Music of Georgia (U.S. state)
|Music of the United States|
Georgia's musical history is diverse and substantial; the state's musicians include Southern rap groups such as Outkast and Goodie Mob, as well as a wide variety of rock, pop, blues, and country artists such as Ray Charles, Otis Redding, James Brown, and The Allman Brothers Band. The music of Athens, Georgia is especially well known for a kind of quirky college rock that has included such well-known bands as R.E.M., The B-52's, and Pylon.
The state's official music museum is the Georgia Music Hall of Fame, located in Macon, Georgia from 1996 until it closed in 2011. Colleges such as the University of Georgia and Columbus State University have extensive music departments.
African American folk music
The "ring shout" is an African American musical and dance tradition that is among the oldest surviving African American performance styles in North America. The ring shout tradition is rare in the modern Southern United States, but it still found in McIntosh County, Georgia, where black communities have kept the style alive. The McIntosh County ring shout is a counterclockwise ring dance featuring clapping and stick-beating percussion with call-and-response vocals. The ring shout tradition is strongest in Boldon, Georgia (also known as Briar Patch), where it is traditionally performed on New Year's Eve.
The Georgia Sea Island Singers are an important group in modern African American folk music in Georgia. They perform worldwide the Gullah/Geechee music of the Georgia coast and Sea Islands, and have been touring since the early 1900s; the folklorist and musicologist Alan Lomax discovered the Singers on a 1959-60 collecting trip and helped to bring their music to new audiences. The Georgia Sea Island Singers have included Bessie Jones, Emma Ramsey, John Davis, Mayble Hillery, and Peter Davis.
Fife and drum blues has been documented in west central Georgia.
The Sacred Harp, first published in 1844, was compiled and produced by Georgians Benjamin Franklin White and Elisha J. King. They helped establish a singing tradition also known as Sacred Harp, fasola, or shape note singing. The Sacred Harp system use notes represented by different shapes according to scale degree, intended to make it easy for people to learn to sight-read music and perform complex pieces without a lot of training. Established in 1933, the Sacred Harp Publishing Company, located in Carrollton, Georgia, publishes the most widely used 1991 edition of The Sacred Harp. Hugh McGraw of Bremen, Georgia, served as the company's executive secretary from 1958–2002 and helped encourage Sacred Harp's recent resurgence in popularity. A Georgia-based music label, Bibletone Records, has reissued a 28-cut CD of Sacred Harp music originally released as LPs by the publishing company.
American folk music revival
On June 14, 1923, the country music recording industry was launched in Atlanta when Fiddlin' John Carson made his first phonograph record for Okeh Records Company representative Polk C. Brockman. Carson's recordings of "The Little Old Log Cabin in the Lane" and "The Old Hen Cackled and the Rooster's Going to Crow" sold over 500,0000 copies and opened the eyes of record company executives to the market for "old-time" country music. Along with Carson, Gid Tanner and His Skillet Lickers and Georgia Yellow Hammers made Atlanta and North Georgia an early center of old-time string band music.
In the 1960s, guitarist Chet Atkins, born in Luttrell, Tennessee but raised in Hamilton, Georgia, drew on jazz and pop music to help create the smoother country music style known as the Nashville Sound, expanding country music's appeal to adult pop fans. Country music superstars Alan Jackson, Trisha Yearwood, and Travis Tritt are natives of Georgia. Other successful country music acts from Georgia include Norman Blake, Jerry Reed, Brenda Lee (who had a #1 Hot 100 hit with "I'm Sorry" in 1960), Billy Currington, Cyndi Thomson, Jennifer Nettles of Sugarland, Daryle Singletary, Doug Stone, John Berry, Rhett Akins, Mark Wills, the Zac Brown Band, and Lady Antebellum, as well as up and coming stars Jason Aldean, Daniel Antopolsky, Brantley Gilbert, Luke Bryan, Thomas Rhett, Kip Moore, Lauren Alaina, and Jessie James. Other notable country musicians from Georgia include Corey Smith and Tabby Crabb from Sumter Co., who worked with the original Urban Cowboy Band, Hank Cochran, Keith Urban, and many others in Nashville. Georgia country music superstars with a #1 album on the Billboard 200 chart include Atlanta area musicians Alan Jackson with 3 #1 albums and Zac Brown Band with 3; Jason Aldean with 2, Luke Bryan (from south Georgia) with 2, and Sugarland with 2 #1 albums.
