsa Nahin Dekha: A Love Story (2004).[44] Other Bollywood songs based on Khan's music include K. K. Mahajan's "Zamaana Deewana Ho Gaya" in Zamaana Deewana (1995) and Laxmikant-Pyarelal's "Wada Karke Sajan Nahi Aaya" in Barsaat Ki Raat (1998), among others.[44]

Numerous Bollywood songs were also copied from other Pakistani musicians. The earliest example was "Moam Ki Gurrya" in Baaghon Main Bahaar Aayi (1972) being copied from Bakhshi Wazir's "Jadon Holi Jayi" in Pakistani film Utt Khuda Da Wair (1970). Numerous hit Bollywood songs were copied from Pakistani composer M. Ashraf, such as Police Public (1990) copying "Main Jis Din Bhula Doon" in Khushboo (1979), Kal Ki Awaz (1992) copying "Kisi Meherban Ne Aa Ke" in Shama (1974), and Laxmikant–Pyarelal's "Choli Ke Peeche Kya Hai" in Khalnayak (1993) copying "Raat De Bara Baje" in Pakistani films Do Badan (1974) and Zabardast (1989).[45] Anu Malik copied the song "Yaariyan" in Beqabu (1996) from a 1993 song by Pakistani band Vital Signs with singer Junaid Jamshed. Pritam copied the song "Aahun Aahun" in Love Aaj Kal (2009) from Shaukat Ali's "Kadi Te Has" (1984), "Janambhoomi Pe" in Agnipankh (2004) from Abrar-ul-Haq's "Bheega Bheega Sa" (1998), and "Akhiya Na" in Ek Khiladi Ek Haseena (2005) from Waris Baig's "Challa" (2004). Nadeem–Shravan copied "Tuu Meri Zindagi Hain" in Aashiqui (1990) from a 1976 song by Pakistani singer Tassawar Khanum, "Tumhein Apna Banaane Ki" in Sadak (1991) from ghazal song "Chale To" (1983) by Pakistani singer Musarrat Nazir, and "O Rabba" in Zamaana Deewana (1995) from M. Ashraf's "Chahe Duniya" in Naheed Akhtar's Pakistani film Naukar (1975). Among numerous other examples.[46][45]

A number of Bollywood soundtracks also plagiarized Guinean singer Mory Kanté, particularly his 1987 album Akwaba Beach. For example, his song "Tama" inspired two Bollywood songs, Bappi Lahiri's "Tamma Tamma" in Thanedaar (1990) and "Jumma Chumma" in Laxmikant-Pyarelal's soundtrack for Hum (1991), the latter also featuring another song "Ek Doosre Se" which copied his song "Inch Allah".[47] His song "Yé ké yé ké" was also used as background music in the 1990 Bollywood film Agneepath, inspired the Bollywood song "Tamma Tamma" in Thanedaar, and was also copied by Mani Sharma's song "Pellikala Vachesindhe" in the 1997 Telugu film Preminchukundam Raa.[48]

Cultural impact[edit]

Indian cinema, with its characteristic film music, has not only spread all over Indian society, but also been on the forefront of the spread of India's culture around the world.[1]:14 In Britain, Hindi film songs are heard in restaurants and on radio channels dedicated to Asian music. The British dramatist Sudha Bhuchar converted a Hindi film hit Hum Aapke Hain Koun..! into a hit musical "Fourteen Songs" which was well received by the British audience. Film-maker Baz Luhrmann acknowledged the influence of Hindi cinema on his production Moulin Rouge by the inclusion of a number "Hindi Sad Diamonds" based on the filmi song "Chamma Chamma" which was composed by Anu Malik.[49] In Greece the genre of indoprepi sprang from Hindi film music while in Indonesia dangdut singers like Ellya Khadam, Rhoma Irama and Mansyur S., have reworked Hindi songs for Indonesian audiences.[50] In France, the band Les Rita Mitsouko used Bollywood influences in their music video for "Le petit train" and French singer Pascal of Bollywood popularised filmi music by covering songs such as "Zindagi Ek Safar Hai Suhana".[51] In Nigeria bandiri music—a combination of Sufi lyrics and Bollywood-style music—has become popular among Hausa youth.[52] Hindi film music has also been combined with local styles in the Caribbean to form "chutney music".[53]

