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A musical saw, also called a singing saw, is a hand saw used as a musical instrument. Capable of continuous glissando (portamento), the sound creates an ethereal tone, very similar to the theremin. The musical saw is classified as a friction idiophone with direct friction (131.22) under the Hornbostel-Sachs system of musical instrument classification.
The saw is generally played seated with the handle squeezed between the legs, and the far end held with one hand. Some sawists play standing, either with the handle between the knees and the blade sticking out in front of them. The saw is usually played with the serrated edge, or "teeth", facing the body, though some players face them away. Some saw players file down the teeth for better sound. Many - especially professional - saw players use a handle at the tip of the saw for easier bending and higher virtuosity.
To sound a note, a sawist first bends the blade into an S-curve. The parts of the blade that are curved are damped from vibration, and do not sound. At the center of the S-curve a section of the blade remains relatively flat. This section, the "sweet spot", can vibrate across the width of the blade, producing a distinct pitch: the wider the section of blade, the lower the sound. Sound is usually created by drawing a bow across the back edge of the saw at the sweet spot, or sometimes by striking the sweet spot with a mallet. The sawist controls the pitch by adjusting the S-curve, making the sweet spot travel up the blade (toward a thinner width) for a higher pitch, or toward the handle for a lower pitch. Harmonics can be created by playing at varying distances on either side of the sweet spot. Sawists can add vibrato by shaking one of their legs or by wobbling the hand that holds the tip of the blade. Once a sound is produced, it will sustain for quite a while, and can be carried through several notes of a phrase.
On occasion the Musical Saw is called for in orchestral music, but orchestral percussionists are seldom also sawists. If a note outside of the saw's range is called for, an electric guitar with a slide can be substituted.
Sawists often use standard wood-cutting saws, although special musical saws are also made. As compared with wood-cutting saws, the blades of musical saws are generally wider, for range, and longer, for finer control. They do not have set or sharpened teeth, and may have grain running parallel to the back edge of the saw, rather than parallel to the teeth. Some musical saws are made with thinner metal, to increase flexibility, while others are made thicker, for a richer tone, longer sustain, and stronger harmonics. A typical musical saw is 5 inches wide at the handle end and 1 inch wide at the tip. Such a saw will generally produce about two octaves, regardless of length. A bass saw may be 6 inches at the handle and produce about two-and-a-half octaves. There are also musical saws with 3-4 octaves range. Two-person saws, also called "misery whips", can also be played, though with less virtuosity, and they produce an octave or less of range.
Most sawists use cello or violin bows, using violin rosin, but some may use improvised home-made bows, such as a wooden dowel.
Musical saws have been produced for over a century, primarily in the United States, but also in Scandinavia, Germany, France (Lame sonore) and Asia.
In the early 1900s, there were at least ten companies in the United States manufacturing musical saws. These saws ranged from the familiar steel variety to gold-plated masterpieces worth hundreds of dollars. However, with the start of World War II the demand for metals made the manufacture of saws too expensive and many of these companies went out of business. By the year 2000, only three companies in the United States — Mussehl & Westphal, Charlie Blacklock, and Wentworth — were making saws. In 2012, a company called Index Drums started producing a saw that had a built-in transducer in the handle, called the "JackSaw".
Outside the United States
Outside the United States, makers of musical saws include Bahco, makers of the limited edition Stradivarius, Alexis in France, Feldmann  and Stövesandt  in Germany, Music Blade in Greece and Thomas Flinn & Company in the United Kingdom, based in Sheffield, who produce three different sized musical saws, as well as accessories.
Events, championships and world records
The International Musical Saw Association (IMSA) produces an annual International Musical Saw Festival (including a "Saw-Off" competition every August in Santa Cruz and Felton, California. An International Musical Saw Festival is held every other summer in New York City, produced by Natalia Paruz. Paruz also produced a musical saw festival in Israel. There are also annual saw festivals in Japan and China.
This is a list of people notable for playing the musical saw.
