Islam in the United States
|Islam by country|
Islam is the third largest religion in the United States after Christianity and Judaism. According to a 2010 study, it is followed by 0.9% of the population, compared with 70.6% who follow Christianity, 22.8% unaffiliated, 1.9% Judaism, 0.7% Buddhism, and 0.7% Hinduism. According to a newer estimate done in 2016, there were 3.3 million Muslims living in the United States, about 1% of the total U.S. population.
American Muslims come from various backgrounds and, according to a 2009 Gallup poll, are one of the most racially diverse religious groups in the United States. Native-born American Muslims are mainly African Americans who make up about a quarter of the total Muslim population. Many of these have converted to Islam during the last seventy years. Conversion to Islam in large urban areas has also contributed to its growth over the years.
While an estimated 10 to 30 percent of the slaves brought to colonial America from Africa arrived as Muslims, Islam was stringently suppressed on plantations. Prior to the late 19th century, most documented non-enslaved Muslims in North America were merchants, travelers, and sailors.
From the 1880s to 1914, several thousand Muslims immigrated to the United States from the former territories of the Ottoman Empire and the former Mughal Empire. The Muslim population of the U.S. increased dramatically in the 20th century, with much of the growth driven by a comparatively high birth rate and immigrant communities of mainly Arab and South Asian descent. About 72% of American Muslims are immigrants or "second generation".
In 2005, more people from Muslim-majority countries became legal permanent United States residents—nearly 96,000—than there had been in any other year in the previous two decades. In 2009, more than 115,000 Muslims became legal residents of the United States.
- 1 History
- 2 Modern Muslims
- 3 Sub-groups
- 3.1 Ahmadiyya
- 3.2 Black Muslim movements
- 3.3 Shia Islam
- 3.4 Sufism
- 3.5 Quranic movement
- 3.6 Non-denominational Muslims
- 3.7 Other Muslims
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Culture
- 6 Politics
- 7 Integration
- 8 Organizations
- 9 Views
- 10 Controversy
- 11 See also
- 12 Notes
- 13 Primary sources
- 14 Further reading
- 15 External links
One of the earliest accounts of Islam's possible presence in North America dates to 1528, when a Moroccan slave, called Estevanico, was shipwrecked near present-day Galveston, Texas. He and four survivors subsequently traveled through much of the American southwest and the Mexican interior before reaching Mexico City.
"Muslims' presence [in the United States] is affirmed in documents dated more than a century before religious liberty became the law of the land, as in a Virginia statute of 1682 which referred to 'negroes, moores, molatoes, and others, born of and in heathenish, idollatrous, pagan, and Mahometan parentage and country' who 'heretofore and hereafter may be purchased, procured, or otherwise obteigned, as slaves.'"
An early Egyptian and possible Muslim immigrant is mentioned in the accounts of the Dutch settlers of the Catskill Mountains and recorded in the 1884 History of Greene County, New York. According to this tradition, an Egyptian named "Norsereddin" settled in the Catskills in the vicinity of the Catskill Mountain House. He befriended the local indigenous American chief, Shandaken, and sought the hand of his daughter Lotowana in marriage. Rejected, he poisoned Lotowana and in consequence was caught and burned alive.
American Revolution and thereafter
Records from the American Revolutionary War indicate that at least a few likely Muslims fought on the American side. Among the recorded names of American soldiers are "Yusuf ben Ali" (a member of the Turks of South Carolina community), "Bampett Muhamed" and possibly Peter Salem.
The first country to recognize the United States as an independent nation was the Sultanate of Morocco, under its ruler Mohammed ben Abdallah, in the year 1777. He maintained several correspondences with President George Washington.
Bilali (Ben Ali) Muhammad was a Fula Muslim from Timbo, Futa-Jallon, in present-day Guinea-Conakry, who arrived at Sapelo Island during 1803. While enslaved, he became the religious leader and Imam for a slave community numbering approximately eighty Muslim men residing on his plantation. During the War of 1812, Muhammad and the eighty Muslim men under his leadership protected their master's Sapelo Island property from a British attack. He is known to have fasted during the month of Ramadan, worn a fez and kaftan, and observed the Muslim feasts, in addition to consistently performing the five obligatory prayers. In 1829, Bilali authored a thirteen-page Arabic Risala on Islamic beliefs and the rules for ablution, morning prayer, and the calls to prayer. Known as the Bilali Document, it is currently housed at the University of Georgia in Athens.
Between 1785 and 1815, over a hundred American sailors were held for ransom in Algiers. Several wrote captivity narratives of their experiences that gave most Americans their first view of the Arab World and Muslim ways, and newspapers often commented on them. The views were generally negative. Royall Tyler wrote The Algerine Captive (1797), an early American novel depicting the life of an American doctor employed in the slave trade who himself is captured and enslaved by Barbary pirates. Finally Presidents Jefferson and Madison sent the American navy to confront the pirates, and ended the threat in 1815 during the First Barbary War. During negotiation of the treaty of peace which ended hostilities, American envoys made clear that the United States had no animosity towards any Muslim country.
On the morning of April 4, 1865, near the end of the American Civil War, Union troops commanded by Col. Thomas M. Johnston set ablaze the University of Alabama; a copy of the Quran known as the The Koran: Commonly Called The Alcoran Of Mohammed was saved by one of the University's staff.
Two hundred and ninety-two Muslims are known to have fought during the Civil War. The highest-ranking Muslim officer in the Union Army was Captain Moses Osman. Nicholas Said, formerly enslaved to an Arab master, came to the United States in 1860 and found a teaching job in Detroit. In 1863, Said enlisted in the 55th Massachusetts Colored Regiment in the United States Army and rose to the rank of sergeant. He was later granted a transfer to a military hospital, where he gained some knowledge of medicine. His Army records state that he died in Brownsville, Tennessee, in 1882. Another Muslim soldier from the Civil War was Max Hassan, an African who worked for the military as a porter.
A Muslim named Hajj Ali (commonly spelled as "Hi Jolly") was hired by the United States Cavalry in 1856 to tend camels in Arizona and California. He would later become a prospector in Arizona. Hajj Ali died in 1903.
During the American Civil war, the "scorched earth" policy of the North destroyed churches, farms, schools, libraries, colleges, and a great deal of other property. The libraries at the University of Alabama managed to save one book from the debris of their library buildings. On the morning of April 4, 1865, when Federal troops reached the campus with an order to destroy the university, Andre Deloffre, a modern language professor and custodian of the library, appealed to the commanding officer to spare one of the finest libraries in the South. The officer, being sympathetic, sent a courier to Gen. Croxton at his headquarters in Tuscaloosa asking permission to save the Rotunda, but the general refused to allow this. The officer reportedly said, "I will save one volume as a memento of this occasion." The volume selected was a rare copy of the Qur'an.
Alexander Russell Webb is considered by historians to be the earliest prominent Anglo-American convert to Islam in 1888. In 1893, he was the sole representative of Islam at the first Parliament of the World's Religions. The Russian-born Muslim scholar and writer Achmed Abdullah (1881–1945) was another prominent early American Muslim.
Some of the slaves brought to colonial America from Africa were Muslims whose ancestors were converted to Islam by Arab invaders when they conquered most of North Africa. Between 1701 and 1800, some 500,000 Africans arrived in what became the United States. Historians estimate that between 15 and 30 percent of all enslaved African men and less than 15 percent of the enslaved African women were Muslims. According to 21st century researchers Donna Meigs-Jaques and R. Kevin Jaques, "[t]hese enslaved Muslims stood out from their compatriots because of their resistance, determination and education."
It is estimated that over 50% of the slaves imported to North America came from areas where Islam was followed by at least a minority population. Thus, no less than 200,000 came from regions influenced by Islam. Substantial numbers originated from Senegambia, a region with an established community of Muslim inhabitants extending to the 11th century.
Through a series of conflicts, primarily with the Fulani jihad states, about half of the Senegambian Mandinka were converted to Islam, while as many as a third were sold into slavery to the Americas through capture in conflict.
Michael A. Gomez speculated that Muslim slaves may have accounted for "thousands, if not tens of thousands", but does not offer a precise estimate. He also suggests many non-Muslim slaves were acquainted with some tenets of Islam, due to Muslim trading and proselytizing activities. Historical records indicate many enslaved Muslims conversed in the Arabic language. Some even composed literature (such as autobiographies) and commentaries on the Quran.
Some newly arrived Muslim slaves assembled for communal salat (prayers). Some were provided a private praying area by their owner. The two best documented Muslim slaves were Ayuba Suleiman Diallo and Omar Ibn Said. Suleiman was brought to America in 1731 and returned to Africa in 1734. Like many Muslim slaves, he often encountered impediments when attempting to perform religious rituals and was eventually allotted a private location for prayer by his master.
Omar Ibn Said (c. 1770–1864) is among the best documented examples of a practicing-Muslim slave. He lived on a colonial North Carolina plantation and wrote many Arabic texts while enslaved. Born in the kingdom of Futa Tooro (modern Senegal), he arrived in America in 1807, one month before the U.S. abolished importation of slaves. Some of his works include the Lords Prayer, the Bismillah, this is How You Pray, Quranic phases, the 23rd Psalm, and an autobiography. In 1857, he produced his last known writing on Surah 110 of the Quran. In 1819, Omar received an Arabic translation of the Christian Bible from his master, James Owen. Omar converted to Christianity in 1820, an episode widely used throughout the South to "prove" the benevolence of slavery. However, some scholars believe he continued to be a practicing Muslim, based on dedications to Muhammad written in his Bible.
Ayuba Suleiman Diallo was the son of an Imam of Boonda in Africa, before being enslaved.
Omar Ibn Said was an Islamic scholar from Senegal.
Views of Islam in America affected debates regarding freedom of religion during the drafting of the state constitution of Pennsylvania in 1776. Constitutionalists promoted religious toleration while Anticonstitutionalists called for reliance on Protestant values in the formation of the state's republican government. The former group won out, and inserted a clause for religious liberty in the new state constitution. American views of Islam were influenced by favorable Enlightenment writings from Europe, as well as Europeans who had long warned that Islam was a threat to Christianity and republicanism.
In 1776, John Adams published "Thoughts on Government," in which he mentions the Islamic prophet Muhammad as a "sober inquirer after truth" alongside Confucius, Zoroaster, Socrates, and other thinkers.
In 1790, the South Carolina legislative body granted special legal status to a community of Moroccans.