Best-selling music directors[edit]

Rank Music director(s) Name(s) Sales Years Ref
1 A. R. Rahman Allah-Rakka Rahman 200,000,000 1992–2008 [54]
2 Nadeem–Shravan Nadeem Akhtar Saifi & Shravan Kumar 113,100,000 1990–2005 [a]
3 Anu Malik Anwar Malik 103,100,000 1993–2006 [b]
4 Jatin–Lalit Jatin Pandit & Lalit Pandit 62,800,000 1992–2006 [c]
5 Uttam Singh Uttam Singh 42,500,000 1989–2003 [d]
6 Raamlaxman Vijay Patil 28,100,000 1989–1999 [e]
7 Rajesh Roshan Rajesh Roshan Lal Nagrath 27,500,000 1990–2006 [f]
8 Laxmikant–Pyarelal Laxmikant Kudalkar & Pyarelal Sharma 21,100,000 1973–1995 [g]
9 Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan 19,650,000 1996–2007 [h]
10 Nikhil-Vinay Nikhil Kamath & Vinay Tiwar 13,600,000 1995–2002 [i]

Best-selling soundtrack albums[edit]

Top ten[edit]

Rank Year Soundtrack Music director(s) Sales Ref
1 1990 Aashiqui Nadeem–Shravan 20,000,000 [55][56]
1995 Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge Jatin–Lalit 20,000,000 [57][58]
3 1995 Bombay A. R. Rahman 15,000,000 [59]
4 1997 Dil Toh Pagal Hai Uttam Singh 12,500,000 [60]
5 1994 Hum Aapke Hain Kaun Raamlaxman 12,000,000 [61]
6 1996 Raja Hindustani Nadeem–Shravan 11,000,000 [60]
7 1989 Maine Pyar Kiya Raamlaxman 10,000,000 [62]
1991 Saajan Nadeem–Shravan 10,000,000 [63]
1993 Baazigar Anu Malik 10,000,000 [56]
Khalnayak Laxmikant–Pyarelal 10,000,000
1995 Bewafa Sanam Nikhil-Vinay 10,000,000 [64]
Rangeela A. R. Rahman 10,000,000 [64]
1999 Kaho Naa Pyaar Hai Rajesh Roshan 10,000,000 [65]

By decade[edit]

Decade Soundtrack Sales Ref
1950s Awaara (1951) N/A [66]
1960s Sangam (1964) N/A [67]
1970s Bobby (1973) 1,000,000 [68][69][70]
Sholay (1975) 1,000,000 [69][70]
1980s Maine Pyar Kiya (1989) 10,000,000 [62][71]
1990s Aashiqui (1990) 20,000,000 [55]
Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge (1995) 20,000,000 [57]
2000s Mohabbatein (2000) 5,500,000 [72]
2010s Komaram Puli (2010) 760,000 [73]

By year[edit]

