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Music visualization or music visualisation, a feature found in electronic music visualizers and media player software, generates animated imagery based on a piece of music. The imagery is usually generated and rendered in real time and in a way synchronized with the music as it is played.
Visualization techniques range from simple ones (e.g., a simulation of an oscilloscope display) to elaborate ones, which often include a plurality of composited effects. The changes in the music's loudness and frequency spectrum are among the properties used as input to the visualization.
Effective music visualization aims to attain a high degree of visual correlation between a musical track's spectral characteristics such as frequency and amplitude and the objects or components of the visual image being rendered and displayed.
"Music visualization" can be defined, in contrast to previous existing pre-generated music plus visualization combinations (as for example music videos), by its characteristic as being real-time generated. Another possible distinction is seen by some in the ability of some music visualization systems (such as Geiss' MilkDrop) to create different visualizations for each song or audio every time the program is run, in contrast to other forms of music visualization (such as music videos or a laser lighting display) which always show the same visualization. Music visualization may be achieved in a 2D or a 3D coordinate system where up to 6 dimensions can be modified, the 4th, 5th and 6th dimensions being color, intensity and transparency.
The first electronic music visualizer was the Atari Video Music introduced by Atari Inc. in 1976, and designed by the initiator of the home version of Pong, Robert Brown. The idea was to create a visual exploration that could be implemented into a Hi-Fi stereo system. It is described in US 4081829 . In Great Britain music visualization was first pioneered by Fred Judd.
Music and audio players were available on early home computers, Sound to Light Generator (1985, Infinite Software) used the ZX Spectrum's cassette player for example. The 1984 movie Electric Dreams prominently made use of one, although as a pre-generated effect, rather than calculated in real-time.
For PC/DOS one of the first modern music visualization programs was the open-source, multi-platform Cthugha in 1993. In the 1990s the emerging demo and tracker music scene pioneered the real-time technics for music visualization on the PC platform; resulting examples are Cubic player (1994), Inertia Player (1995) or in general their real-time generated Demos.
Subsequently, PC computer music visualization became widespread in the mid to late 1990s as applications such as Winamp (1997), Audion (1999), and SoundJam (2000). By 1999, there were several dozen freeware non-trivial music visualizers in distribution. In particular, MilkDrop (2001) and its predecessor "geiss-plugin" (1998) by Ryan Geiss, G-Force by Andy O'Meara, and AVS (2000) by Nullsoft became popular music visualizations. AVS is part of Winamp and has been recently open-sourced, and G-Force was licensed for use in iTunes and Windows Media Center and is presently the flagship product for Andy O'Meara's software startup company, SoundSpectrum.
Some of the more recent applications such as Luminant Music (2017), produce visualization in real time and render to a full-3D environment.
With the increasing popularity of virtual reality, several start ups have begun working on music visualization although reception has been mixed  with one informal poll finding that only 33% of respondents were interested in music visualization for VR.
List of electronic music visualizers
- Atari Video Music, designed by the initiator of the home version of Pong, Robert Brown, and introduced by Atari Inc. in 1976.
- Pixelmusic 3000, open source music visualizer on a microcontroller, made by Uncommon Projects in 2008.
List of music visualization software
- Psychedelia (1984, Jeff Minter), an early "light synthesizer", did not use audio input but was designed to create visualizations in accompaniment to music.
- Virtual Light Machine (1990, Jeff Minter) (Platform: Atari Jaguar)
- Cthugha (1993, Kevin "Zaph" Burfitt) (Platform: DOS)
- Advanced Visualization Studio (Justin Frankel) (Platform: Windows)
- G-Force (2000, Andy O'Meara, SoundSpectrum) (Platforms: Windows, OS X)
- WhiteCap (2007, Andy O'Meara, SoundSpectrum) (Platforms: Windows, OS X)
- Aeon (2010, Andy O'Meara, SoundSpectrum) (Platforms: Windows, OS X)
- MilkDrop (2001-2012, Ryan Geiss) reimplemented as projectM (Platforms: Windows, Linux, Android)
- MidiTrail (2010-2014, WADA Masashi) is an open source midi player that displays notes in three dimensional as well as showing pitch bends.