In his autobiography, published in 1791, Benjamin Franklin stated that he "did not disapprove" of a meeting place in Pennsylvania that was designed to accommodate preachers of all religions. Franklin wrote that "even if the Mufti of Constantinople were to send a missionary to preach Mohammedanism to us, he would find a pulpit at his service." Franklin also wrote an anti-slavery parody that claimed to be translation of the response of a government official at Algiers to a 17th-century petition to banish slavery there; the parody develops the theme that Europeans are specially suited for enslavement on cultural and religious grounds, and that there would be practical problems with abolishing slavery in North Africa; this satirizes similar arguments that were then made about the enslavement of Blacks in North America.
Thomas Jefferson defended religious freedom in America including those of Muslims. Jefferson explicitly mentioned Muslims when writing about the movement for religious freedom in Virginia. In his autobiography Jefferson wrote "[When] the [Virginia] bill for establishing religious freedom... was finally passed,... a singular proposition proved that its protection of opinion was meant to be universal. Where the preamble declares that coercion is a departure from the plan of the holy author of our religion, an amendment was proposed, by inserting the word 'Jesus Christ,' so that it should read 'a departure from the plan of Jesus Christ, the holy author of our religion.' The insertion was rejected by a great majority, in proof that they meant to comprehend within the mantle of its protection the Jew and the Gentile, the Christian and Mahometan, the Hindoo and infidel of every denomination." While President, Jefferson also participated in an iftar with the Ambassador of Tunisia in 1809.
However, not all politicians were pleased with the religious neutrality of the Constitution, which prohibited any religious test. Anti-Federalists in the 1788 North Carolina ratifying convention opposed the new constitution; one reason was the fear that some day Catholics or Muslims might be elected president. William Lancaster said:.
- Let us remember that we form a government for millions not yet in existence.... In the course of four or five hundred years, I do not know how it will work. This is most certain, that Papists may occupy that chair, and Mahometans may take it. I see nothing against it.
In 1788, Americans held inaccurate and often contradicting views of the Muslim world, and used that in political arguments. For example, the anti-Federalists compared a strong central government to the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and the American army to Turkish Janissaries, arguing against a strong central government. On the other hand, Alexander Hamilton argued that despotism in the Middle East was the result of the Sultan not having enough power to protect his people from oppressive local governors; thus he argued for a stronger central government.
Small-scale migration to the U.S. by Muslims began in 1840, with the arrival of Yemenis and Turks, and lasted until World War I. Most of the immigrants, from Arab areas of the Ottoman Empire, came with the purpose of making money and returning to their homeland. However, the economic hardships of 19th-century America prevented them from prospering, and as a result the immigrants settled in the United States permanently. These immigrants settled primarily in Dearborn, Michigan; Quincy, Massachusetts; and Ross, North Dakota. Ross, North Dakota is the site of the first documented mosque and Muslim Cemetery, but it was abandoned and later torn down in the mid-1970s. A new mosque was built in its place in 2005.
- 1906: Bosniaks (Bosnian Muslims) in Chicago, Illinois, started the Džemijetul Hajrije (Jamaat al-Khayriyya) (The Benevolent Society; a social service organization devoted to Bosnian Muslims). This is the longest lasting incorporated Muslim community in the United States. They met in Bosnian coffeehouses and eventually opened the first Islamic Sunday School with curriculum and textbooks under Bosnian scholar Sheikh Ćamil Avdić (Kamil Avdich) (a graduate of al-Azhar and author of Survey of Islamic Doctrines).
- 1907: Lipka Tatar immigrants from the Podlasie region of Poland founded the first Muslim organization in New York City, the American Mohammedan Society.
- 1915: What is most likely the first American mosque was founded by Albanian Muslims in Biddeford, Maine. A Muslim cemetery still exists there.
- 1920: First Islamic mission station was established by Mufti Muhammad Sadiq, an Indian Ahmadi Muslim missionary, followed by the building of the Al-Sadiq Mosque in 1921.
- 1929: The Ross Masjid in North Dakota was founded by Syrian Muslims, there is still a cemetery nearby.
- 1934: The first building built specifically to be a mosque is established in Cedar Rapids, Iowa. The Mosque is where Abdullah Igram a notable Muslim veteran would teach the Quran, Abdullah Igram later wrote a letter to President Eisenhower persuading him to add the M option (for Muslims) on military dog tags.
- 1945: A mosque existed in Dearborn, Michigan, home to the largest Arab-American population in the U.S.
Construction of mosques sped up in the 1920s and 1930s, and by 1952, there were over 20 mosques. Although the first mosque was established in the U.S. in 1915, relatively few mosques were founded before the 1960s. Eighty-seven percent of mosques in the U.S. were founded within the last three decades according to the Faith Communities Today (FACT) survey. California has more mosques than any other state.
Chinese Muslims, known as Hui, have immigrated to the United States and lived within the Chinese community rather than integrating into other foreign Muslim communities. Two of the most prominent Chinese American Muslims are the Republic of China National Revolutionary Army Generals Ma Hongkui and his son Ma Dunjing, who moved to Los Angeles after fleeing from China to Taiwan. Pai Hsien-yung, son of the Chinese Muslim General Bai Chongxi, is a Chinese Muslim writer who moved to Santa Barbara, California after fleeing from China to Taiwan. And the Chinese Muslim artist Zhang Hongtu has become internationally known for his paintings and sculptures.
In the year 1857, the Mughal Empire was dissolved after the Indian Rebellion of 1857 and many children and grandchildren of the last Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah II were killed during the conflict. And in the 20th century some descendants of his surviving children emigrated to the United States.
The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community is the oldest continuous Muslim community in the United States. Ahmadi Muslims were among the earliest Muslim missionaries in America, the first being Mufti Muhammad Sadiq, and between 1921 and 1925 alone they converted over 1000 people to Islam. Although at first their efforts were broadly concentrated over a large number of racial and ethnic groups, subsequent realization of the deep-seated racial tensions and discrimination made Ahmadi missionaries focus their attention on mainly African Americans and the Muslim immigrant community and became vocal proponents of the African-American Civil Rights Movement. Many Ahmadi Muslims fled countries like Pakistan due to persecution in recent times.
Black Muslim movements
During the first half of the 20th century, a small number of African Americans established groups based on Islamic and Gnostic teachings. The first of such groups created was the Moorish Science Temple of America, founded by Timothy Drew (Drew Ali) in 1913. Drew taught that black people were of Moorish origin but their Muslim identity was taken away through slavery and racial segregation, advocating the return to Islam of their Moorish ancestry.
Moorish Science Temple of America
The Moorish Science Temple is an American organization founded in 1913 by Prophet Noble Drew Ali, whose name at birth was Timothy Drew. He said it was a sect of Islam but he also drew inspiration from Buddhism, Christianity, Gnosticism, and Taoism. Its significant divergences from mainstream Islam and strong African-American ethnic character make its classification as an Islamic denomination a matter of debate among Muslims and scholars of religion.
Its primary tenet was the belief that they are the ancient Moabites who inhabited the Northwestern and Southwestern shores of Africa. The organization also believes that their descendants after being conquered in Spain are slaves who were captured and held in slavery from 1779–1865 by their slaveholders.
Although often criticized as lacking scientific merit, adherents of the Moorish Science Temple of America believe that the Negroid Asiatic was the first human inhabitant of the Western Hemisphere. In their religious texts adherents refer to themselves as "Asiatics", presumably referring to the non-Mongoloid Paleoamericans (see Luzia Woman). These adherents also call themselves "indigenous Moors", "American Moors" or "Moorish Americans" in contradistinction to "African Moors" or "African Americans".
Nation of Islam
The Nation of Islam (NOI) was created in 1930 by Wallace Fard Muhammad. Fard drew inspiration for NOI doctrines from those of Timothy Drew's Moorish Science Temple of America. He provided three main principles which serve as the foundation of the NOI: "Allah is God, the white man is the devil and the so-called Negroes are the Asiatic Black People, the cream of the planet earth".
In 1934 Elijah Muhammad became the leader of the NOI, he deified Fard, saying that he was an incarnation of God, and taught that he was a prophet who had been taught directly by God in the form of Fard. Two of the most famous people to join the NOI were Malcolm X, who became the face of the NOI in the media, and Muhammad Ali, who, while initially rejected, was accepted into the group shortly after his first world heavyweight championship victory. Both Malcolm X and Ali later became Sunni Muslims.
Malcolm X was one of the most influential leaders of the NOI and, in accordance with NOI doctrine, advocated the complete separation of blacks from whites. He left the NOI after being silenced for 90 days (due to a controversial comment on the John F. Kennedy assassination), and proceeded to form Muslim Mosque, Inc. and the Organization of Afro-American Unity before his pilgrimage to Mecca and conversion to Sunni Islam. He is viewed as the first person to start the movement among African Americans towards Sunni Islam.
It was estimated that there were at least 20,000 members in 2006. However, today the group has a wide influence in the African American community. The first Million Man March took place in Washington, D.C. in 1995 and was followed later by another one in 2000 which was smaller in size but more inclusive, welcoming individuals other than just African American men. The group sponsors cultural and academic education, economic independence, and personal and social responsibility.
|Part of a series on:
Nation of Islam
The Five-Percent Nation, sometimes referred to as NGE or NOGE, the "Nation of Gods and Earths", or the "Five Percenters", is an American organization founded in 1964 in the Harlem section of the borough of Manhattan, New York City, by a former member of the Nation of Islam named Clarence 13X (born Clarence Edward Smith and later known as "Allah the Father"). Clarence 13X, a former student of Malcolm X, left the Nation of Islam after a theological dispute with the Nation's leaders over the nature and identity of God. Specifically, Clarence 13X denied that the Nation's biracial founder Wallace Fard Muhammad was Allah and instead taught that the black man was himself God personified.
Members of the group call themselves Allah's Five Percenters, which reflects the concept that ten percent of the people in the world know the truth of existence, and those elites and agents opt to keep eighty-five percent of the world in ignorance and under their controlling thumb; the remaining five percent are those who know the truth and are determined to enlighten the rest.
United Nation of Islam
The United Nation of Islam (UNOI) is a group based in Kansas City, Kansas. It was founded circa 1978 by Royall Jenkins, who continues to be the leader of the group and styles himself "Royall, Allah in Person".
Conversion to orthodox Sunni Islam
After the death of Elijah Muhammad, he was succeeded by his son, Warith Deen Mohammed. Mohammed rejected many teachings of his father, such as the divinity of Fard Muhammad, and saw a white person as also a worshiper. As he took control of the organization, he quickly brought in new reforms. He renamed it the World Community of al-Islam in the West; later it became the American Society of Muslims. It was estimated that there were 200,000 followers of W. D. Mohammed at the time.
W. D. Mohammed introduced teachings which were based on orthodox Sunni Islam. He removed the chairs in the organization's temples, and replaced the entire "temple" concept with the traditional Muslim house of worship, the mosque, also teaching how to pray the salat, to observe the fasting of Ramadan, and to attend the pilgrimage to Mecca.