Ma Rainey, from Columbus, was among the earliest professional blues singers and one of the first generation of such singers to record. Piedmont blues artist Blind Willie McTell was born in Thomson. Country blues singer and guitarist Peg Leg Howell was born in Eatonton. Singer Ida Cox was from Toccoa. Singer and guitarist Kokomo Arnold was born in Lovejoy's Station. Singer Lucille Hegamin was born in Macon. Singer Trixie Smith was born in Atlanta. Blues pianists from Georgia include Thomas A. Dorsey, born in Villa Rica, Big Maceo Merriweather, born in Atlanta, and Piano Red, born near Hampton. Barbeque Bob was from Walnut Grove. Singer and guitarist Curley Weaver was born in Covington. Charley Lincoln was born in Lithonia. Harmonicist Eddie Mapp was born in Social Circle. Harmonicist Sonny Terry was born in Greesboro. Buddy Moss was born in Jewell. Singer and guitarist Blind Simmie Dooley was born in Hartwell. Songwriter and one-man band Jesse Fuller was born in Jonesboro. Bumble Bee Slim was born in Brunswick. Country blues artist Precious Bryant was born in Talbot County. Jump blues singer and musician Billy Wright was born in Atlanta. Singer and guitarist Robert Cray was born in Columbus.
Big band swing bandleader and pianist Fletcher Henderson and his younger brother arranger Horace Henderson were born in Cuthbert. Stride pianist and composer Mary Lou Williams, avant-garde jazz alto saxophonist Marion Brown, and singer Jean Carne were born in Atlanta. Big band bandleader and trumpet player Harry James was born in Albany. Bebop saxophonist James Moody, hard bop saxophonist Sahib Shihab, and singer Irene Reid were born in Savannah. Trombonist J.C. Higginbotham was born in Social Circle. Tenor saxophonist and arranger Teddy McRae was born in Waycross. George Adams was born in Covington. Singer Joe Williams was born in Cordele.
Rhythm and blues
Augusta native James Brown and Macon native Little Richard started performing in Georgia clubs on the Chitlin' Circuit, fused gospel with blues and boogie-woogie to lay the foundations for rock & roll and soul music, and rank among the most iconic musicians of the 20th century. Soul pioneers Curtis Mayfield and Ray Charles were also born in Georgia; Charles helped to invent the soul genre by borrowing elements of rhythm and blues, country, jazz, gospel, and blues, while Mayfield wrote and produced the popular Blaxploitation soundtrack Super Fly and recorded a number of seminal Civil Rights anthems with the Impressions. Ray Charles (d. 2004) had 3 #1 hits on the Billboard Hot 100, including "Georgia on My Mind" in 1960 (which is the official state song of Georgia). Ray Charles won another Grammy for Album of the Year for his 2004 Genius Loves Company. Atlanta native Chuck Willis was a blues, R&B, and rock and roll singer and songwriter active from 1950-58. In the 1960s, Atlanta native Gladys Knight proved one of the most popular Motown recording artists, while Otis Redding, born in the small town of Dawson but raised in Macon, defined the grittier Southern soul sound of Memphis-based Stax Records. Gladys Knight had a #1 hit on the Billboard Hot 100 with "Midnight Train to Georgia" in 1973. Otis Redding (d. 1967) had a #1 hit on the Hot 100 with "(Sittin' on) the Dock of the Bay" in 1968.
The earliest Atlanta-based music maven, Bill Lowery, started the careers of Ray Stevens, Joe South, Jerry Reed, and countless others, and created the first Georgia-based springboard for such talent, National Recording Corporation, sporting not only a record label, but a recording studio and pressing plant. Lowery would later work with the likes of Billy Joe Royal, Mac Davis, Dennis Yost & The Classics IV, and The Atlanta Rhythm Section, giving Atlanta national relevance with his Lowery Music group of publishing companies, one of the world's biggest music publishers. Noted session and touring drummer, Michael Huey, started his career at Bill Lowery studios.
