Muslim Rajputs

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Muslim Rajputs
Regions with significant populations
Pakistan • India • United Kingdom • United States of America
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PunjabiSindhiSeraikiUrduRajasthaniGujaratiHindiMarwariAwadhiBhojpuriEnglish
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Rajputs

Muslim Rajputs or Musulman Rajputs (Urdu: مسلمان راجپوت‎) are patrilineal descendants of Rajputs of Northern regions of the Indian Subcontinent who embraced Islam.[1] Today, Muslim Rajputs can be found in Northern India, Kashmir, as well as Punjab and Sindh in Eastern Pakistan.[2] They are further divided into different clans.

History[edit]

The term Rajput is traditionally applied to the original Suryavanshi, Chandravanshi and Agnivanshi clans, who claimed to be Kshatriya in the Hindu varna system.

Conversion to Islam and ethos[edit]

There are recorded instances of recent conversions of Rajputs to Islam in Western Uttar Pradesh, Khurja tahsil of Bulanshahr.[3]

Despite the difference in faith, where the question has arisen of common Rajput honour, there have been instances where both Muslim and Hindu Rajputs have united together against threats from external ethnic groups.[4]

Medieval Muslim Rajput dynasties of the Indian subcontinent[edit]

Katara dynasty[edit]

Main article: Katara Rajput

The Ismaili Rajputs replaced the Sunni Arab in Punjab in the 9th century. The dynasty lasted until the mid-11th century and had Multan as its capital. The Katara's are one the most persecuted people in Punjab especially during the Ghazni rule, after which they went into seclusion for self-preservation. They had converted to Ismaili Islam under the Da'i Halam b. Shayban, sent by Fatmid Caliph. In their rule Multan saw a period of peace, expansion of commerce and trade, and flourishing local culture.

Soomra dynasty[edit]

Main article: Soomra dynasty

The Rajput Soomra dynasty replaced the Arab Habbari dynasty in the 10th century. The dynasty lasted until the mid-13th century. The Soomras are one the longest running dynasties in the history of Sindh, lasting 325 years. They had converted to Islam under the Arab rule. During their reign, Sindh saw a period of relative peace, expansion of commerce and trade, and flourishing local culture.[5]

Samma dynasty[edit]

Main article: Samma dynasty

The Samma era saw the rise of Thatta as an important commercial and cultural centre. At the time the Portuguese occupation of the trading centre of Hormuz in 1514 CE,[citation needed] trade from the Sindh accounted for nearly 10% of their customs revenue, and they described Thatta as one of the richest cities in the world. Thatta's prosperity was based partly on its own high-quality cotton and silk textile industry, partly on export of goods from further inland in the Punjab and northern India.[6]

The Samma period contributed significantly to the evolution of the Indo-Islamic architectural style. Thatta is famous for its necropolis, which covers 10 square km on the Makli Hill.[7]

Muzaffarid dynasty[edit]

The Gujarat Sultanate was an independent Rajput kingdom established in the early 15th century by the Muzaffarid dynasty in Gujarat. Under the dynasty, trade, culture, and Indo-Islamic architecture flourished. The city of Ahmedabad was founded by the dynasty.

Notable people in medieval India[edit]

Beliefs and customs[edit]

Social practices[edit]

Rajputs who accepted Islam often retain common social practices (such as purdah (seclusion of women), which is generally followed by Hindu, Sikh and Muslim Rajputs).[2]

Marriages[edit]

After conversion to Islam from a culturally Rajput background, there was very little difference between Rajasthani and Uttar Pradeshi Hindu and Muslim Rajputs (outside of religious practices).[10]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "UNHCR Refugee Review Tribunal. IND32856, 6 February 2008" (PDF). 
  2. ^ a b "Rajput". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved 30 October 2014. 
  3. ^ Muslim Women by Zakia A. Siddiqi, Anwar Jahan Zuberi, Aligarh Muslim University, India University Grants, M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd., 1993, p93
  4. ^ Self and sovereignty: Individual and Community in South Asian Islam Since 1850 by Ayesha Jalal, Routledge 2000, p480,p481
  5. ^ http://www.uok.edu.pk/faculties/sindhi/docs/soomroEng.pdf
  6. ^ [The Global World of Indian Merchants, 1750-1947: Traders of Sind from Bukhara to Panama by Claude Markovits, 2000 ISBN 0-521-62285-9, ISBN 978-0-521-62285-1]
  7. ^ Archnet.org: Thattah
  8. ^ Joglekar (2006). Decisive Battles India Lost (326 B. C. to 1803 A. D.). p. 60. 
  9. ^ Isa Khan on Banglapedia written by ABM Shamsuddin; chief Editor Professor Sirajul Islam
  10. ^ People Of India by K. S. Singh, B. K. Lavania, S. K. Mandal, Anthropological Survey of India, N. N. Vyas, Popular Prakashan, 1998, p880