- Natalia Paruz, also known as the "Saw Lady", plays the musical saw in movie soundtracks, in television commercials, with orchestras internationally, and is the organizer of international musical saw festivals in New York City and Israel. She was a judge at the musical saw festival in France and she played the saw in the off-Broadway show 'Sawbones'. The December 3rd 2011 crossword puzzle of the Washington Post had Paruz as a question: Down 5 - Instrument played by Natalia Paruz
- David Coulter, multi-instrumentalist, producer and music supervisor; ex-member of Test Dept and The Pogues, has played musical saw live, in films, on tv and stages around the world and on numerous albums with: Damon Albarn, Gorillaz, Tom Waits , Hal Willner, Richard Hawley, Jarvis Cocker, Marianne Faithfull, Tim Robbins, The Tiger Lillies, Yoko Ono, Laurie Anderson. He has played on many film scores, including Is Anybody There? (2008,) directed by John Crowley and starring Michael Caine, score composed by Joby Talbot; It's a Boy Girl Thing (2006), directed by Nick Hurran, score composed by Christian Henson and has featured on TV soundtrack and themes tunes, most recently for Psychoville, composed by Joby Talbot and episodes of Wallander, composed by Ruth Barrett. 
- Bonnie Paine, singer and multi-instrumentalist from Talequah, Oklahoma, co-founder of Colorado folk-rock group Elephant Revival has performed on the musical saw as a member of the band.
- Quinta (a.k.a. Kath Mann), London-based multi-instrumentalist and composer, has collaborated with many artists on the musical saw, including Bat for Lashes, Radiohead's Philip Selway, and The Paper Cinema.
- Kev Hopper, formerly the bass guitarist in the 1980s band Stump, made an album titled Saurus in 2003 featuring six original saw tunes.
- Charles Hindmarsh, known as The Yorkshire Musical Saw Player, has played the musical saw throughout the UK.
- Elly Deliou was regarded[by whom?] as one of the best soloists of the musical saw. Born in Alexandria, Egypt, in 1935, she learned to play the saw at the age of seven, with Polish-Austrian Anton Stein. She moved to Greece in 1956, and worked as a professional saw musician. She died in April 2012.
- Janeen Rae Heller played the saw in four television guest appearances: The Tracey Ullman Show (1989), Quantum Leap (1990), and Home Improvement (1992 and 1999). She has also performed on albums such as Michael Hedges' The Road to Return in 1994 and Rickie Lee Jones's Ghostyhead in 1997.
- Julian Koster of the band Neutral Milk Hotel played the singing saw, along with other instruments, in the band and currently[when?] plays the saw in his solo project, The Music Tapes. In 2008, he released The Singing Saw at Christmastime.
- Armand Quoidbach, is a Belgian saw player who has played the saw since 1997. In 1999 he played on the national Belgian TV (RTBF2) . In August 2000 he won the first prize at the contest for bands of the 25th "Plinn festival" in Bourbriac (Brittany) with the band "Le Bûcheron Mélomane et les Nains de la Forêt" (The Music-loving Lumberjack and the Dwarfs of the Forest). In 2002 he played on a CD Music Drama of the band "My Little Cheap Dictaphone" La Médiatheque de Belgique. He performed with numerous musicians in Belgium and in France.
- Thomas Jefferson Scribner was a familiar figure on the streets of Santa Cruz, California during the 1970s playing the musical saw. He performed on a variety of recordings and appeared in folk music festivals in the United States and Canada during the 1970s. His work as labour organizer and member of the Industrial Workers of the World is documented in the 1979 film The Wobblies. Canadian composer/saw player Robert Minden pays tribute to him on his Web site. Musician/songwriter, Utah Phillips has recorded a song referencing Scribner, "The Saw Playing Musician" on the album Fellow Workers with Ani DiFranco. Artist Marghe McMahon was inspired in 1978 to create a bronze statue of Tom playing the musical saw which sits in downtown Santa Cruz.
- Victor Victoria of the dark cabaret comedy duo EastEnd Cabaret plays the musical saw as part of their live show, amongst other instruments.
- Ali Luminescent plays the musical saw at festivals around the United States, concerts with Kai Altair and in Cynthia von Buhler's play, "Speakeasy Dollhouse", currently[when?] running for the last year and a half[when?] in New York City.
- Dwight Sojournier Hawkins plays saw in Blind Boy Chocolate and the Milk Sheiks, a ragtime/jug band based in North Carolina. He has also played the saw with the Crow Quill Night Owls, Hackensaw Boys, and Carolina Chocolate Drops.
- Mr. Liming Chen was born in a family deeply rooted in musical tradition in China. He learned cello at an early age and learned how to play the musical saw from his father. He became one of the most outstanding musical saw performers in the world and received the "0-1" award from the American Guild of Musical Artists. In addition, he was also the winner of the "Outstanding Talent" Award from the U.S.A. Association of Musicians. His first graduate students won the first four prizes in the teen division of the Musical Saw Contest in California, held in July 2011. Mr. Liming Chen is currently[when?] a Board Member of the Shanghai Association Musician's in from China and continues his legacy in the city of New York.