The Allman Brothers Band, founded in Jacksonville, Florida, moved to Macon at the urging of their manager, Phil Walden, who had previously managed Otis Redding. The Allman Brothers had a #2 hit on the Billboard Hot 100 with "Ramblin' Man" in 1973. Walden's Macon-based Capricorn Records, spearheaded the rise of Southern rock, and the success of the Allman Brothers paved the way for other Southern rock bands, including Atlanta Rhythm Section, South Carolina-based Marshall Tucker Band and Lynyrd Skynyrd, also founded in Jacksonville. Georgia has also produced a number of Southern rock groups throughout the last three decades, including the Black Crowes (who had a #1 album on the Billboard 200 in 1992), The Georgia Satellites, Blackberry Smoke, Confederate Railroad, and Drivin' 'N' Cryin'.
The city of Athens, Georgia, home to the University of Georgia, has been a fertile field for alternative rock bands since the late 1970s. Notable bands from Athens include R.E.M., The B-52's, Widespread Panic, Drive-By Truckers, Cartel, Of Montreal, and Dead Confederate. Athens is also home to the Elephant 6 Recording Company, an indie collective whose members include The Apples in Stereo and Neutral Milk Hotel. R.E.M. had 2 #1 albums on the Billboard 200, including Out of Time in 1991.
Acoustic rock/folk duo the Indigo Girls got their start in Decatur, and alternative rock bands Collective Soul and September Hase began in Stockbridge and Tifton, respectively. Rock pianist Elton John spends some time living in Atlanta, and singer-songwriter John Mayer has lived in Atlanta since dropping out of the Berklee School of Music in 1998.
Georgia has contributed to the ska scene with the bands Treephort, 50:50 Shot, and The Taj Motel Trio. Ska punk has seen a recent revival in Georgia with the regional ska festival, the Mass Ska Raid, taking place for the first time in 2008.
Along with Louisiana and the rest of the Southern area, there is a strong heavy metal music scene in Georgia, with bands such as Mastodon, Baroness, Collective Soul, Royal Thunder, Black Tusk, Kylesa, Withered, and Sevendust. Thrash metal band Tetrarch are from Atlanta.
Cat Power (Chan Marshall) was born in Atlanta and got her start there.
Atlanta-based OutKast proved one of the first commercially successful hip hop groups from outside of New York or Los Angeles. In the 1990s and 2000s, Atlanta became the leading center of urban music. Artists like Lloyd, T.I., TLC, Monica, Usher, 112, Ludacris, YoungBloodZ, OutKast, Goodie Mob (as well as the Dungeon Family music collective which both are members of) and producers like Organized Noize, L.A. Reid, and Jermaine Dupri, the latter of whom founded the successful record labels LaFace and SoSo Def, have blurred musical boundaries by blending R&B singing with Hip-Hop production. More recently, Atlanta is also known as a center of crunk music, an electric bass-driven club music whose most visible practitioner has been Atlanta-based producer/hype man/rapper Lil Jon.
Kris Kross- ("Jump"), TLC 4 #1s- ("Waterfalls"), Silk (group)- ("Freak Me"), Monica 3 #1s (like "Angel of Mine"), Usher (9 #1s), Outkast 3 #1s, Ludacris 5 #1s- ("Stand Up"), Ciara- ("Goodies"), D4L- ("Laffy Taffy"), T.I. "The King of the South" 3 #1s- ("Whatever You Like"), Soulja Boy- ("Crank That (Soulja Boy)"), and B.o.B.- ("Nothin' on You") all had at least one #1 single on the Billboard Hot 100 from the early 90s to 2010. Also, rappers Lil Jon and Young Jeezy were featured on Usher's #1 Hot 100 singles: "Yeah!" in 2004 and "Love in this Club" in 2008. The R&B group 112 were featured on Puff Daddy's #1 Hot 100 song "I'll Be Missing You" in 1997. Rapper Yung Joc was featured on T-Pain's #1 Hot 100 song "Buy U a Drank". R&B singer Sleepy Brown from Savannah was featured on Outkast's #1 Hot 100 song "The Way You Move" in 2004. In addition, Atlanta rapper 2 Chainz had a #1 album on the Billboard 200 in 2012: Based on a T.R.U. Story. And ATL rapper Future has had 3 #1 albums on the Billboard 200 including the trap music album DS2 in 2015.