A small number of Black Muslims however rejected these new reforms brought by Imam Mohammed. Louis Farrakhan, who broke away from the organization, re-established the Nation of Islam under the original Fardian doctrines, and remains its leader.
An estimated 786,000 Shia Muslims live in the United States. They originate from South Asia, Europe, Middle East, and East Africa. The "heart of Shiism in the U.S." is placed in Dearborn, home to the Islamic Center of America. The North American Shia Ithna-Asheri Muslim Communities Organization (NASIMCO) is the largest umbrella group for North American Shias.
Some Muslim Americans adhere to the doctrines of Sufism. The Islamic Supreme Council of America (ISCA) is a small body representing Sufi teachings, which, according to adherents, is the inner, mystical dimension of Islam. The ISCA's stated aims include providing practical solutions for American Muslims, based on the traditional Islamic legal rulings of an international advisory board, many of whom are recognized as the highest ranking Islamic scholars in the world. ISCA aims to integrate traditional scholarship in resolving contemporary issues affecting the maintenance of Islamic beliefs in a modern, secular society. It has been linked to neoconservative thought.
The largest Quranist movement in the United States is the United Submitters International. This movement was founded by Rashad Khalifa. His movement popularized the phrase: "The Qur'an, the whole Qur'an, and nothing but the Qur'an". Although he was initially well received by many, his subsequent claims of divine inspiration caused friction between him and others, and he was assassinated in 1990. Notable Americans influenced by Rashad Khalifa include his son, Sam Khalifa, a retired professional baseball player and Ahmad Rashād, a sportscaster and retired football player.
Non-denominational Muslims make up roughly one in seven of all American Muslims, at 15%. Non-denominational Muslims, do not have any specific affiliation with a religious body and usually describe themselves as being "just a Muslim". Muslims who were born in the US are more likely to be non-denominational than immigrant Muslims. 24% or one in four US-born Muslims are non-denominational, versus 10% of immigrant Muslims.
There are some mosquegoers who adhere to sects and denominations that form very small minorities. Examples of such small branches include progressive Muslims, Mahdavi Muslims and Ibadi Muslims.
The U.S. Census Bureau does not collect data on religious identification. Various institutions and organizations have given widely varying estimates about how many Muslims live in the U.S. Tom W. Smith, author of "Estimating the Muslim Population in the United States," said that of twenty estimates he reviewed during a five-year period until 2001, none was "based on a scientifically-sound or explicit methodology. All can probably be characterized as guesses or assertions. Nine came from Muslim organizations such as the Islamic Society of North America, the Muslim Student Association, the Council on American-Islamic Relations, the American Muslim Council, and the Harvard Islamic Society or unspecified "Muslim sources." None of these sources gave any basis for their figures." In 2005, according to The New York Times, more people from Muslim countries became legal permanent United States residents—nearly 96,000—than in any year in the previous two decades.
According to CAIR, no scientific count of Muslims in the U.S. has been done and the larger figures should be considered accurate. Some journalists have also alleged that the higher numbers have been inflated for political purposes.
According to Pew Forum estimate in 2016 there are 3.3 million Muslims, comprising about 1% of the total U.S. population. A Pew Forum report on American religion found that Muslims accounted for 0.9% of American adults in 2014, up from 0.4% in 2007, due largely to immigration. Retention rates were high, at 77%, similar to Hindus (80%) and Jews (75%); most people who leave these religions become unaffiliated, although ex-Muslims were more likely to be Christians than ex-Hindus or ex-Jews were. Conversely, 23% of American Muslims were converts, including 8% from historically black Protestant traditions, 6% from being unaffiliated, 4% from Catholicism, and 3% from mainline or evangelical Protestantism. By race, in 2014, 38% were non-Hispanic white (including Arabs and Iranians, up from 32% in 2007), 28% were Asian (mostly Indians, Pakistanis, and Bangladeshis, up from 20% in 2007), 28% were black (down from 32%), 4% Hispanic (down from 7%), and 3% of mixed or other race (down from 7%). Since 2007, the black proportion had shrunk, while the white and Asian proportions had grown, mainly due to immigration as most black Muslims were native U.S. blacks.
According to a 2001 study written by Ihsan Bagby, an associate professor of Islamic studies at the University of Kentucky, of Americans who convert to Islam, 64% are African American, 27% are White, 6% are Hispanic of any race, and 3% are other. Around that time increasing numbers of American Hispanics converted to Islam. Many Hispanic converts in Houston said that they often had been mistaken as of being of Pakistani or Middle Eastern descent, due to their religion. Many Hispanic converts were former Christians.
Since the arrival of South Asian and Arab communities during the 1990s there has been divisions with the African Americans due to the racial and cultural differences; however, since September 11, 2001, the two groups joined together when the immigrant communities looked towards the African Americans for advice on civil rights.
According to a 2014 religious survey, 64% of Muslims believe religion is very important, compared to 58% of Catholics who believe so. The frequency of receiving answers to prayers among Muslims was, 31% at least once a week and 12% once or twice a month. Nearly a quarter of the Muslims are converts to Islam (23%), mainly native-born. Of the total who have converted, 59% are African American and 34% white. Previous religions of those converted was Protestantism (67%), Roman Catholicism (10%), and 15% no religion.
Mosques are usually explicitly Sunni or Shia although they are over 55 Ahmadiyya mosques as well. There are 2,106 mosques in the United States as of 2010[update], and the nation's largest mosque, the Islamic Center of America, is in Dearborn, Michigan. It caters mainly to the Shia Muslim congregation; however, all Muslims may attend this mosque. It was rebuilt in 2005 to accommodate over 3,000 people for the increasing Muslim population in the region. Approximately half (50%) of the religious affiliations of Muslims is Sunni, 16% Shia, 22% non-affiliated and 16% other/non-response. Muslims of Arab descent are mostly Sunni (56%) with minorities who are Shia (19%). Muslims of South Asian descent including Bangladeshis (90%), Indians (82%) and Pakistanis (72%) are mainly Sunni, other groups such as Iranians are mainly Shia (91%). Of African American Muslims, 48% are Sunni, 34% are unaffiliated (mostly part of the Community of W.Deen Mohammed), 16% other (mostly Nation of Islam and Ahmadiyya) and 2% Shia.
In many areas, a mosque may be dominated by whatever group of immigrants is the largest. Sometimes the Friday sermons, or khutbas, are given in languages like Urdu, Bengali or Arabic along with English. Areas with large Muslim populations may support a number of mosques serving different immigrant groups or varieties of belief within Sunni or Shia traditions. At present, many mosques are served by imams who immigrate from overseas, as only these imams have certificates from Muslim seminaries.
Education and income
The household income levels of American Muslims are about as evenly distributed as the general American population. Among South Asians in the country, the large Pakistani American community stands out as particularly well educated and prosperous, with education and income levels exceeding those of U.S.-born whites. Many are professionals, especially in medicine (they account for 2.7-5% of America’s physicians), scientists, engineers, and financial analysts, and there are also a large number of entrepreneurs. There are more than 15,000 medical doctors practicing medicine in the USA who are of Pakistani origin alone and the number of Pakistani American millionaires was reported to be in the thousands. Shahid Khan a Pakistani-born American multi billionaire businessmen owner of the Jacksonville Jaguars of the National Football League (NFL) making him the first and only ethnic minority member to own one, he also owns English Premier League team Fulham F.C., and automobile parts manufacturer Flex-N-Gate in Urbana, Illinois. 45 percent of immigrant Muslims report annual household income levels of $50,000 or higher. This compares to the national average of 44 percent. Immigrant Muslims are well represented among higher-income earners, with 19 percent having annual household incomes of $100,000 or higher (compared to 16 percent for the Muslim population as a whole and 17 percent for the U.S. average). This is likely due to the strong concentration of Muslims in professional, managerial, and technical fields, especially in information technology, education, medicine, law, and the corporate world.
Conversion to Islam in prisons
In addition to immigration, the state, federal and local prisons of the United States may be a contributor to the growth of Islam in the country. According to J. Michael Waller, Muslim inmates comprise 15–20% of the prison population, or roughly 350,000 inmates in 2003. Waller states that these inmates mostly come into prison as non-Muslims. He also says that 80% of the prisoners who "find faith" while in prison convert to Islam. These converted inmates are mostly African American, with a small but growing Hispanic minority. Waller also asserts that many converts are radicalized by outside Islamist groups linked to terrorism, but other experts suggest that when radicalization does occur it has little to no connection with these outside interests.
There were calculated to be 2.595 million Muslim adherents across the United States in 2010. Islamic populations are 0.6% of the US population per Fareed Zakaria quoting Pew Research Center, 2010.
New York City had the largest number of Muslims with 69,985. In 2000, Dearborn, Michigan, ranked second with 29,181, and Los Angeles ranked third with 25,673; although Paterson, New Jersey, in the New York City Metropolitan Area, was estimated to have become home to 25,000 to 30,000 Muslims as of 2011. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was estimated to have 30,000 to 50,000 Muslims as of 2012. Paterson, New Jersey, has been nicknamed Little Ramallah and contains a neighborhood with the same name, with an Arab American population estimated as high as 20,000 in 2015.
The number of mosques in the United States in 2011 was 2,106. The six states with the greatest number of mosques were: New York 257, California 246, Texas 166, Florida 118, Illinois 109, New Jersey 109.
Muslims in the United States have increasingly made their own culture; there are various Muslim comedy groups, rap groups, Scout troops and magazines, and Muslims have been vocal in other forms of media as well.
Within the Muslim community in the United States there exist a number of different traditions. As in the rest of the world, the Sunni Muslims are in the majority. Shia Muslims, especially those in the Iranian immigrant community, are also active in community affairs. All four major schools of Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh) are found among the Sunni community.
In the 2000 Presidential election, nearly 80 percent of Muslim Americans supported Republican candidate George W. Bush over Democratic candidate Al Gore. However, due to the invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq which took place under the Bush Administration, as well as what some call an increased anti-Muslim rhetoric from the Republican Party after the September 11 attacks, support for the Republican Party among American Muslims has declined sharply.
By 2008, Democratic candidate Barack Obama got 67% to 90% of the Muslim vote depending on region. Some of his opponents question Obama's religious faith; see Barack Obama religion conspiracy theories.
According to a 2004 telephone survey of a sample of 1,846 Muslims conducted by the polling organization Zogby, the respondents were more educated and affluent than the national average, with 59% of them holding at least an undergraduate college degree. Citing the Zogby survey, a 2005 Wall Street Journal editorial by Bret Stephens and Joseph Rago expressed the tendency of American Muslims to report employment in professional fields, with one in three having an income over $75,000 a year. The editorial also characterized American Muslims as "role models both as Americans and as Muslims".
