Muslim holidays

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

There are two official holidays in Islam: Eid Al-Fitr and Eid Al-Adha. Eid Al-Fitr is celebrated at the end of Ramadan (a month of fasting during daylight hours), and Muslims usually give zakat (charity) on the occasion. Eid Al-Adha is celebrated on the tenth day of Dhu al-Hijjah and lasts for four days, during which Muslims usually sacrifice a sheep and distribute its meat in 3 parts: among family, friends, and the poor.

Both of the holidays occur on dates in the Islamic (Hijri) calendar, which is lunar, and thus their dates in the Gregorian calendar, which is solar, change each year. The Gregorian calendar is based on the orbital period of the Earth's revolution around the Sun, approximately 36514 days, while the Islamic calendar is based on the synodic period of the Moon's revolution around the Earth, approximately 2912 days. The Islamic calendar alternates months of 29 and 30 days (which begin with the new moon). Twelve of these months constitute an Islamic year, which is 11 days shorter than the Gregorian year.

Eid holidays[edit]

Main articles: Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha

Religious practices[edit]

Fasting[edit]

Main article: Ramadan

Ramadan is the holy month in which Muslims must fast from dawn to sunset primarily as a devotion to the commandment of Allah ( this includes flattery-free fasting, prayer and charity as well), but also to harvest the healthy benefits of fasting ( Self-Enlightenment, Immune System Boost, brain function and Insulin Sensitivity Improvement). Contrary to the false idea that fasting is done so people feel what the poor and the hungry go through, the needy also fast for Ramadan, as prescribed by Muslim scholars. Muslims fast by denying themselves food, water and all related sexual activity with their spouses, but also many things religiously forbidden but socially forgotten can void the person's fast, such as Ghibah (backbiting others) and deceiving others. However, people with chronic diseases or unhealthy conditions such as diabetes for example, and those who haven't reached the age of puberty are exempt from fasting. Travelers, and women who are menstruating or nursing a baby, are exempt from fasting as well during their special situation but are required to fast later.

Pilgrimage[edit]

Further information: Hajj

Hajj[edit]

Main article: Hajj

Umrah[edit]

Main article: Umrah

Dates of holidays and other days of note[edit]

Hijri date 1437 AH 1438 AH 1439 AH 1440 AH 1441 AH
Islamic New Year 1 Muḥarram 15 Oct. 2015 3 Oct. 2016 22 Sep. 2017 12 Sep. 2018 1 Sep. 2019
Ashura 10 Muḥarram 24 Oct. 2015 12 Oct. 2016 1 Oct. 2017 21 Sep. 2018 10 Sep. 2019
Arba'een[a] 20 or 21 Ṣafar[b] 3 Dec. 2015 21 Nov. 2016 10 Nov. 2017 31 Oct. 2018 20 Oct. 2019
Mawlid an-Nabī[c] 12 Rabī‘ al-Awwal (Sunnis) 24 Dec. 2015 12 Dec. 2016 1 Dec. 2017 21 Nov. 2018 10 Nov. 2019
17 Rabī‘ al-Awwal (Shias) 29 Dec. 2015 17 Dec. 2016 6 Dec. 2017 26 Nov. 2018 15 Nov. 2019
Birthday of ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib[a] 13 Rajab 21 Apr. 2016 11 Apr. 2017 31 Mar. 2018 21 Mar. 2019 9 Mar. 2020
Laylat al-Mi'raj 27 Rajab[d] 5 May 2016 25 Apr. 2017 14 Apr. 2018 4 Apr. 2019 23 Mar. 2020
Laylat al-Bara'at 15 Sha‘bān 23 May 2016 12 May 2017 2 May 2018 21 Apr. 2019 9 Apr. 2020
Birthday of Muhammad al-Mahdī[e] 15 Sha‘bān 23 May 2016 12 May 2017 2 May 2018 21 Apr. 2019 9 Apr. 2020
First day of Ramaḍān 1 Ramaḍān 7 June 2016 28 May 2017 17 May 2018 7 May 2019 25 Apr. 2020
Laylat al-Qadr 19, 21, 23, 25, 27, or 29 Ramaḍān[f] between
25 June & 5 July 2016
between
15 & 25 June 2017
between
4 & 14 June 2018
between
25 May & 4 June 2019
between
13 & 23 May 2020
Chaand Raat[g] 29 or 30 Ramaḍān[h] 6 July 2016 25 June 2017 15 June 2018 4 June 2019 24 May 2020
Eid al-Fitr 1 Shawwāl 7 July 2016 26 June 2017 16 June 2018 5 June 2019 25 May 2020
Hajj 8–13 Dhū al-Ḥijja 10–15 Sep. 2016 31 Aug. – 5 Sep. 2017 20–25 Aug. 2018 10–15 Aug. 2019 30 July – 4 Aug. 2020
Day of Arafah 9 Dhū al-Ḥijja 11 Sep. 2016 1 Sep. 2017 21 Aug. 2018 11 Aug. 2019 31 July 2020
Eid al-Adha 10 Dhū al-Ḥijja 12 Sep. 2016 2 Sep. 2017 22 Aug. 2018 12 Aug. 2019 1 Aug. 2020
Eid al-Ghadeer[a] 18 Dhū al-Ḥijja 20 Sep. 2016 10 Sep. 2017 30 Aug. 2018 20 Aug. 2019 9 Aug. 2020

[1][2]

  1. ^ a b c Primarily observed by Shias.
  2. ^ Observed 40 days after the Day of Ashura.
  3. ^ Not observed by some Sunnis.
  4. ^ There is some disagreement about this date; see Isra and Mi'raj.
  5. ^ Primarily observed by Twelver Shias.
  6. ^ Most often observed on 27 Ramaḍān; see Laylat al-Qadr.
  7. ^ Primarily observed in South Asia.
  8. ^ Observed on the last evening of Ramaḍān; see Chaand Raat.

Some Gregorian dates may vary slightly from those given, and may also vary by country. See Islamic calendar.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Special Islamic Days". IslamicFinder. Retrieved 1 October 2016. 
  2. ^ "Islamic Calendar". IslamicFinder. Retrieved 1 October 2016. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Leaman, Oliver, "Festivals of Love", in Muhammad in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God (2 vols.), Edited by C. Fitzpatrick and A. Walker, Santa Barbara, ABC-CLIO, 2014, Vol I, pp. 197–199.

External links[edit]