Mustafa II

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Mustafa II
مصطفى ثانى
Caliph of Islam
Amir al-Mu'minin
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques
II. Mustafa.jpg
14th Caliph of the Ottoman Caliphate
22nd Ottoman Sultan (Emperor)
Reign February 6, 1695 – August 22, 1703
Predecessor Ahmed II
Successor Ahmed III
Born February 6, 1664
Died December 29/30, 1703 (aged 39)
Consorts Saliha Valide Sultan
Şehsuvar Valide Sultan
Alicenab Kadınefendi
Hafise Kadınefendi
Ivaz Kadınefendi
Afife Kadınefendi
Bahtiyar Kadınefendi
Hanife Hanımefendi
Fatma Şahin Hanımefendi
Anna Sophia von Wippach
Dynasty Osmanli (Ottoman)
Father Mehmed IV
Mother Emetullah Rabia Gülnûş Sultan
Religion Sunni Islam
Tughra

Mustafa II (Ottoman Turkish: مصطفى ثانى Muṣṭafā-yi sānī) (February 6, 1664 – December 29/30, 1703) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1695 to 1703.

Biography[edit]

He was born at Edirne Palace a son of sultan Mehmed IV (1648–87) and Mah-Para Ummatullah Rabia Gül-Nush Valide Sultan, originally named Evemia,[1] who was of Greek Cretan descent.[2][3][4][5][6] Mustafa II abdicated in favor of his brother Ahmed III (1703–30) in 1703.

Military Campaigns[edit]

During his reign the Great Turkish War, which had started in 1683, was still going on. After the failure of the second Siege of Vienna (1683) the Holy League had captured large parts of the Empire's territory in Europe. The Habsburg armies came as far as Nis, modern-day Serbia. Sultan Mustafa II was determined to recapture the lost territories and therefore he personally commanded his armies. First, the Ottoman navy recaptured the island of Chios after defeating the Venetian Fleet twice, in the Battle of the Oinousses Islands (1695) and in the Battle of Chios (1695), in February 1695.[7][8]

In June 1695, Mustafa II left Edirne for his first military campaign against the Habsburg Empire. By September 1695 the town of Lipova was captured. On 18 September 1695 the Venetian Navy was again defeated in the naval victory of Zeytinburnu. A few days later the Habsburg army was defeated in the Battle of Lugos. Afterwards the Ottoman Army returned to the capital. Meanwhile, the Ottoman fortress in Azov was successfully defended against the besieging Russian forces.[7]

On April 1696 Mustafa II left Edirne for his second military campaign against the Habsburg Empire. In August 1696 the Russians besieged Azov for the second time and captured the fortress. In August 1696 the Ottoman troops defeated the Habsburg army in the Battle of Ulaş and in the Battle of Cenei. After these victories the Ottoman troops captured Timişoara and Koca Cafer Pasha was appointed as the protector of Belgrade. Afterwards the army returned to the Ottoman capital.[7]

In June 1697 Mustafa II left the capital on his third military campaign against the Habsburg Empire. However, the Ottoman Army suffered a defeat in the Battle of Zenta and Grand Vizier Elmas Mehmed Pasha died in the battle. Afterwards the Ottomans signed a treaty with the Holy League.[7]

The most traumatic event of his reign was the loss of Hungary by the Treaty of Karlowitz in 1699. This event marked the beginning of the long decline of the Ottoman Empire.

Yet even if Ottoman power seemed to wane on one side of the empire, this did not mean that Ottoman efforts at expansion ceased. In 1700, for example, the Grand Vizier Amcazade Hüseyin boasted to a recalcitrant tribe residing in swamps near Baghdad that they ought to abide by the sultan's rule, since his grasp extended even to their marshy redoubts. The Grand Vizier added that, after all, Mustafa was "the Lord of Water and Mud."[9]

At the end of his reign, Mustafa II sought to restore power to the Sultanate, which had been an increasingly symbolic position since the middle of the 17th century, when Mehmed IV had signed over his executive powers to the Grand Vizier. Mustafa II's strategy was to create an alternative base of power for himself by making the position of timars, the Ottoman cavalrymen, hereditary and thus loyal to him. The timars, however, were at this point increasingly an obsolete part of the Ottoman military machine.

The strategem (called the "Edirne event" by historians) failed, and Mustafa II was deposed in the same year, 1703. He died at Topkapı Palace, Constantinople.

Marriages and Issue[10][edit]

Consorts[edit]

  • Ali-Janab Bash-Haseki (d. Adrianople, 20 April 1699).
  • Valide Saliha Sabkati Sultan.
  • Hafise Kadınefendi (d. 12 June 1723).
  • Valide Şehsuvar Sultan, a lady of Russian origin.
  • Afifa Haseki.
  • Huma-Shah Haseki (d. 1 February 1700).
  • Mah-Firuz Khadija Haseki.
  • Hanifa Khatun.
  • Fatima Shahin Khatun.
  • Anna Sophia von Wippach, former wife of Ernst Wilhelm von Hantein.