Unlike many Muslims in Europe, American Muslims overall do not tend to feel marginalized or isolated from political participation and have often adopted a politically proactive stance. Several organizations were formed by the American Muslim community to serve as 'critical consultants' on U.S. policy regarding Iraq and Afghanistan. Other groups have worked with law enforcement agencies to point out Muslims within the United States that they suspect of fostering 'intolerant attitudes'. Still others have worked to invite interfaith dialogue and improved relations between Muslim and non-Muslim Americans.
Growing Muslim populations have caused public agencies to adapt to their religious practices. Airports such as the Indianapolis International Airport, Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport[not in citation given], Kansas City International Airport have installed foot-baths to allow Muslims, particularly taxicab drivers who service the airports, to perform their religious ablutions in a safe and sanitary manner. and Denver International Airport included a mosque as part of its Interfaith Chapel when opened in 1996 although such developments have not been without criticism.
A Pew report released in 2009 noted that nearly six out of ten American adults see Muslims as being subject to discrimination, more than Mormons, Atheists, or Jews. While Muslims comprise less than one percent of the American population, they accounted for approximately one quarter of the religious discrimination claims filed with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission during 2009. According to FBI statistics, hate crimes against Muslims are rare, at 6.0 per 100,000, compared to blacks at 6.7, homosexuals and bisexuals at 11.5, and Jews at 14.8.
On December 14, 1992, the Chief of Chaplains of the United States Army requested that an insignia be created for future Muslim chaplains, and the design (a crescent) was completed January 8, 1993.
One of the largest Islamic organizations is the Islamic Society of North America (ISNA) which says that 27% of mosques in U.S. are associated with it. ISNA is an association of immigrant Muslim organizations and individuals that provides a common platform for presenting Islam. It is composed mostly of immigrants. Its membership may have recently exceeded ASM, as many independent mosques throughout the United States are choosing to affiliate with it. ISNA's annual convention is the largest gathering of Muslims in the United States.
The second largest is the community under the leadership of W.Deen Mohammed or the American Society of Muslims with 19% of mosques, mostly African-Americans having an affiliation with it. It was the successor organization to the Nation of Islam, once better-known as the Black Muslims. The association recognizes the leadership of Warith Deen Mohammed. This group evolved from the Black separatist Nation of Islam (1930–1975). The majority of its members are African Americans. This has been a 23-year process of religious reorientation and organizational decentralization, in the course of which the group was known by other names, such as the American Muslim Mission, W.Deen Mohammed guided its members to the practice of mainstream Islam such as salat or fasting, and teaching the basic creed of Islam the shahadah.
The third largest group is the Islamic Circle of North America (ICNA). ICNA describes itself as a non-ethnic, open to all, independent, North America-wide, grass-roots organization. It is composed mostly of immigrants and the children of immigrants. It is growing as various independent mosques throughout the United States join and also may be larger than ASM at the present moment. Its youth division is Young Muslims. Why Islam? is a community outreach project of ICNA; it seeks to provide accurate information about Islam while debunking popular stereotypes and common misconceptions through various services and outreach activities.
The Islamic Supreme Council of America (ISCA) is a small organization representing Sufi teachings, which, according to adherents, is the inner, mystical dimension of Islam. The ISCA's stated aims include providing practical solutions for American Muslims, based on the traditional Islamic legal rulings of an international advisory board, many of whom are recognized as the highest ranking Islamic scholars in the world. ISCA strives to integrate traditional scholarship in resolving contemporary issues affecting the maintenance of Islamic beliefs in a modern, secular society. It has been linked to neoconservative thought.
The Islamic Assembly of North America (IANA) is a leading Muslim organization in the United States. According to its website, among the goals of IANA is to "unify and coordinate the efforts of the different dawah oriented organizations in North America and guide or direct the Muslims of this land to adhere to the proper Islamic methodology." In order to achieve its goals, IANA uses a number of means and methods including conventions, general meetings, dawah-oriented institutions and academies, etc. IANA folded in the aftermath of the attack of September 11, 2001 and they have reorganized under various banners such as Texas Dawah and the Almaghrib Institute.
The Muslim Students' Association (MSA) is a group dedicated, by its own description, to Islamic societies on college campuses in Canada and the United States for the good of Muslim students. The MSA is involved in providing Muslims on various campuses the opportunity to practice their religion and to ease and facilitate such activities. MSA is also involved in social activities, such as fund raisers for the homeless during Ramadan. The founders of MSA would later establish the Islamic Society of North America and Islamic Circle of North America.
The Islamic Information Center (IIC) (IIC) is a "grass-roots" organization that has been formed for the purpose of informing the public, mainly through the media, about the real image of Islam and Muslims. The IIC is run by chairman (Hojatul-Islam) Imam Syed Rafiq Naqvi, various committees, and supported by volunteers.
The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community was established in the U.S. in 1921, before the existence of Nation of Islam, according to its members. This sect, however, is considered heretical by mainstream Muslims and not considered a part of the Ummah, or worldwide community of Muslims.
Muslim Congress is another National Muslim Organization. It is primarily a Social Welfare organization and runs many social projects, including Food Distribution to the homeless in their "No More Hunger" project and also provides Scholarship. It is under the leadership of Islamic Scholars.
Muslim political organizations lobby on behalf of various Muslim political interests. Organizations such as the American Muslim Council are actively engaged in upholding human and civil rights for all Americans.
- The Council on American–Islamic Relations (CAIR) is the United States largest Muslim civil rights and advocacy group, originally established to promote a positive image of Islam and Muslims in America. CAIR presents itself as representing mainstream, moderate Islam, and has condemned acts of terrorism and has been working in collaboration with the White House on "issues of safety and foreign policy." The group has been criticized for alleged links to Islamic terrorism and it has been designated as a terrorist group by the United Arab Emirates.
- The Muslim Public Affairs Council (MPAC) is an American Muslim public service and policy organization headquartered in Los Angeles and with offices in Washington, D.C. MPAC was founded in 1988. The mission of MPAC "encompasses promoting an American Muslim identity, fostering an effective grassroots organization, and training a future generation of men and women to share our vision. MPAC also works to promote an accurate portrayal of Islam and Muslims in mass media and popular culture, educating the American public (both Muslim and non-Muslim) about Islam, building alliances with diverse communities and cultivating relationships with opinion- and decision-makers."
- The American Islamic Congress is a small secular Muslim organization that promotes "religious pluralism". Their official Statement of Principles states that "Muslims have been profoundly influenced by their encounter with America. American Muslims are a minority group, largely comprising immigrants and children of immigrants, who have prospered in America's climate of religious tolerance and civil rights. The lessons of our unprecedented experience of acceptance and success must be carefully considered by our community." The AIC holds an annual essay writing competition, the Dream Deferred Essay Contest, focusing on civil rights in the Middle East.
- The Free Muslims Coalition states it was created to "eliminate broad base support for Islamic extremism and terrorism" and to strengthen secular democratic institutions in the Middle East and the Muslim World by supporting Islamic reformation efforts.
- Muslims for Bush was an advocacy group aiming to drum up support from Muslims for President George W. Bush. It was co-founded by Muhammad Ali Hasan and his mother Seeme, who were prominent donors to the Republican Party. In 2010, co-founder Muhammad Ali Hasan left the Republican Party. Muslims for Bush has since been reformed into the bipartisan Muslims for America.
- American Muslim Political Action Committee (AMPAC) was created in July 2012 by MD Rabbi Alam, a Bangladeshi-born American politician. This newly created organization is one of America's largest Muslim civil liberties advocacy organizations. It is headquartered in Kansas City, Missouri, with two regional offices in New York City and Madison, Wisconsin. AMPAC a bipartisan political platform for Muslim Americans to participate in political races. AMPAC presents an Islamic perspective on issues of importance to the American public, and seeks to empower the American Muslim community and encourage its social and political activism. On September 11, 2013, AMPAC organized the Million Muslim March which took place at the National Mall in Washington, D.C.
- The Islamic Center of Passaic County, the American Arab Civic Organization, and the American Muslim Union, all based in Paterson, New Jersey, voice Muslims' opposition to terrorism, including the November 2015 Paris attacks.
In addition to the organizations listed above, other Muslim organizations in the United States serve more specific needs. For example, some organizations focus almost exclusively on charity work. As a response to a crackdown on Muslim charity organizations working overseas such as the Holy Land Foundation, more Muslims have begun to focus their charity efforts within the United States.
- Inner-City Muslim Action Network (IMAN) is one of the leading Muslim charity organizations in the United States. According to the Inner-City Muslim Action Network, IMAN seeks "to utilize the tremendous possibilities and opportunities that are present in the community to build a dynamic and vibrant alternative to the difficult conditions of inner city life." IMAN sees understanding Islam as part of a larger process to empower individuals and communities to work for the betterment of humanity.
- Islamic Relief USA is the American branch of Islamic Relief Worldwide, an international relief and development organization. Its stated goal is "to alleviate the suffering, hunger, illiteracy and diseases worldwide without regard to color, race or creed." They focus on development projects; emergency relief projects, such as providing aid to victims of Hurricane Katrina; orphans projects; and seasonal projects, such as food distributions during the month of Ramadan. They provide aid internationally and in the United States.
- Project Downtown is a non profit organization originated in Miami Fl. From what started as two men giving away a few sandwiches eventually turned into an array of chapters all over the United States giving away thousands of packets of food, hygiene bags, clothes, and other necessities of life to those who cannot afford it. The motto of Project Downtown is "We feed you for the sake of God alone, no reward do we seek, nor thanks." (Quran 76:9)
- Compassionate Care Network, Chicago, CCNchicago was formed 14 years ago to offer basic health screening for the uninsured population in the community. It offers health screening for obesity,hypertension,diabetes and health awarenss for the indigent people. It has formed a network of 200 providers and enrolled several thousand patients. In 2014 CCN's work was recognized with honors from the Governor of Illinois and also by President Obama at the White House. In 2015 CCN was invited to participate in White House policy recommendation discussions with the US Dept of Health and Human Services Office of Faith Based and Neighborhood Partnerships.
There are two museums dedicated to the history of Islamic culture in the U.S. and abroad. The International Museum of Muslim Cultures in Jackson, Mississippi opened in early 2001. America's Islamic Heritage Museum in Washington, DC opened on April 30, 2011.
Research and think tanks
The Institute for Social Policy and Understanding, with offices in Dearborn, MI and Washington, DC, is an independent, nonpartisan research organization specializing in addressing the most pressing challenges facing the American Muslim community and in bridging the information gap between the American Muslim community and the wider society.