Modernist composer Wallingford Riegger was born in Albany. Singer/composer Roland Hayes was born in Curryville. Opera singer Mattiwilda Dobbs was born in Atlanta. Opera singer Jessye Norman is native to Augusta. Opera singer Jamie Barton is from Rome, GA.  Composer/arranger Hall Johnson was born in Athens. Composer Lena McLin was born in Atlanta. Famous music director Robert Shaw spent much of his time living in Atlanta directing the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra and Chorus.
Notable Georgian classical groups include the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra, the Atlanta Chamber Players, the Atlanta Symphony Chorus, Atlanta Opera, the Georgia Boy Choir, the Atlanta Boy Choir, Georgia Symphony Orchestra, New Trinity Baroque, the Atlanta Symphony Youth Orchestra, Atlanta Ballet, and the Gwinnett Ballet Theatre, as well as symphonies in the cities of Columbus, Macon, Augusta, and Savannah.
The Great American Songbook
Lyricist Johnny Mercer, whose works include the Academy Award-winning song "On the Atchison, Topeka and the Santa Fe" and other entries in the Great American Songbook of pop music standards, is a native of Savannah and buried there.
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- "McIntosh County Shouters". New Georgia Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2 December 2005.
- "Georgia Sea Island Singers". New Georgia Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2 December 2005.
- The McIntosh County Shouters The group
- "Fiddlin' John Carson". New Georgia Encyclopedia. Retrieved 25 May 2009.
- New Georgia Encyclopedia: McIntosh County Shouters
- New Georgia Encyclopedia: Georgia Sea Island Singers
- "Geechee and Gullah Culture | New Georgia Encyclopedia". Georgiaencyclopedia.org. Retrieved 2015-10-26.
- New Georgia Encyclopedia: The Sacred Harp
- Buell Cobb, The Sacred Harp: A Tradition and Its Music (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1989), 7.
- "About the Company | The Sacred Harp Publishing Company". Originalsacredharp.com. 2015-05-28. Retrieved 2015-10-26.
- John Bealle, Public Worship, Private Faith: Sacred Harp and American Folksong (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1997), 194–196.
- Bealle, Public Worship, Private Faith, 278.
- "Blues Music: Overview | New Georgia Encyclopedia". Georgiaencyclopedia.org. Retrieved 2015-10-26.
- "Swing Music: Overview | New Georgia Encyclopedia". Georgiaencyclopedia.org. Retrieved 2015-10-26.
- "James Moody (1925-2010) | New Georgia Encyclopedia". Georgiaencyclopedia.org. 2013-11-15. Retrieved 2015-10-26.
- "Joe Williams (1918-1999) | New Georgia Encyclopedia". Georgiaencyclopedia.org. 2013-11-15. Retrieved 2015-10-26.
- "Wallingford Riegger (1885-1961) | New Georgia Encyclopedia". Georgiaencyclopedia.org. 2013-11-14. Retrieved 2015-10-26.
- "Roland Hayes (1887-1977) | New Georgia Encyclopedia". Georgiaencyclopedia.org. 2013-11-14. Retrieved 2015-10-26.
- "Mattiwilda Dobbs (b. 1925) | New Georgia Encyclopedia". Georgiaencyclopedia.org. 2013-11-14. Retrieved 2015-10-26.
- "Georgia's Jamie Barton Awarded Prestigious Opera Prize". WABE. 2015-04-28. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- "Hall Johnson (1888-1970) | New Georgia Encyclopedia". Georgiaencyclopedia.org. 2013-11-14. Retrieved 2015-10-26.