Sons[edit]

  • Mahmud I (2 August 1696 – 13 December 1754), son of Saliha.
  • Şehzade Sulaiman (25 December 1697 – died young).
  • Şehzade Mehmed (22 November 1698 – 5 June 1703), son of Hafise.
  • Osman III (2/3 January 1699 – 30 October 1757), son of Şehsuvar.
  • Şehzade Ali (1698/99 – died young).
  • Şehzade Hasan Khan (27 March 1699 – May 1733), became heir apparent from 1730.
  • Şehzade Ahmed (14 April 1699 – 10 October 1699).
  • Şehzade Husain (7 May 1699 – 24 August 1700).
  • Şehzade Selim (16 May 1700 – 8 June 1701), son of Hafise.
  • Şehzade Ahmed (3 March 1703 – 7 September 1703), twin with Murad, son of Hafise.
  • Şehzade Murad (3 March 1703 – 29 December 1703), twin with Ahmed, son of Hafise.
  • Şehzade Sulaiman (1703 – 1710).

Daughters[edit]

  • Atika Sultan (23 October 1694 – died young).
  • Aisha Buyuk Sultan (30 March 1696 – 26 September 1752), married:
    • firstly 14 March 1710 Damad Haji Fazil Numan Pasha Koprulu, Grand Vizier.
    • secondly 15 September 1720, Damad Ibrahim Pasha Tazkarachi.
    • thirdly 1725, Damad Khoja Mustafa Pasha.
  • Amina Sultan (1 September 1696 – 1739), married:
    • firstly 1701 (div. 1702), Damad Husain Pasha, sometime Vizier and Governor-General of Damascus.
    • secondly 9 April 1708 Damad 'Ali Pasha, Grand Vizier.
    • thirdly 1712 (div. 1713), Damad Rajab Pasha, Vizier.
    • fourthly July 1728, Damad Muhassil 'Abdu'llah Pasha, Governor-General of Aydin.
  • Safia Sultan (13 December 1696 – 15 May 1778), married:
    • firstly 8 May 1710, Damad Genc 'Ali Pasha, 3rd Vizier in 1701.
    • secondly 1726, Damad Mirza Muhammad Pasha.
    • thirdly 30t April 1740, Damad Alaiyali Haji Abu Bakar Pasha, Vizier in 1724.
  • Rukiya Sultan (13 November 1697 –28 March 1698).
  • Khadija Sultan (14 February 1698 – died young).
  • Fatima Sultan (8 October 1699 – 20 May 1700).
  • Ismikhan Sultan (23 April 1700 – 1 June 1700).
  • Azma Sultan.
  • Rukiya Sultan (aft. 1698 – 24 December 1703).
  • Umm ul-Kulsum Sultan (10 June 1700 – 1 May 1701), twin with Zainab.
  • Zainab Sultan (10 June 1700 – 18 December 1705), twin with Umm ul-Kulsum.
  • Ummetullah Sultan (22 June 1701 – 12 April 1727), married 13 September 1720 Damad Kanijali Sirki Osman Pasha.
  • Aisha Sultan (1703 – 1706).

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Baker, Anthony E (1993). The Bosphorus. Redhouse Press. p. 146. ISBN 975-413-062-0. The Valide Sultan was born Evmania Voria, daughter of a Greek priest in a village near Rethymnon on Crete. She was captured by the Turks when they took Rethymnon in 1645. 
  2. ^ Freely, John (2001). The lost Messiah. Viking. p. 132. ISBN 0-670-88675-0. He set up his harem there, his favourite being Rabia Giilniis Ummetiillah, a Greek girl from Rethymnon on Crete 
  3. ^ Palmer, Alan (2009). The decline and fall of the Ottoman Empire. Barnes & Noble. p. 27. ISBN 1-56619-847-X. Unusually, the twenty-nine year old Ahmed III was a brother, rather than a half- brother, of his predecessor; their Cretan mother, Rabia 
  4. ^ Bromley, J. S. (1957). The New Cambridge Modern History. University of California: University Press. p. 554. ISBN 0-521-22128-5. the mother of Mustafa II and Ahmed III was a Cretan 
  5. ^ Sardo, Eugenio Lo (1999). Tra greci e turchi: fonti diplomatiche italiane sul Settecento ottomano. Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche. p. 82. ISBN 88-8080-014-0. Their mother, a Cretan, lady named Rabia Gulnus, continued to wield influence as the Walide Sultan - mother of the reigning sultan 
  6. ^ Library Information and Research Service (2005). The Middle East. Library Information and Research Service. p. 91. She was the daughter of a Cretan (Greek) family and she was the mother of Mustafa II (1664-1703), and Ahmed III (1673-1736). 
  7. ^ a b c d Bilgi
  8. ^ Somel, Selcuk Aksin. Historical Dictionary of the Ottoman Empire. Scarecrow Press, 2003. p. XIIV chronology. ISBN 0810866064. 
  9. ^ Husain, Faisal (October 2014). "In the Bellies of the Marshes: Water and Power in the Countryside of Ottoman Baghdad". Environmental History. 
  10. ^ The Imperial House of Osman: Genealogy [retrieved 26 February 2016].

Sources[edit]

  • Abou-El-Haj, R. A. (1974). "The Narcissism of Mustafa II (1695-1703): A Psychohistorical Study". Studia Islamica (40): pp. 115–131. 

External links[edit]

Media related to Mustafa II at Wikimedia Commons

Mustafa II
Born: February 6, 1664 Died: December 28, 1703[aged 39]
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Ahmed II
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
Feb 6, 1695 – August 22, 1703
Succeeded by
Ahmed III
Sunni Islam titles
Preceded by
Ahmed II
Caliph of Islam
Feb 6, 1695 – August 22, 1703
Succeeded by
Ahmed III