American populace's views on Islam
A nationwide survey conducted in 2003 by the Pew Research Center and the Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life reported that the percentage of Americans with an unfavorable view of Islam increased by one percentage point between 2002 and 2003 to 34%, and then by another two percentage points in 2005 to 36%. At the same time the percentage responding that Islam was more likely than other religion to encourage violence fell from 44% in July 2003 to 36% in July 2005.
|July 2007 Newsweek survey of non-Muslim Americans|
|Muslims in the United States are as
loyal to the U.S. as they are to Islam
|Muslims do not condone violence||63%|
|Qur'an does not condone violence||40%||28%|
|Muslim culture does not glorify
|Concern about Islamic radicals||54%|
|Support wiretapping by FBI||52%|
|American Muslims more "peaceable"
than non-American ones
|Muslims are unfairly targeted by
|Oppose mass detentions of Muslims||60%||25%|
|Believe most are immigrants||52%|
|Would allow son or daughter to date
|Muslim students should be allowed
to wear headscarves
|Would vote for a qualified Muslim
for political office
The July 2005 Pew survey also showed that 59% of American adults view Islam as "very different from their religion," down one percentage point from 2003. In the same survey 55% had a favorable opinion of Muslim Americans, up four percentage points from 51% in July 2003. A December 2004 Cornell University survey shows that 47% of Americans believe that the Islamic religion is more likely than others to encourage violence among its believers.
A CBS April 2006 poll showed that, in terms of faiths
- 58% of Americans have favorable attitudes toward Protestantism/Other Christians
- 48% favorable toward Catholicism
- 47% favorable toward Judaism
- 31% favorable toward Christian fundamentalism
- 20% favorable toward Mormonism
- 19% favorable toward Islam
- 8% favorable toward Scientology
The Pew survey shows that, in terms of adherents
- 77% of Americans have favorable opinions of Jews
- 73% favorable of Catholics
- 57% favorable of "evangelical Christians"
- 55% favorable of Muslims
- 35% favorable of Atheists
A 2011 Gallup poll found that 56% of Protestants, 63% of Catholics, and 70% of Jews believed that American Muslims had no sympathy for Al Qaeda. A 2015 Brookings poll found that 14% Americans believe most Muslims support ISIS and another 44% believe Muslims partially support ISIS.
A 2016 poll found that on average; Americans believed that 17% of the US population was Muslim and that this number would rise to 23% by 2020.
American Muslims' views of the United States
|PEW's poll of views on American Society|
|Agree that one can get
ahead with hard work
|Rate their community as
"excellent" or "good"
|Excellent or good
personal financial situation
|Satisfied with the
state of the U.S.
In a 2007 survey titled Muslim Americans: Middle Class and Mostly Mainstream, the Pew Research Center found Muslim Americans to be "largely integrated, happy with their lives, and moderate with respect to many of the issues that have divided Muslims and Westerners around the world."
47% of respondents said they considered themselves Muslims first and Americans second. However, this was compared to 81% of British Muslims and 69% of German Muslims, when asked the equivalent question. A similar disparity exists in income, the percentage of American Muslims living in poverty is 2% higher than the general population, compared to an 18% disparity for French Muslims and 29% difference for Spanish Muslims.
Politically, American Muslims both supported larger government and are socially conservative. For example, 70% of respondents preferred a bigger government providing more services, while 61% stated that homosexuality should be discouraged by society. Despite their social conservatism, 71% of American Muslims expressed a preference for the Democratic Party. The Pew Research survey also showed that nearly three quarters of respondents believed that American society rewards them for hard work regardless of their religious background.
The same poll also reported that 40% of U.S. Muslims believe that Arab Muslims carried out the 9/11 attacks. Another 28% do not believe it and 32% said they had no opinion. Among the 28% who doubted that Arab Muslims were behind the conspiracy, one-fourth said the U.S. government or President George W. Bush was responsible. 26% of American Muslims believe the U.S.-led "war on terror" is a sincere effort to root out international terrorism. 5% of those surveyed had a "very favorable" or "somewhat favorable" view of Al-Qaeda. 35% of American Muslims stated that the decision for military action in Afghanistan was the right one and 12% supported the use of military force in Iraq.
American Muslim life after the September 11 attacks
After the September 11 attacks, America saw an increase in the number of hate crimes committed against people who were perceived to be Muslim, particularly those of Middle Eastern and South Asian descent. More than 20 acts of discrimination and violence were documented in the post 9/11 era by the U.S. Department of Justice. Some of these acts were against Muslims living in America. Other acts were against those accused of being Muslims, such as Sikhs, and people of Arabian and South-Asian backgrounds A publication in Journal of Applied Social Psychology found evidence that the number of anti-Muslim attacks in America in 2001 increased from 354 to 1,501 following 9/11. The same year, the Arab American Institute reported an increase in anti-Muslim hate crimes ranging from discrimination and destruction of private property to violent threats and assaults, some of which resulted in deaths.
In a 2007 survey, 53% of American Muslims reported that it was more difficult to be a Muslim after the 9/11 attacks. Asked to name the most important problem facing them, the options named by more than ten percent of American Muslims were discrimination (19%), being viewed as a terrorist (15%), public's ignorance about Islam (13%), and stereotyping (12%). 54% believe that the U.S. government's anti-terrorism activities single out Muslims. 76% of surveyed Muslim Americans stated that they are very or somewhat concerned about the rise of Islamic extremism around the world, while 61% express a similar concern about the possibility of Islamic extremism in the United States.
On a small number of occasions Muslim women who wore distinctive hijab were harassed, causing some Muslim women to stay at home, while others temporarily abandoned the practice. In November 2009 Amal Abusumayah, a mother of four young girls, had her hijab pulled following derogatory comments while grocery shopping. In 2006, one California woman was shot dead as she walked her child to school; she was wearing a headscarf and relatives and Muslim leaders believe that the killing was religiously motivated. While 51% of American Muslims express worry that women wearing hijab will be treated poorly, 44% of American Muslim women who always wear hijab express a similar concern.
Some Muslim Americans have been criticized because of perceived conflicts between their religious beliefs and mainstream American value systems. Muslim cab drivers in Minneapolis, Minnesota have been criticized for refusing passengers for carrying alcoholic beverages or dogs. The Minneapolis-Saint Paul International Airport authority has threatened to revoke the operating authority of any driver caught discriminating in this manner. There are reported incidents in which Muslim cashiers have refused to sell pork products to their clientele.
Terrorism that involved Muslim perpetrators began in the United States with the 1993 shootings at CIA Headquarters in Langley, Virginia, followed by the 1993 World Trade Center bombing in New York City. The latest was the June 2016 Orlando nightclub shooting in Florida. After the September 11 attacks and the start of the Afghanistan war in 2001, there was concern about the potential radicalization of American Muslims. A 2007 Pew poll reported that 15% of American Muslims under the age of 30 supported suicide bombings against civilian targets in at least some circumstances, on the other hand, 11% said it could be "rarely justified." Among those over the age of 30, just 6% expressed their support for the same. (9% of Muslims over 30 and 5% under 30 chose not to answer). A March 2010 Bipartisan Policy Center paper points out an increasing number of American Muslims are playing high-level operational roles in al-Qaeda and aligned groups, as well as a larger numbers of American Muslims who are attaching themselves to these groups.[not in citation given][irrelevant citation]
Between 2001 and the end of 2009, there were 46 publicly reported incidents of "domestic radicalization and recruitment to jihadist terrorism" that involved at least 125 people between 2001 and the end of 2009. There had been an average of six cases per year since 2001, but that rose to 13 in 2009.
While the seeming increase in cases may be alarming, half "involve single individuals, while the rest represent ‘tiny conspiracies,’ " according to Congressional testimony. Furthermore, a 2012 study by the University of North Carolina indicated that the yearly number of cases of alleged plots by Muslim-Americans appears to be declining. The total of 20 indictments for terrorism in 2011 is down from 26 in 2010 and 47 in 2009 (the total since 9/11 is 193). The number of Muslim-Americans indicted for support of terrorism also fell, from 27 individuals in 2010 to just eight in 2011 (the total since 9/11 stands at 462). Also in apparent decline is the number of actual attacks: Of the 20 suspects indicted for terrorism, only one was charged with carrying out a terrorist act. This number is down from the six individuals charged with attacks in 2010.
Muslim Americans are significantly represented among those who tip authorities off to alleged plots having given 52 of the 140 documented tips regarding individuals involved in violent terrorist plots since 9/11.
The Boston Marathon bombing in 2013 caused 280 injuries, and 5 civilian and police deaths. Attempted attacks, like the Curtis Culwell Center attack and 2015 Boston beheading plot have attracted substantial media coverage and inflamed community relations. In 2015 the New America Foundation released information about violent extremist groups in the US. While the Boston Marathon bombing had a high injury toll, only four deaths were counted by the group, and the group's count of only deaths from violent extremism showed that since 9/11, 48 people had been killed by anti-government extremists, compared to 28 by Jihadists.
Islamic extremism in the United States
At least one American not of recent immigrant background, John Walker Lindh, has been imprisoned, convicted on charges of working with the Taliban and carrying weapons against American soldiers. He had converted to Islam while in the United States, moved to Yemen to study Arabic, and then went to Pakistan, where he was recruited by the Taliban.
Another American that was not of recent immigrant background, José Padilla, of Puerto Rican descent and the first Hispanic-American to be imprisoned and convicted on suspicion of plotting a radiological bomb ("dirty bomb") attack. He was detained as a material witness until June 9, 2002, when President George W. Bush designated him an enemy combatant and, arguing that he was not entitled to trial in civilian courts, had him transferred to a military prison. He had converted to Islam while serving his last jail sentence in prison, and went to Pakistan where he was recruited into Al-Qaeda.
A 2011 Gallup poll report stated that there has been an increase in Islamophobia over the past decade and defined it as "An exaggerated fear, hatred, and hostility toward Islam and Muslims that is perpetuated by negative stereotypes resulting in bias, discrimination, and the marginalization and exclusion of Muslims from social, political, and civic life." Another 2011 Poll provided by the Washington Post through the Public Religion Research Institute states that 48 percent of Americans are uncomfortable with Muslim women wearing the burqa. A 2014 Pew Research Center survey found that Muslims were the most disliked religious group in the United States with an average "cold" rating of 40 (out of 100), which is lower than the 41 cold rating received by atheists. According to a poll in November 2015 by the Public Religion Research Institute 56 percent of Americans believe that the values of Islam are at odds with the American values and ways of life.