- Martin Gardner, author of a famous recreational mathematics column in Scientific American, was an accomplished player of the musical saw.
- Eric Nagler played the musical saw on The Elephant Show.
- Angelika Bachmann of Salut Salon performs the solo melody from Saint-Seans' "The Swan" on a musical saw in the ensemble's A Carnival of the Animals and other Fantasies. In the normal orchestration, the melody is play by a solo cello.
- Katharina Micada plays the musical saw on cabaret stages and with different Symphony Orchestras like Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra and London Philharmonic Orchestra. As she is a singer, she is one of the few players, who can sing and play the saw simultaneously and in pitch. She has played in TV- and Radio shows and for film and CD recordings.
- Liu Ya from China is a professional violinist and saw player and is famous for her interpretation of the "Bird song", which she performed in Chinese TV.
- Andy Heintz of steampunk band The Men That Will Not Be Blamed for Nothing often plays the musical saw.
The German actor and singer, who lived and worked in the USA for a long time is probably the most well known musical saw player until now. When Marlene Dietrich studied the violin for one year in Weimar in her early twenties, her musical skills were already evident. Some years later she learned to play the musical saw while she was shooting the film "Café Electric" in Vienna in 1927. Her colleague, the Bavarian actor and musician Igo Sym told her how to play. In the shooting breaks and at weekends both performed romantic duets, he at the piano and she at the musical saw. Sym gave his saw to her as a farewell gift. The following words are engraved on the saw: "Now Suidy is gone / the sun d’ont [sic!] / shine… / Igo / Vienna 1927"  She took the saw with her, when she left for Hollywood in 1929 and played there in the following years at film sets and Hollywood parties. When she participated at the United Service Organizations (USO) shows for the US troops in 1944, she also played on the saw. Some of these shows were broadcast on radio, so there exist two rare recordings of her saw playing, embedded in entertaining interviews. 1. Aloha Oe  2. other song 
- The Theme song of the movie One Flew Over The Cuckoo's Nest is played on a musical saw.
- Delicatessen is directed by Jean Pierre Jeunet and Marc Caro andincludes an impressing duet for violoncello and musical saw, which is performed on a roof. (1991)
- Dummy, directed by Greg Pritikin, starring Adrien Brody has an audition scene with a musical saw player (portrayed by Natalia Paruz) (2002)
- In 2002, an orchestra of 30 musical saws appeared in Nicholas de Mimsy-Porpington's five-hundredth Deathday Party in the Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets book.
- In the 2011 movie Another Earth the character of the composer plays the saw (on the soundtrack is Natalia Paruz).
- In the 2014 animated film My Little Pony: Equestria Girls - Rainbow Rocks, one of the film's background characters, Derpy Hooves, plays the musical saw in her band.
- In the 2014 stop-motion animated film The Boxtrolls, one of the main Boxtrolls who took care of Eggs, Fish, plays the musical saw with Eggs in their cave.
Composers and compositions
Beginning from the early 1920s composers of both contemporary and popular music wrote for the musical saw. Probably the first was Dmitri Shostakovich. He included the musical saw f.e. in the film music of The New Babylon (1929), in The Nose (opera) (1928) and in Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District (opera) (1934). Shostakovich and other composers of his time used the term "Flexaton" to mark the musical saw. "Flexaton" just means "to flex a tone" - the saw is flexed to change the pitch. Unfortunately, there exists another instrument called Flexatone, so there has been confusion for a long time. Aram Khachaturian, who knew Shostakovich's music included the musical saw in his Piano Concerto (Khachaturian) (1936) in the second movement. Another composer was the Swiss Arthur Honegger, who included the saw in his opera Antigone (Honegger) in 1924 . The Romanian composer George Enescu used the musical saw at the end of the second act of his opera Œdipe (opera) (1931) to show in an extensive Glissando - which begins with the Mezzo-soprano and is continued by the saw - the death and ascension of the sphinx killed by Oedipus. The Italian composer Giacinto Scelsi wrote a part for the saw in his quarter-tone piece "Quattro pezzi per orchestra" (1959). German composer Hans Werner Henze took the saw to characterize the mean hero of his tragical opera Elegy for young lovers (1961).
