Muslim Rajputs

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Muslim Rajputs
Regions with significant populations
 Pakistan •  India •  United Kingdom •  United States of America
Allah-green.svg Islam •
Related ethnic groups
Indo-Aryan peopleRajputsRangharPunjabi RajputsSindhi RajputsPahari RajputsMuslim DograsPurbiyasKhanzada RajputsThakurai

Muslim Rajputs or Musulman Rajputs (Urdu: مسلمان راجپوت‎) are patrilineal descendants of the ancient ruling class of Northern India who embraced Islam.[1] Today, Muslim Rajputs can be found in Northern and Western India as well as Punjab and Sindh in Eastern Pakistan.[2] They are further divided into different clans.


The term Rajput is traditionally applied to the original Suryavanshi, Chandravanshi and Agnivanshi clans, the ancient Kshatriya clans of South Asia.

Conversion to Islam and Ethos[edit]

The fact of subsequent conversion to other faiths, did not deprive them of this heritage; just as the Greeks, after their conversion to Christianity, did not lose pride in the mighty achievements of their ancestors, of the Italians in the great days of the Roman Republic and early empire... Christians, Jews, Parsees, Moslems. Indian converts to these religions never ceased to be Indian on account of a change of their faith ...[3]

The Rajput conversions sometimes attracted opposition.

An example of the opposition occurred in Rajgarh State during the viceroyalty of John Lawrence between 1858-69. At that time, the ruling Rajput chief of Rajgarh began to follow Islamic traditions, infuriating his Hindu peers to such an extent that he chose to abdicate the royal throne. A subsequent inquiry determined that he had been a good ruler and that his subjects had been satisfied with his rule. A year later, the former ruler declared the Kalima Muslim affirmation of embracing Islam. This case established for the British Raj the precedent that no leader or ruler can be replaced simply because of his change of creed. Regardless of the feelings of his peers, it was the quality of his rule that mattered.[4]

There is also recorded instances of recent conversions of Rajputs to Islam in Western Uttar Pradesh, Khurja tahsil of Bulanshahr.[5]

But despite the difference in faith, where the question has arisen of common Rajput honour, there have been instances where both Muslim and Hindu Rajputs have united together against threats from external ethnic groups.[6]

Medieval Muslim Rajput dynasties of Sindh[edit]

Soomra dynasty[edit]

Main article: Soomra dynasty

The Rajput Soomra dynasty replaced the Arab Habbari dynasty in the 10th century. The dynasty lasted until the mid-13th century. The Soomras are one the longest running dynasties in the history of Sindh, lasting 325 years. They were of Rajput origin, who converted to Islam under the Arab rule. During their reign, Sindh saw a period of relative peace, expansion of commerce and trade, and flourishing local culture.[7]

Samma dynasty[edit]

Main article: Samma dynasty

The Rajput Samma dynasty replaced the Rajput Soomra dynasty. They gained control of Thatta from the Soomra around 1335 A.D. The dynasty is believed to have originated in Saurashtra, and later migrated to Sindh.[8]

During the Sammas saw the rise of Thatta as an important commercial and cultural center. At the time the Portuguese took control of the trading center of Hormuz in 1514 CE,[9] trade from the Sindh accounted for nearly 10% of their customs revenue, and they described Thatta as one of the richest cities in the world. Thatta's prosperity was based partly on its own high-quality cotton and silk textile industry, partly on export of goods from further inland in the Punjab and northern India.[10]

The Samma period contributed significantly to the evolution of the Indo-Islamic architectural style. Thatta is famous for its necropolis, which covers 10 square km on the Makli Hill.[11]

Beliefs and customs[edit]

Social practices[edit]

Rajputs who accepted Islam, often retained common social practices (such as purdah (seclusion of women), which is generally followed by Hindu, Sikh and Muslim Rajputs).[2]


After conversion to Islam from a culturally Rajput background, there was very little difference between Rajasthani and Uttar Pradeshi Hindu and Muslim Rajputs (outside of religious practices).[12] Hence up until recently, marriages between Muslim and Hindu Rajputs also took place.[13]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "UNHCR Refugee Review Tribunal. IND32856, 6 February 2008" (PDF). 
  2. ^ a b "Rajput". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved 30 October 2014. 
  3. ^ The Discovery of India by Jawaharlal Nehru, Oxford Uni. Press 1985, p62, p341
  4. ^ Lord Lawrence and the Reconstruction of India Under The Crown by Sir Charles Aitcheson, K.C.S.I., M.A., LL.D., Rulers of India series, Clarendon Press 1897,V p117
  5. ^ Muslim Women by Zakia A. Siddiqi, Anwar Jahan Zuberi, Aligarh Muslim University, India University Grants, M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd., 1993, p93
  6. ^ Self and sovereignty: Individual and Community in South Asian Islam Since 1850 by Ayesha Jalal, Routledge 2000, p480,p481
  7. ^ Umedani, Loung V.; Meghwar, Phuloo (2013). "Migratory Aspects of Inhabitants of Indus Valley Civilization- A Historical Perspective". International Research Journal of Art & Humanities (Asianet-Pakistan) 41 (41). The two main Rajput tribes of Sindh are: the Samma, descendants of the Samma dynasty who ruled Sindh during (1351 - 1521 A.D); and the Soomra, descendants of the Soomra dynasty who ruled Sindh during (750 - 1350 A.D). 
  8. ^ A recent find of 18 AE Coins of the Jams of Sindh, attributed to Jam Nizam al Din, and Jam Firoz
  9. ^ Hormuz
  10. ^ [The Global World of Indian Merchants, 1750-1947: Traders of Sind from Bukhara to Panama by Claude Markovits, 2000 ISBN 0-521-62285-9, ISBN 978-0-521-62285-1]
  11. ^ Thattah
  12. ^ People Of India by K. S. Singh, B. K. Lavania, S. K. Mandal, Anthropological Survey of India, N. N. Vyas, Popular Prakashan, 1998, p880
  13. ^ Sangari, Kumkum (2004). "Multiple Temporalities, Unsettled Boundaries, Trickster Women". In Blackburn, Stuart H.; Dalmia, Vasudha. India's Literary History: Essays on the Nineteenth Century. Orient Blackswan. pp. 225–226. ISBN 9788178240565.