Muslim Association of the Lictor

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Muslim Association of the Lictor

Associazione Musulmana del Littorio
Founded1939
Dissolved1943
HeadquartersTripoli, Italian Libya
Youth wingArab Lictor Youth
IdeologyItalian Fascism
National affiliationNational Fascist Party
Fascist decorations used by the Muslim Association of the Lictor

The Muslim Association of the Lictor (Italian: Associazione Musulmana del Littorio, AML) was created in 1939 as the Muslim branch of the National Fascist Party of Italy.[1] It was found mainly and largely in Italian Libya.[2] It was dissolved by the Allies during the invasion of Italy in 1943.

History[edit]

The "Associazione mussulmana del Littorio" was founded by the Italian Governor-General in Libya, Italo Balbo, in January 9, 1939.[3]

This "Cittadinanza Italiana Speciale" (Italian Special citizenship) was created for indigenous Libyans only within Libya (they could not migrate to Italy proper with this form of citizenship) that was claimed to have been done as a gesture of gratitude for the military support received by 9000 native Libyans in the Italian conquest of Ethiopia in 1936.[4] Laws were subsequently passed that permitted indigenous Libyans to join the National Fascist Party and in particular the Muslim Association of the Lictor.[5]

The correspondent association of AML for youths in Italian Libya was called Arab Lictor Youth, that -by order of governor Balbo- was responsible for integrating sport between Arabs, Jews and Italians.[6]

Political Links[edit]

There were even connections with the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt. Indeed the future presidents of Egypt Nasser [7] and Sadat were related to the "Associazione Mussulmana del Littorio", when were members of the "Green shirts" of Egypt fascim[8].

...I (Sadat) contacted for the first time general Ali al Masri, linked to the Italo-Libyan Fascist of the "Associazione Mussulmana del Littorio", in 1939 and later in Marsa Matruh in spring 1941.... I had some meetings with him in order to organize a revolt pro-Rommel in the Nile delta and in Cairo against the British...and I helped him to try to escape from Egypt in 1941. Anwar Sadat[9]

They were even jailed when the Italian and German troops reached El Alamein in summer 1942, and they were ready for an insurrection in Egypt against the British with support of Libyan members of the Muslim Association of Lictor[10]

Another political link with Libya's fascist organization for Arabs was the one of Sadat with Mustafa Maizran, the representitative of Tripolitania at the 1951 Conference for Libya's independence. Mustafa Maizran was a high ranking director for Tripolitania's Associazione Mussulmana del Littorio in 1940 and -because he was bilingual Italian and Arab- was the link between Italo Balbo (governor of Libya) and the group of Egyptian officials under the leardership of Sadat for a meeting to be done in Sidi Azeis near Marsa Matruh in the first days of war. Folco Quilici wrote about this meeting, that was not done because of the "strange" murder of Balbo while flying above Tobruk toward Sidi Azeis [11]. After the failure of this meeting the English authorities forced two Egyptian divisions (and Sadat) to withdraw from the Libyan-Egyptian frontier (Sadat wrote about this "humiliation" in his famous "Revolt on the Nile"[12]). Mustafa Maizran -after the meeting failure- distanciated himself from the fascist organizations in Libya.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Video of the AML creation in 1939
  2. ^ Sarti, Roland. 1974. The Ax Within: Italian Fascism in Action. New York: New Viewpoints. p190.
  3. ^ Munzi, Massimiliano. L'epica del ritorno: archeologia e politica nella Tripolitania italiana. Saggi di storia antica. "L'Erma" di Bretschneider. Roma, 2001
  4. ^ Donati, S."A Political History of National Citizenship and Identity in Italy, 1861–1950", p. 193
  5. ^ Sarti, p196.
  6. ^ Gianluca Gabrielli: "Balbo's Fascism and Sport", p.242 (in Italian) [1])
  7. ^ Photo of Nasser as "Greenshirt" (pointed by arrow)
  8. ^ Nasser and Arafat, members of Egypt's fascist organizations
  9. ^ Anwar El-Sadat. "In Search of Identity: An Autobiography". p. 26-38
  10. ^ Stefano Fabei - Giovanna Canzano: "Fascismo, Nazionalsocialismo, gli Arabi e l’Islam" (in Italian) [2]
  11. ^ Balbo's death
  12. ^ Revolt on the Nile, by Sadat

Bibliography[edit]

  • Donati, Sabina A Political History of National Citizenship and Identity in Italy, 1861–1950. Stanford University Press, Stanford, 2013 ISBN 0804787336 ([3])