Other composers were Krysztof Penderecki with "Fluorescences" (1961), "De natura sonoris Nr.2" (1971) and the opera Ubu Rex (1990), Bernd Alois Zimmermann with "Stille und Umkehr" (1970), George Crumb with Ancient voices of children (1970), John Corigliano with The Mannheim Rocket (2001).
Chaya Czernowin used the saw in her opera "PNIMA...Ins Innere" (2000) to represent the character of the grandfather, who is traumatized by the Holocaust.
There are Further Leif Segerstam , Hans Zender (orchestration of "5 préludes" by Claude Debussy), Franz Schreker (opera "Christophorus") and Oscar Strasnoy (opera "Le bal").
Russian composer Lera Auerbach wrote for the saw in her ballet "The little mermaid" (2005), in her symphonic poem "Dreams and Whispers of Poseidon" (2005), in her oratorio "Requiem Dresden – Ode to Peace" (2012), in her piano concerto No.1 (2015) and in her comic oratorio "The Infant Minstrel and His Peculiar Menagerie" (2016).
Canadian composer Robert Minden has written extensively for the musical saw. Michael A. Levine composed Divination By Mirrors for musical saw soloist and two string ensembles tuned a quarter tone apart, taking advantage of the saws ability to play in both tunings.
Other composers for chamber music with musical saw are Jonathan Rutherford ("An intake of breath"), Dana Wilson ("Whispers from another time"), Heinrich Gattermeyer ("Elegie für Singende Säge, Cembalo (oder Klavier), Vito Zuraj ("Musica di camera (2001)")  and Britta-Maria Bernhard ("Tranquillo") 
Tom Waits used the musical saw in some of his songs. Also in his musical The Black Rider there is a part for musical saw. Perhaps the most prolific composer for the musical saw is Scott Munson, who wrote many contemporary pieces for musical saw, as well as music for theater plays, film, and television using the instrument.
- Karl Peinkofer and Fritz Tannigel, Handbook of Percussion Instruments, (Mainz, Germany: Schott, 1976), 75.
- "", SawLady - Musical Saw manufacturers.
- "Saw producer Mussehl & Westphal"
- "Saw Producer Blacklock"
- "Saw producer Wentworth"
- ""The JackSaw" amplified musical saw"
- "Sandvik Stradivarius Musical Saw", MusicalInstruments.com.
- Fabrication de Scie Musicale (French)
- Feldmanns Singende Säge
- Stövesandts Singende Säge
- "Musical Saws and Accessories", Thomas Flinn & Co..
- Article in Haaretz - Israeli news paper (Hebrew)
- "Guinness World Record", NYC Musical Saw Festival.
- "World Championship Musical saw".
- "list of films with Natalia Paruz on the musical saw"
- "The band "Bat for lashes" introduces it's band members including Kath Mann on the saw"
- "article about the tour of Phillip Selway with Kath Mann on the saw"
- "about the Musical saw player Francesca Simmons"
- Janeen Rae Heller at the Internet Movie Database.
- "Home Improvement: Stereo-Typical episode summary, TV.com.
- "1979", Vancouver Folk Music Festival.
- "Robert Minden Duo contact", LostSound.com.
- "Thomas Jefferson Scribner - Musician Statues", WayMarking.com.
- "Announcement of a show with East End cabaret at the Fringe Festival in Edinburgh"
- "Video clip with singing and playing the saw simultaneously and in pitch"
- "Musical saw player Katharina Micada"
- "Liu Ya (China) performing the Bird Song"
- Daniel Spoto: Marlene Dietrich. Heyne Verlag, München 1992, p.61
- "Marlene Dietrich and the musical saw"
- "Marlene Dietrich performing "Aloha oe" on the musical saw"
- "Marlene Dietrich performing a song on the musical saw"
- "article about the Flexaton and Shostakovich"
- "About "The infant minstrel..." by Lera Auerbach"
- see for example: "Serenade" from The Boy Who Wanted To Talk To Whales, "Epilogue" from Long Journey Home: "Catalogue: Otter Bay Productions", LostSound.com.
- "Dale, sawist", Violin-Saw.com. Full review at E. Haig (Oct 17, 2003). "Varied Program Highlights New Century Premier", NCCO.org.
- "Recording of and information about "An intake of breath""
- "Recording of Dana Wilson's "Whispers from another time""
- "about Heinrich Gattermeyer's "Elegie für Singende Säge, Cembalo (oder Klavier)""
- "about Vito Zuraj's "Musica di camera""
- "about Britta Maria Bernhard's "Tranquillo""
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