Year Soundtrack Sales Ref
1960 Mughal-e-Azam N/A [67]
1961 Junglee
1962 Bees Saal Baad
1963 Mere Mehboob
1964 Sangam
1965 Jab Jab Phool Khile
1966 Teesri Manzil
1967 Upkar
1969 Aradhana
1970 Johny Mera Naam N/A [68]
1971 Haathi Mere Saathi
1972 Pakeezah
1973 Bobby 1,000,000 [68][69][70]
1974 Pakeezah N/A [68]
1975 Sholay 1,000,000 [69][70]
1976 Laila Majnu N/A [68]
1977 Hum Kisise Kum Nahin
1978 Muqaddar Ka Sikander
1979 Sargam
1980 Qurbani 1,000,000 [70]
1981 Ek Duje Ke Liye N/A [71]
1982 Disco Dancer 1,000,000 [74][70]
1983 Hero N/A [71]
1984 Pyar Jhukta Nahin
1985 Ram Teri Ganga Maili 1,000,000 [75]
1986 Bhagwaan Dada 1,000,000 [76]
1987 Premaloka 3,800,000 [77]
1988 Qayamat Se Qayamat Tak 8,000,000 [71][78]
Tezaab 8,000,000 [78]
1989 Maine Pyar Kiya 10,000,000 [62][71]
1990 Aashiqui 20,000,000 [55]
1991 Saajan 10,000,000 [63]
1992 Deewana 7,500,000 [56]
1993 Baazigar 10,000,000 [56]
Khalnayak 10,000,000
1994 Hum Aapke Hain Kaun 12,000,000 [61]
1995 Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge 20,000,000 [57][58]
1996 Raja Hindustani 11,000,000 [60]
1997 Dil Toh Pagal Hai 12,500,000
1998 Kuch Kuch Hota Hai 8,000,000
1999 Kaho Naa Pyaar Hai 10,000,000 [65]
2000 Mohabbatein 5,500,000 [72]
2001 Kabhi Khushi Kabhie Gham 4,800,000 [79]
2002 Humraaz 2,200,000 [80]
2003 Tere Naam 3,000,000
2004 Veer-Zaara 3,000,000
2005 Aashiq Banaya Aapne 2,000,000
2006 Kabhi Alvida Naa Kehna 2,000,000
2007 Om Shanti Om 1,900,000
2008 Slumdog Millionaire 2,000,000 [81]
Ghajini 1,900,000 [80]
2010 Komaram Puli 760,000 [73]

Most-streamed albums on YouTube[edit]

