Musical Mutual Protective Union
|Affiliation||was Local 301 of the American Federation of Musicians from 1902–21|
|Office location||209 East 85th Street|
Manhattan, New York City
In 1885, the union was open to “all instrumental performers, who have been residents of the United States for the period of six months previous to application.” Foreign musicians were not allowed to play in orchestras unless they were in a union.
The union become Local 301 of the American Federation of Musicians in 1902. In 1904, it had 5,000 members, who were almost entirely German. In 1910, approximately 300 black musicians were members in the roughly 8,000-member union.
It was located at 209 East 85th Street in Manhattan, New York City, between Second Avenue and Third Avenue, in a building constructed in 1919. The building was later a theater and hall, a casino, and a waiters' union. The basement of the building now houses The Amsterdam Billiard Club. The original facade on 85th Street is still extant.
- Spitzer, John (2012). American Orchestras in the Nineteenth Century. University of Chicago Pres. Retrieved June 10, 2014.
- Toff, Nancy (2005). Monarch of the Flute: The Life of Georges Barrere. Oxford University Press. Retrieved June 10, 2014.
- Executive Committee of the Musical Protective Union (November 13, 1865). "The Musical Mutual Protective Union – Card to the Public". The New York Times. Retrieved June 10, 2014.
- Goldberg, Jacob (February 11, 2013). "Breaking the color line; Associated Musicians of Greater New York". Local802afm.org. Retrieved June 10, 2014.
- Gray, Christopher (June 6, 1999). "Streetscapes: Readers' Questions; Echoes of a Union Hall; Artificial Sunlight". The New York Times. Retrieved June 10, 2014.
- Koegel, John (2009). Music in German Immigrant Theater: New York City, 1840–1940. University Rochester Press. Retrieved June 10, 2014.
- Zinn, Howard; Frank, Dana & Kelley, Robin D. G. (2002). Three Strikes: Miners, Musicians, Salesgirls, and the Fighting Spirit of Labor's Last Century. Beacon Press. Retrieved June 10, 2014.
- Crafton, Donald (1999). The Talkies: American Cinema's Transition to Sound, 1926–1931. University of California Press. Retrieved June 10, 2014.
- Constitution and By-laws of the Musical Mutual Protective Union: Local 310, A. F. of M. Founded April 23, 1863; Organized and Adopted June 26, 1864. Amended and Revised, Musical Mutual Protective Union, Machauer & Schmetterling (1905)