- Music Animation Machine (1985-2013, Stephen Malinowski) visualizes MIDI, rather than waveforms.
- Neon (2004, Jeff Minter and Ivan Zorzin) (Platform: Xbox 360)
- Visual Music Tone Painter (1992–2004, Stephen Nachmanovitch)
- Vsxu (2003-2014, Vovoid) (Platforms: Windows, Linux)
- Magic Music Visuals (2012-2017, Color & Music, LLC) (Platforms: Windows, OS X)
- Melody Composer Squared (2015-2016, Pavlo Karnaukhov) (Platforms: iOS)
- Synesthesia (2016-2017, Gravity Current) (Platform: OS X)
- Rasa Music Visualizer (2017, Rasa Vision LLC) (Platform: iOS)
List of media players supporting visualization
- AIMP (AIMP DevTeam) (Platform: Windows)
- Foobar2000 (Platform: Windows)
- MediaPortal (OpenSource, Team MediaPortal) (Platform: Windows)
- iTunes (2001, Apple) (Platforms: Mac OS X, Windows)
- Winamp (Nullsoft/Radionomy) (Platforms: Windows)
- Windows Media Player (Microsoft) (Platforms: Windows)
- MediaMonkey (Ventis Media Inc.) (Platform: Windows)
- Kodi (formerly XBMC) (Team XBMC) (Platform: Cross-Platform)
- MusicBee (Steven Mayall) (Platforms: Windows)
- K-Multimedia Player (Pandora.TV) (Platform: Windows)
- Amarok (Open Source, KDE) (Platform: Cross-platform)
- Totem (Open Source, Gnome) (Platform: Linux)
- Clementine (Open Source) (Platform: Cross-platform)
- Audacious Media Player (Audacious Team) (Platforms: POSIX) 
- VLC media player (VideoLAN Project) (Platforms: Cross-platform)
- Clavier à lumières
- Liquid light show
- Video art
- List of music software
- Augmented reality § Music
- "Sound to Light Generator". World of Spectrum. Retrieved 2009-02-20.
- OpenCubicPlayer by Cubic (Niklas Beisert, Felix Domke, Fabian Giesen, Tammo Hinrichs, Dirk Jagdmann) (1994-2001)
- Inertia Player 1.22 (1995, Stefan Danes, Ramon van Gorkom, et al. / Inertia Productions)
- Hartmann, Doreen (2010). Computer Demos and the Demoscene: Artistic Subcultural Innovation in Real-Time. (PDF). 16th International Symposium of Electronic Art.
- Boris Burger; Ondrej Paulovic; Milos Hasan (2002-03-21). "Realtime Visualization Methods in the Demoscene". CESCG-2002. Technische Universität Wien. Retrieved 2015-05-02.
- AVS on sourceforge.com
- "About iTunes" - iTunes 184.108.40.206 credits
- "Does anybody really want a virtual reality music visualizer?". The Verge. 28 December 2015.
- Pixelmusic 3000: Visual Nostalgia from the 70ies Era (2008-06-06). "Pixelmusic 3000: Visual Nostalgia from the 70ies Era | Digital Tools". Digitaltools.node3000.com. Retrieved 2016-03-30.
- "Uncommon Projects, LLC. » » Pixelmusic 3000". Uncommonprojects.com. Retrieved 2016-03-30.
- "MIDITrail". osdn.net. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
- Center for Computer Assisted Research in the Humanities (1992). Computing in musicology, Volume 8. ISBN 978-0-936943-06-0.
- SIGART (2000). "Intelligence, new visions of artificial intelligence in practice". 11. Association for Computing Machinery.
- "Synesthesia". synesthesia.live. Retrieved 6 February 2017.
- "Rasa Music Visualizer". rasa.vision. Retrieved 29 May 2017.
- "Audacious - Features". Retrieved 2010-08-28.
- "VLC playback Features". Retrieved 2010-08-28.