Rank Year Soundtrack Composer(s) Lyricist(s) YouTube streams (millions) Ref
1 2017 Tiger Zinda Hai Vishal–Shekhar Irshad Kamil 1,400 [82]
2 2017 Badrinath Ki Dulhania Amaal Mallik, Tanishk Bagchi, Akhil Sachdeva Shabbir Ahmed, Kumaar, Akhil Sachdeva 1,300 [83]
3 2016 Ae Dil Hai Mushkil Pritam, Sohail Rana Amitabh Bhattacharya, Fayyaz Hashmi 1,100 [84]
4 2016 Baar Baar Dekho Amaal Mallik, Arko, Badshah, Jasleen Royal, Bilal Saeed Bilal Saeed, Kumaar 850 [85]
5 2017 Raees Ram Sampath, Kalyanji–Anandji, JAM8 Javed Akhtar, Indeevar, Amitabh Bhattacharya 830 [86]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Gopal, Sangita; Moorti, Sujata (16 June 2008). Global Bollywood: travels of Hindi song and dance. U of Minnesota Press. pp. 1–6. ISBN 978-0-8166-4579-4. Retrieved 22 January 2012.
  2. ^ Gokulsing, K. Moti (4 February 2009). Popular culture in a globalised India. Taylor & Francis. p. 130. ISBN 978-0-415-47666-9. Retrieved 22 January 2012.
  3. ^ "free hindi songs download".
  4. ^ "Decoding the Bollywood poster". National Science and Media Museum. 28 February 2013.
  5. ^ Dwyer, Rachel (2006). Filming the Gods: Religion and Indian Cinema. Routledge. p. 106. ISBN 9781134380701.
  6. ^ Malvania, Urvi (21 April 2014). "Sony Music eyes numero uno position in India". Business Standard.
  7. ^ "Spotify's plan to beat Apple: sign the rest of the world". Financial Times. 3 January 2019.
  8. ^ a b c Morcom, Anna (30 November 2007). "The cinematic study of Hindi film songs". Hindi film songs and the cinema. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. 1–24. ISBN 978-0-7546-5198-7. Retrieved 22 January 2012.
  9. ^ As quoted in Gopal & Moorti (2008), pg 14.
  10. ^ a b Mehta, Rini Bhattacharya; Pandharipande, Rajeshwari (15 January 2010). Bollywood and Globalization: Indian Popular Cinema, Nation, and Diaspora. Anthem Press. p. 36. ISBN 978-1-84331-833-0. Retrieved 22 January 2012.
  11. ^ Morcom, Anna (2007) Hindi Film Songs and the Cinema. Aldershot: Ashgate.
  12. ^ Carlo Nardi (July 2011). "The Cultural Economy of Sound: Reinventing Technology in Indian Popular Cinema". Journal on the Art of Record Production, Issue 5 ISSN 1754-9892.
  13. ^ "Here Are The 12 Most Expensive Songs Ever Made In Bollywood". UC News. 19 May 2018.
  14. ^ "Get ready to party all night with Akshay Kumar & Sonakshi Sinha". India Today. Retrieved 7 September 2013.
  15. ^ Warsi, Shakil (2009). Mughal-E-Azam. Rupa & Company. p. 57. ISBN 978-81-291-1321-4.
  16. ^ "Official exchange rate (LCU per US$, period average)". World Bank. 1960. Retrieved 13 December 2018.
  17. ^ "Planet Bollywood". Toronto Star. 14 October 2012.
  18. ^ a b c d Geeta Dayal (6 April 2010). "Further thoughts on '10 Ragas to a Disco Beat'". The Original Soundtrack. Retrieved 3 June 2011.
  19. ^ Geeta Dayal (29 August 2010). "'Studio 84′: Digging into the History of Disco in India". The Original Soundtrack. Retrieved 3 June 2011.
  20. ^ "12 x 12: The 12 best Bollywood disco records". The Vinyl Factory. 28 February 2014.
  21. ^ James Ellis. "Biddu". Metro. Retrieved 2011-04-17.
  22. ^ The Listener, Volumes 100–101. The Listener. BBC. 1978. p. 216. Retrieved 21 June 2011. Tony Palmer knocked off a film account of someone called Biddu (LWT), who appears to have been mad enough to invent disco music.
  23. ^ Shapiro, Peter (2006). Turn the Beat Around: The Secret History of Disco. Macmillan Publishers. p. 55. ISBN 0-86547-952-6. Retrieved 7 June 2011.
  24. ^ a b c d e Kenneth Lobo, EDM Nation: How India Stopped Worrying About the Riff and Fell in Love With the Beat, Rolling Stone
  25. ^ Biddu Orchestra – Bionic Boogie at Discogs
  26. ^ Biddu Orchestra – Soul Coaxing at Discogs
  27. ^ "Futuristic Journey And Eastern Man CD". CD Universe. Retrieved 7 July 2011.
  28. ^ Biddu Orchestra – Futuristic Journey at Discogs (list of releases)
  29. ^ Futuristic Journey and Eastern Man at AllMusic
  30. ^ Captain Zorro – Phantasm Theme at Discogs
  31. ^ a b Disco Goes to Bollywood: A Rough Guide, Pitchfork
  32. ^ William Rauscher (12 May 2010). "Charanjit Singh – Synthesizing: Ten Ragas to a Disco Beat". Resident Advisor. Retrieved 3 June 2011.
  33. ^ Stuart Aitken (10 May 2011). "Charanjit Singh on how he invented acid house ... by mistake". The Guardian.
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Sources[edit]

  • The Indian Diaspora: Dynamics of Migration edited by Narayana Jayaram, p. 164 (Trinidad)
  • Echoes from Dharamsala: Music in the Life of a Tibetan Refugee Community by Keila Diehl (Tibetan refugees)
  • Music of Hindu Trinidad: Songs from the India Diaspora by Helen Myers
  • Cassette Culture: Popular Music and Technology in North India by Peter Manuel
  • World Music Volume 2 Latin and North America Caribbean India Asia and: Latin and North America,...by Simon Broughton, Mark Ellingham (History)
  • Pandits in the Movies: Contesting the Identity of Hindustani Classical Music and Musicians in the Hindi Popular Cinema by Greg Booth
  • Religion, gossip, narrative conventions and the construction of meaning in Hindi film songs by Greg Booth
  • Behind the curtain: making music in Mumbai's film studios by Greg Booth
  • Early Indian Talkies: Voice, Performance and Aura: by Madhuja Mukherjee
  • The Cultural Economy of Sound: Reinventing Technology in Indian Popular Cinema by Carlo Nardi
  • Hindi film songs and the cinema by Anna Morcom
  • Film songs and the cultural synergies of Bollywood in and beyond South Asia by Anna Morcom

Dhunon ki Yatra-Hindi Filmon ke Sangeetkar 1931–2005 by Pankaj Rag