Public institutions in the U.S. have also drawn fire for accommodating Islam at the expense of taxpayers. The University of Michigan–Dearborn and a public college in Minnesota have been criticized for accommodating Islamic prayer rituals by constructing footbaths for Muslim students using tax-payers' money. Critics said this special accommodation, which is made to satisfy the needs of Muslims alone, is a violation of Constitutional provisions separating church and state. Along the same constitutional lines, a San Diego public elementary school is being criticized for making special accommodations, specifically for American Muslims, by adding Arabic to its curriculum and giving breaks for Muslim prayers. Some critics said exceptions have not been made for any religious group in the past, and they see this as an endorsement of Islam.
The first American Muslim Congressman, Keith Ellison, created controversy when he compared President George W. Bush's actions after the September 11, 2001 attacks to Adolf Hitler's actions after the Nazi-sparked Reichstag fire, saying that Bush was exploiting the aftermath of 9/11 for political gain, as Hitler had exploited the Reichstag fire to suspend constitutional liberties. The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum and the Anti-Defamation League condemned Ellison's remarks. The congressman later retracted the statement, saying that it was "inappropriate" for him to have made the comparison.
At Columbus Manor School, a suburban Chicago elementary school with a student body nearly half Muslim Arab American, school board officials have considered eliminating holiday celebrations after Muslim parents complained that their culture's holidays were not included. Local parent Elizabeth Zahdan said broader inclusion, not elimination, was the group's goal. "I only wanted them modified to represent everyone," the Chicago Sun-Times quoted her as saying. "Now the kids are not being educated about other people." However, the district's superintendent, Tom Smyth, said too much school time was being taken to celebrate holidays already, and he sent a directive to his principals requesting that they "tone down" activities unrelated to the curriculum, such as holiday parties.
- List of American Muslims
- List of Islamic and Muslim related topics
- List of mosques in the United States
- Latino Muslims
- United States military chaplain symbols (including images of U.S. Army, Navy, and Air Force Muslim Chaplain insignia)
- Religious Composition by Country, 2010 Pew Research (Washington DC, April 2015)
- "Demographics". Retrieved May 2, 2013.
- "A new estimate of the U.S. Muslim population". pewresearch.org. January 6, 2016. Retrieved December 17, 2016.
- "Muslim Americans Exemplify Diversity, Potential". Gallup.com. Retrieved December 6, 2011.
- Wakin, Daniel J. (January 2, 2002). "Ranks of Latinos Turning to Islam Are Increasing; Many in City Were Catholics Seeking Old Muslim Roots". New York Times. Retrieved December 6, 2011.
- Sylviane A. Diouf, Servants of Allah: African Muslims Enslaved in the Americas (1998)
- Tweed, Thomas A. "Islam in America: From African Slaves to Malcolm X". National Humanities Center. Retrieved July 21, 2009.
- Manseau, Peter (February 9, 2015). "The Muslims of Early America". New York Times. Retrieved February 12, 2015.
An estimated 20 percent of enslaved Africans were Muslims, and many sought to recreate the communities they had known.
- Curtis, Muslims in America, p. 119
- Edward E. Curtis, Muslims in America: A Short History (2009) ch 1
- "The Future of the Global Muslim Population". The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. January 27, 2011. Retrieved October 30, 2011.
- Wilgoren, Jodi (October 22, 2001). "A Nation challenged: American Muslims; Islam Attracts Converts By the Thousand, Drawn Before and After Attacks". New York Times. Retrieved December 6, 2011.
- Elliott, Andrea (September 10, 2006). "Muslim immigration has bounced back". Seattle Times. Retrieved December 6, 2011.
- "Migration Information Source – The People Perceived as a Threat to Security: Arab Americans Since September 11". Migrationinformation.org. Retrieved December 6, 2011.
- "The Global Muslim Population: Projections for 2010–2030" The Pew Research Center. January 27, 2011.
- Manseau, Peter (February 9, 2015). "The Muslims of Early America". New York Times. Retrieved February 12, 2015.
- Manseau, Peter (March 9, 2015). "What Happened to America's First Muslims?". The Huffington Post. Retrieved March 11, 2015.
- Beers, Frederick L. (1884). History of Greene County, New York: with biographical sketches of its prominent men. New York: J. B. Beers & Co. pp. 20–22.
- Skinner, Charles Montgomery (1896). Myths and legends of our own land, Volume 1. New York: J. B. Lippincott & Co. pp. 24–25.
- Encyclopedia of Muslim-American History. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
- Southwick, Albert B. (August 26, 2010). "Exploring Peter Salem's roots". Telegram & Gazette. Worcester, MA. Retrieved December 18, 2015.
- Samory, Rashid (2013). Black Muslims in the US: History, Politics, and the Struggle of a Community. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 78. ISBN 9781137337511. Retrieved December 18, 2015.
- Capitalizing on the Morocco-US Free Trade Agreement: A Road Map for Success. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
- Thomas Jefferson's Iftar, U.S. Department of State, July 29, 2011, retrieved February 12, 2013
- Editor, on November 25, 2009 (November 25, 2009). "History of American Muslims (2) « Middle East Studies Online Journal". Middle-east-studies.net. Retrieved December 6, 2011.
- Muslim roots of the blues, Jonathan Curiel, San Francisco Chronicle August 15, 2004
- Robert Battistini, "Glimpses of the Other before Orientalism: The Muslim World in Early American Periodicals, 1785–1800," Early American Studies Spring 2010, Vol. 8#2 pp. 446–74
- "Savages of the Seas: Barbary Captivity Tales and Images of Muslims in the Early Republic," Journal of American Culture Summer 1990, Vol. 13#2 pp. 75–84
- Frank Lambert, The Barbary Wars: American Independence in the Atlantic World (2007)
- "Copy of Quran only book saved from Union's 1865 burning of UA". Retrieved July 2, 2014.
- Encyclopedia of Muslim-American History. New York: Facts on File. 2010. p. 561. ISBN 9781438130408.
- "History of Muslims In America". Talkingaboutislam.com. Archived from the original on March 24, 2012. Retrieved December 6, 2011.
- "1800's". Muslims In America. Retrieved December 6, 2011.
- "Brief History of Islam in North America" (PDF). Retrieved December 6, 2011.
- SKSM.edu Archived November 27, 2010, at the Wayback Machine., History of Islam in the United States.
- Ishaq Zahid. "American Muslim History". Islam101.com. Retrieved December 6, 2011.
- M'Bow, Amadou Mahtar; Kettani, Ali (2001). Islam and Muslims in the American Continent. Beirut: Center of Historical, Economical and Social Studies. p. 109.
- Edward E. Curtis, Encyclopedia of Muslim-American History, Facts on File, Inc., 2010, p. 198
- Stephen D. Behrendt, David Richardson, and David Eltis, W. E. B. Du Bois Institute for African and African-American Research, Harvard University. Based on "records for 27,233 voyages that set out to obtain slaves for the Americas". Behrendt, Stephen (1999). "Transatlantic Slave Trade". In Appiah, Kwame Anthony; Gates Jr., Henry Louis. Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience. New York: Basic Civitas Books. pp. 1865–77. ISBN 0-465-00071-1.
- Meigs-Jaques, Donna; Jaques, R. Kevin (2005). "Islam". In Hill, Samuel S.; Lippy, Charles H. Encyclopedia of Religion in the South. Macon, Georgia: Mercer University Press. pp. 394–95. ISBN 0-86554-758-0.
- Koszegi, Michael; Melton, J. Gordon (1992). Islam in North America: A Sourcebook. New York: Garland Publishing Inc. pp. 26–27.
- "Bound To Africa – The Mandinka Legacy In The New World" (PDF). Retrieved November 17, 2012.
- Gomez, Michael A. (November 1994). "Muslims in Early America". The Journal of Southern History. Southern Historical Association. 60 (4): 682. doi:10.2307/2211064. JSTOR 2211064.
- Gomez, Michael A. (November 1994). "Muslims in Early America". The Journal of Southern History. Southern Historical Association. 60 (4): 692–93, 695. doi:10.2307/2211064. JSTOR 2211064.
- Thomas C. Parramore, "Muslim Slave Aristocrats in North Carolina," North Carolina Historical Review, April 2000, Vol. 77 Issue 2, pp. 127–50
- In 1991, a masjid in Fayetteville, North Carolina renamed itself Masjid Omar Ibn Said in his honor. Omar ibn Said Davidson Encyclopedia Tammy Ivins, June 2007
- Charles D. Russell, "Islam as a Danger to Republican Virtue: Broadening Religious Liberty in Revolutionary Pennsylvania," Pennsylvania History, Summer 2009, Vol. 76 Issue 3, pp. 250–75
- Hutson, James H. (May 2002). "The Founding Fathers and Islam – Library of Congress Information Bulletin". Loc.gov. Retrieved December 6, 2011.
- Treaty of Peace and Friendship Article 11. The Avalon Project. Yale Law School.
- "The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin – Chapter 10". Earlyamerica.com. February 27, 2007. Retrieved December 6, 2011.
- "Sniggle.net". Sniggle.net. Retrieved December 6, 2011.
- "Thomas Jefferson – Subject Research Guides at UVa Library". Etext.virginia.edu. April 21, 2011. Retrieved December 6, 2011.
- "Remarks at the Annual State Department Iftaar Dinner". State.gov. September 15, 2009. Retrieved December 6, 2011.
- Denise A. Spellberg, " Could a Muslim Be President? An Eighteenth-Century Constitutional Debate, Eighteenth-Century Studies 39#4 (2006) pp. 485–506
- Robert J. Allison, The Crescent Obscured: The United States and the Muslim World, 1776–1815 (1995) pp. 57–59
- "Religion: Ramadan". Time. November 15, 1937. Retrieved May 5, 2010.
- Queen, Edward L., Stephen Prothero and Gardiner H. Shattuck Jr. 1996. The Encyclopedia of American Religious History. New York: Facts on File.
- Ghazali, Abdul Sattar. "The number of mosque attendants increasing rapidly in America". American Muslim perspective.
- "Day 22: Ross, North Dakota – A Leap in Time". Retrieved July 2, 2014.
- Robinson, Wills (September 18, 2013). "The slumdog princess: How the descendant of the Indian Moghul rulers who built the Taj Mahal now lives in desperate poverty". Daily Mail. London.
- Islam in the African-American Experience. p. 262. Richard Brent Turner (2003)
- Moorish Science Temple of America Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved November 13, 2009.
- "The Aging of the Moors". Chicago Reader. Retrieved February 15, 2015.
- The Holy Koran of the Moorish Science Temple of America Chapter XXV – "A Holy Covenant of the Asiatic Nation"
- Jacob Neusner (2003). pp. 180–81. ISBN 978-0-664-22475-2.
- "Why Ali Betrayed Malcolm X". Retrieved October 12, 2012.
- Lomax, Louis E. (1963). When the Word Is Given: A Report on Elijah Muhammad, Malcolm X, and the Black Muslim World. Cleveland: World Publishing. pp. 149–52. OCLC 1071204.
- Omar Sacirbey (May 16, 2006) Muslims Look to Blacks for Civil Rights Guidance Archived March 6, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. Pew Forum. Retrieved 2009-07-29.
- Farrakhan backs racial harmony BBC News (BBC). October 16, 2000. Retrieved 2009-09-08.
- Dodoo, Jan (May 29, 2001). "Nation of Islam". University of Virginia.
- "Active U.S. Hate Groups in 2006". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved October 29, 2007.
- "God, the Black Man and the Five Percenters". NPR. Retrieved February 13, 2012.
- Chandler, D.L. (June 28, 2012). "The Meaning Of The 5%: A Look At The Nation Of Gods And Earths". Hip-Hop Wired. Retrieved October 11, 2013.
- John Esposito (September 10, 2008) W. D. Mohammed: A Witness for True Islam The Washington Post. Retrieved 2009-06-21.
- Richard Brent Turner (2003). Islam in the African-American experience. pp. 225–27. ISBN 978-0-253-21630-4.
- Nation of Islam leader dies at 74 MSNBC. Retrieved June 21, 2009.
- Warith Deen Mohammed: Imam who preached a moderate form of Islam to black Americans The Independent. September 15, 2008. Retrieved April 22, 2009.
- Zahid Hussain Bukhari (2004). Muslims' Place in the American Public Square: Hope, Fears, and Aspirations. Rowman Altamira. p. xxxvii. ISBN 978-0-7591-0613-0.
- Daniel Brumberg; Dina Shehata (2009). Conflict, Identity, and Reform in the Muslim World: Challenges for U.S. Engagement. US Institute of Peace Press. pp. 366–70. ISBN 978-1-60127-020-7.
- Zoll, Rachel (July 25, 2009). "American Shias struggle with future". The Victoria Advocate. p. E3.
- Islamic Supreme Council of America: Our Mission.
- KOMARNICKI, Jamie (December 25, 2012). "Calgarian faces life sentence for 1990 murder of controversial U.S. imam". Archived from the original on December 28, 2012. Retrieved July 2, 2014.
More than two decades after a controversial imam was found stabbed to death inside his Tucson mosque, an Arizona jury has found former Calgarian Glen Cusford Francis guilty of first-degree murder in the case.
- Section 2: Religious Beliefs and Practices, Pew Research Center
- Deconstructing the American Mosque: Space, Gender, and Aesthetics, p. 145, Akel Ismail Kahera (2010)
- Encyclopedia of Muslim-American History. p. 473, Edward E. Curtis (2010)
- Immigrant and Minority Entrepreneurship: p. 5, John Sibley Butler, George Kozmetsky. (2004)
- "Paterson Social Security Attorney or Advocate". Social Security Disability Help. Retrieved April 10, 2013.
- "Tom W. Smith, Estimating the Muslim Population in the United States, New York, The American Jewish Committee, October 2001". Ajc.org. Retrieved December 6, 2011.
- "American Muslim Demographics – Muslim American Populations Outreach Programs". Allied-media.com. Retrieved December 6, 2011.
- Number of Muslims in the United States at Adherents.com. Retrieved January 6, 2006.
- Private studies fuel debate over size of U.S. Muslim population – Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. October 28, 2001.
- "America's Changing Religious Landscape". Pew Research. May 12, 2015. Retrieved May 15, 2015.
- Dooley, Tara. "Muslims gain Hispanic converts." Houston Chronicle at The Victoria Advocate. Saturday September 28, 2002. 2D and 3D. Retrieved from Google Books (45–46 of 51) on February 19, 2017.
- Bagby, Ihsan; Perl, Paul M.; Froehle, Bryan T. (April 26, 2001). "The Mosque in America: A National Portrait" (PDF). Council on American-Islamic Relations. p. 21. Retrieved February 19, 2017.
- Andrea Elliot (March 11, 2007) Between Black and Immigrant Muslims, an Uneasy Alliance The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-07-23.
- Portrait of Muslims – Beliefs & Practices Pew Research Center
- Grossman, Cathy Lynn (February 29, 2012). "Number of U.S. mosques up 74% since 2000". USA Today. Retrieved July 17, 2015.
- Detroit Islamic Center Open Largest Mosque in United States Archived November 4, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. Brittany Sterrett. June 2, 2005 Accessed August 19, 2007.
- Profile of the U.S. Muslim population, Dr Barry A. Kosmin & Dr Egon Mayer, October 2, 2001
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on September 16, 2012. Retrieved 2012-12-29.
- "Darul Uloom Chicago" (PDF). Shari'ah Board of America. p. 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 16, 2006. Retrieved August 19, 2007.
- Jacoby, Jeff (January 10, 2007). "The Boston mosque's Saudi connection". Boston Globe. Retrieved June 15, 2007.
- "Schumer: Saudis playing role in spreading main terror influence in United States". United States Senator Charles Schumer. Archived from the original on June 10, 2007. Retrieved June 15, 2007.
- Alexiev, Alex. "Terrorism: Growing Wahhabi Influence in the United States". Retrieved June 15, 2007.
- Sherkat, Darren E. (June 22, 2015). "Losing Their Religion: When Muslim Immigrants Leave Islam". Foreign Affairs. Retrieved May 11, 2016.
- How income varies among U.S. religious groups
- Curlin, MD, Farr A; Lantos, MD, John D; Roach, BS, Chad J; Sellergren, MA, Sarah A; Chin, MD, MPH, Marshall H. "Religious Characteristics of U.S. Physicians - A National Survey". NCBI US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health. NCBI NIH. PMC .
- Abu-Ras, W.; Laird, L.D.; Senzai, F. (October 2012). "A Window Into American Muslim Physicians: Civic Engagement and Communitu Participation" (PDF). Islamic Medical Association of North America (IMANA). Institute for Social Policy and Understanding (ISPU). pp. 9, 11. Retrieved March 9, 2016.
- "Pakistani Physicians and the Repatriation Equation". New England Journal of Medicine. 356: 442–443. doi:10.1056/NEJMp068261. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
- "Muslim-American Activisms: "Vision" Examined at AMA's Third Annual Convention". Washington Report on Middle East Affairs (WRMEA). Retrieved March 5, 2015. C1 control character in
|title=at position 36 (help)
- "Muslims in America – A Statistical Portrait". America.gov. Retrieved December 6, 2011.
- Waller, J. Michael (October 14, 2003). "Statement of J. Michael Waller, Annenberg Professor of International Communication, Institute of World Politics, Before the Subcommittee on Terrorism, Technology and Homeland Security, Senate Committee on the Judiciary". United States Senate. Archived from the original on May 27, 2012. Retrieved January 19, 2017.
- Federal Bureau of Investigation – Congressional Testimony Archived September 25, 2006, at the Wayback Machine.
- United State Senate, Committee on the Judiciary, Testimony of Mr. Paul Rogers, President of the American Correctional Chaplains Association, October 12, 2003 Judiciary.senate.gov Archived August 28, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Special Report: A Review of the Federal Bureau of Prisons' Selection of Muslim Religious Services Providers – Full Report" (PDF). Retrieved December 6, 2011.
- "Statistics on Religion in America Report – Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life". Retrieved March 5, 2015.
- "Region: Americas". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. January 27, 2011. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
- Barooah, Jahnabi (June 27, 2012). "PHOTOS: Most And Least Muslim States In America". Huffington Post.
- Justo Bautista (December 13, 2011). "Paterson Muslims to picket Lowe's for pulling ads from TV series". North Jersey Media Group. Retrieved April 10, 2013.
- Deena Yellin (May 3, 2015). "Palestinian flag-raising is highlight of heritage week in Paterson". North Jersey Media Group. Retrieved May 4, 2015.
- http://faithcommunitiestoday.org/sites/faithcommunitiestoday.org/files/The%20American%20Mosque%202011%20web.pdf[permanent dead link]
- Patricia Smith. "Islam in America", New York Times Upfront. New York: January 9, 2006. Vol. 138, Iss. 8; p. 10
- Staff Writer. "Muslim-Americans increasingly celebrate Christmas." Al Arabiya. December 24, 2013. Retrieved December 26, 2013.
- http://www.huffingtonpost.com/azeem-ibrahim/muslim-voters-2012_b_1247616.html Muslims in America 2012 – Who Will They Vote For?
- http://www.amuslimvoice.org/html/body_after_11_years.html American Muslims remain in the dock 11 years after 9/11 by Abdus Sattar Ghazali
- Brian Beutler. "GOP Muslims Fear Failure Of Bush Outreach Efforts After Anti-Mosque Furor | TPMDC". Tpmdc.talkingpointsmemo.com. Retrieved December 6, 2011.
- "Smears against Obama energized Muslim voters: experts". Reuters. November 6, 2008.
- "Zogby phone survey" (PDF). Projectmaps.com. Retrieved December 6, 2011.
- Stars, Stripes, Crescent – A reassuring portrait of America's Muslims. The Wall Street Journal, August 24, 2005
- The Diversity of Muslims in the United States – Views as Americans. United States Institute of Peace. February 2006
- For Muslims at AZ Airport, a Place to Wash Before Prayers, Arizona Republic, May 20, 2004.
- "Airport's sinks to help Muslims carry out rituals". Indy Star. Retrieved July 2, 2014.
- Shannon Hurd (April 20, 2002). "Few find quiet chapel at DIA". Boulder Daily Camera. Archived from the original on February 28, 2003. Retrieved July 2, 2014.
- Steven Shwartz; Center for Islamic Pluralism (May 2010). "Shariah in the West". Retrieved July 2, 2014.
- "Muslims in the military: Crescents among the crosses at Arlington Cemetery". altmuslim. Retrieved December 6, 2011.
- "Among U.S. Religious Groups, Muslims Seen as Facing More Discrimination". Reuters.com. September 9, 2009. Retrieved December 6, 2011.
- "Muslims report rising disrcrimination at work". Postbulletin.com. Retrieved December 6, 2011.
- "Hate-Crime Statistics Deflate 'Islamophobia' Myth". Retrieved March 5, 2015.
- "FBI – Hate Crime". FBI. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
- "Insignias and Plaques – Chaplains Corps". Retrieved March 5, 2015.
- Emerson, William K.,"Encyclopedia of United States Army Insignia and Uniforms, 1996, University of Oklahoma Press, p. 268, internet link. Retrieved May 15, 2011.
- Islamic Society of North America Official Website.
- "Islamic Circle of North America Official Website". Icna.org. Retrieved December 6, 2011.
- "Islam in the United States". Retrieved March 5, 2015.
- Sherri Day, "Muslims take message on the road", Tampa Bay Times, December 13, 2008
- Star-Ledger Editorial Board, "Why Islam? fights misunderstanding with the facts", The Star-Ledger, August 10, 2011
- Liane Membis, "Billboard Blitz for 877-Why-Islam info hotline", CNN, August 15, 2011
- Alice Speri, "In time for Ramadan, toll-free hotline seeks to educate N.J. residents about Islam", The Star-Ledger, August 8, 2011
- Islamic Assembly of North America Official Website Archived June 6, 2005, at the Wayback Machine..
- "Muslim Student Association Official Website". Msa-natl.org. Retrieved December 6, 2011.
- Islamic Information Center Official Website.
- Category: Misc (November 5, 2011). "Official site". Ahmadiyya.us. Retrieved December 6, 2011.
- "reference at end". Foxnews.com. April 7, 2010. Retrieved December 6, 2011.
- "UAE Cabinet approves list of designated terrorist organisations, groups". WAM Emirates News Agency. November 15, 2014.
- "Home". MPAC. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
- "The American Islamic Congress Statement Of Principles". Archived from the original on August 6, 2002. Retrieved July 2, 2014.
- "Free Muslims Coalition". Freemuslims.org. Retrieved December 6, 2011.
- http://www.nbcwashington.com/news/local/Million-Muslim-March-Christian-Protesters-White-House-Sept-11-2013-223315411.html "Million Muslim March" Attendees Confronted by Christian Protesters on National Mall
- http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/09/11/million-muslim-march_n_3906303.html 'Million Muslim March' Shaping Up To Be More Like A Few Hundred People Walking Down The Street: Kevin Barrett at the March Leading
- Linda Moss; Minjae Park (November 16, 2015). "New Jersey Muslim groups condemn Paris attacks". North Jersey Media Group. Retrieved November 16, 2015.
- "Inner-City Muslim Action Network Official Website". Imancentral.org. December 1, 2011. Retrieved December 6, 2011.
- "Islamic Relief Official Website". Irw.org. Retrieved December 6, 2011.
- Ann Walter Sieber,, Saudi Aramco World, January/February 2006
- Arlene Borenstein, , NBC Washington, July 28, 2011
- Views of Muslim-Americans hold steady after London Bombings – Pew Research Center. July 26, 2005
- "NEWSWEEK Poll: Americans Are Mixed on U.S. Muslims". New York: Prnewswire.com. Retrieved December 6, 2011.
- Restrictions on Civil Liberties, Views of Islam, & Muslim Americans Archived January 4, 2006, at the Wayback Machine. – Cornell University. December 2005
- Poll news CBS.
- "Muslim Americans are optimistic despite discrimination, new poll says". Christian Science Monitor. August 2, 2011. Retrieved December 6, 2011.
- "American Public Attitudes Toward ISIS and Syria | Brookings Institution". Retrieved 2016-09-23.
- "Perils of Perception, A 40 Country Study" (PDF). Ipsos Mori.
- "Muslim Americans: Middle Class and Mostly Mainstream" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on September 16, 2012. (656 KB), Pew Research Center, May 22, 2007
- "Major poll finds U.S. Muslims Mostly Mainstream". VOA News. Voice of America. June 1, 2007. Retrieved December 25, 2008.
- "Gallup Poll: Most Muslim-Americans Loyal to US". Newsmax.com. August 2, 2011. Retrieved December 6, 2011.
- "Civil Rights Division Post-9/11 Enforcement and Outreach". U.S. Department of Justice.
- Oswald, Debra L. (2005). "Understanding Anti-Arab Reactions Post-9/11: The Role of Threats, Social Categories, and Personal Ideologies". Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 35 (9): 1775–1799. doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.2005.tb02195.x.
- "Humanitykingdom.com" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on September 26, 2007. Retrieved December 6, 2011.
- Nieves, Evelyn (October 6, 2001). "Slain Arab-American May Have Been Hate-Crime Victim". The New York Times.
- Siddiqui, Habib (January 8, 2005). "Home / Articles / Is there a solution to racism? - Media Monitors Network (MMN)". Usa.mediamonitors.net. Retrieved December 6, 2011.
- "Ahmed Rehab: Hijab Case: Why Bigoted Battery Makes For A Hate Crime". Huffingtonpost.com. May 25, 2011. Retrieved December 6, 2011.
- Tolerance.org: Violence against Arab and Muslim Americans: Alabama to Massachusetts
- Tolerance.org: Violence against Arab and Muslim Americans: Michigan to Wisconsin
- "All-American Muslim: All-American Muslim: TLC". Tlc.howstuffworks.com. October 18, 2011. Archived from the original on December 19, 2011. Retrieved December 6, 2011.
- "Minnesota's Muslim cab drivers face crackdown". Reuters. April 17, 2007. Retrieved May 6, 2007.
- "Target shifts Muslims who won't ring up pork products". MSNBC. March 17, 2007. Retrieved June 3, 2009.
- "Assessing The Terrorist Threat" (PDF). Retrieved December 6, 2011.
- "Threat of Homegrown Islamist Terrorism". Cfr.org. Retrieved December 6, 2011.
- Jenkins, Brian Michael (2010). "No Path to Glory: Deterring Homegrown Terrorism". RAND Corporation.
- "Muslim-American Terrorism in the Decade Since 9/11". JournalistsResource.org, retrieved March 20, 2012
- Kurzman, Charles (2012). "Muslim-American Terrorism in the Decade Since 9/11". Triangle Center on Terrorism and Homeland Security.
- "Dzhokhar Tsarnaev: Boston Marathon bomber found guilty". BBC News. April 8, 2015. Retrieved April 8, 2015.
- "BREAKING: Shooting At Muhammad Art Exhibit In Garland « CBS Dallas/Fort Worth". dfw.cbslocal.com. Retrieved May 4, 2015.
- Sara Sidner; Ed Payne (May 30, 2015). "Mohammed cartoon contest: Protest held outside Phoenix mosque". CNN.
- "Part IV. What is the Threat to the United States Today?". newamerica.org. Retrieved December 17, 2016.
- Holpuch, Amanda; Yuhas, Alan (July 17, 2015). "Mohammad Youssuf Abdulazeez: everything we know about the Chattanooga gunman". Retrieved December 17, 2016 – via The Guardian.
- "Chattanooga gunman came from a middle-class Muslim family". washingtonpost.com. Retrieved December 17, 2016.
- "Islamophobia: Understanding Anti-Muslim Sentiment in the West". Gallup, Inc. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
- Ingraham, Christopher (November 17, 2015). "What most Americans think of Islam today". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved December 12, 2015.
- "How Americans Feel About Religious Groups: Jews, Catholics & Evangelicals Rated Warmly, Atheists and Muslims More Coldly". Pew Research Center. July 16, 2014.
- "Survey | Anxiety, Nostalgia, and Mistrust: Findings from the 2015 American Values Survey". Public Religion Research Institute. Retrieved December 12, 2015.
- Startribune.com[dead link]
- Gao, Helen (July 2, 2007). "Muslim prayers in school debated". The San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved December 6, 2011.
- Bush like Hitler, says first Muslim in Congress The Telegraph
- Congressman Admits 9/11 Error, Associated Press, July 18, 2007
- Sun Times Retrieved in 2008.
- Curtis IV, Edward E., ed. Columbia Sourcebook of Muslims in the United States (2007), 472 pp. table of contents
- Curtis IV, Edward E. Muslims in America: A Short History (2009)
- Curtis IV, Edward E. Encyclopedia of Muslim-American History (2010), 715 pp.
- Etengoff, C. & Daiute, C., (2013). Sunni-Muslim American Religious Development during Emerging Adulthood, Journal of Adolescent Research, 28(6), 690–714
- GhaneaBassiri, Kambiz. A History of Islam in America: From the New World to the New World Order (Cambridge University Press; 2010) 416 pp; chronicles the Muslim presence in America across five centuries.
- Haddad, Yvonne Yazbeck, Jane I. Smith, and Kathleen M. Moore. Muslim Women in America: The Challenge of Islamic Identity Today (2006)
- Kabir, Nahib . Muslims in Australia: Immigration, Race Relations and Cultural History, London: Routledge ISBN 978-0-7103-1108-5 (2005)
- Kidd, Thomas. S. American Christians and Islam - Evangelical Culture and Muslims from the Colonial Period to the Age of Terrorism, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2008 ISBN 978-0-691-13349-2
- Koszegi, Michael A., and J. Gordon Melton, eds. Islam In North America (Garland Reference Library of Social Science) (1992)
- Marable, Manning; Aidi, Hishaam D, eds. (2009). Black Routes to Islam. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1-4039-8400-X.
- Smith, Jane I; Islam in America (2nd ed. 2009)
- Islam on Capitol Hill (Internet home of Islam affirmation event at Capitol Hill on September 25, 2009)
- Islamic Center of Beverly Hills
- Muslim American Outreach
Guides and reference listings
- GaramChai.com: Mosques (listings of mosques in the United States)
Academia and news
- The Muslim Journal
- Allied Media Corporation: Muslim American Market: MUSLIM AMERICAN MEDIA
- The As-Sunnah Foundation of America: The Islamic Community In The United States: Historical Development
- DinarStandard: The Untapped American Muslim Consumer Market
- Euro Islam.info: Islam in the United States
- Internet Archive: An Oral History of Islam in Pittsburgh (2006)
- OnIslam.net: What Goes First for American Muslims: A Guide to A Better-engaged Community
- OnIslam.net: Politicking U.S. Muslims: How Can U.S. Muslims Change Realities – Interview with Dr. Salah Soltan
- OnIslam.net: US Muslims: The Social Angle – Interview with Dr. Mazen Hashem
- Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance: How many Muslims are there in the U.S. and the rest of the world?
- The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life: Muslims Widely Seen As Facing Discrimination
- Pew Research Center: Publications: Muslim Americans: Middle Class and Mostly Mainstream
- The Pluralism Project at Harvard University: Distribution of Muslim Centers in the U.S.
- Qantara.de: African-American Muslims: The American Values of Islam
- San Francisco State University: Media Guide to Islam: Timeline of Islam in the United States
- Social Science Research Network: What Every Political Leader in America and the West should Know about the Arab-Islamic World
- Spiegel.de, A Lesson for Europe: American Muslims strive to become model citizens
- United States Institute of Peace: The Diversity of Muslims in the United States: Views as Americans
- TIME: Muslim in America (photo essay)
- Valparaiso University: Muslims as a Percentage of all Residents, 2000
- Growing Up in 9/11 Shadow OnIslam.net
- In 9/11 Memory, U.S. Faiths Urge Unity OnIslam.net