|Caliph of Islam
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques
|14th Caliph of the Ottoman Caliphate
22nd Ottoman Sultan (Emperor)
|Reign||February 6, 1695 – August 22, 1703|
|Born||February 6, 1664|
|Died||December 29/30, 1703 (aged 39)|
|Mother||Emetullah Rabia Gülnûş Sultan|
He was born at Edirne Palace a son of sultan Mehmed IV (1648–87) and Mah-Para Ummatullah Rabia Gül-Nush Valide Sultan, originally named Evemia, who was of Greek Cretan descent. Mustafa II abdicated in favor of his brother Ahmed III (1703–30) in 1703.
During his reign the Great Turkish War, which had started in 1683, was still going on. After the failure of the second Siege of Vienna (1683) the Holy League had captured large parts of the Empire's territory in Europe. The Habsburg armies came as far as Nis, modern-day Serbia. Sultan Mustafa II was determined to recapture the lost territories and therefore he personally commanded his armies. The sultan addressed his ministers stating :
" We have prohibited ourselves pleasure, delight, and comfort. Power and treasury are not necessary for me. If required I can only eat bread. I sacrifice my body for my religion. I forbear every kind of trouble, until my mission towards my nation is not complete. I shall not return from the campaign, and of cause I my self shall take part in the campaign ". [unreliable source?]
First, the Ottoman navy recaptured the island of Chios after defeating the Venetian Fleet twice, in the Battle of the Oinousses Islands (1695) and in the Battle of Chios (1695), in February 1695. In June 1695, Mustafa II left Edirne for his first military campaign against the Habsburg Empire. By September 1695 the town of Lipova was captured. On 18 September 1695 the Venetian Navy was again defeated in the naval victory of Zeytinburnu. A few days later the Habsburg army was defeated in the Battle of Lugos. Afterwards the Ottoman Army returned to the capital. Meanwhile, the Ottoman fortress in Azov was successfully defended against the besieging Russian forces.
On April 1696 Mustafa II left Edirne for his second military campaign against the Habsburg Empire. In August 1696 the Russians besieged Azov for the second time and captured the fortress. In August 1696 the Ottoman troops defeated the Habsburg army in the Battle of Ulaş and in the Battle of Cenei. After these victories the Ottoman troops captured Timişoara and Koca Cafer Pasha was appointed as the protector of Belgrade. Afterwards the army returned to the Ottoman capital.
In June 1697 Mustafa II left the capital on his third military campaign against the Habsburg Empire. However, the Ottoman Army suffered a defeat in the Battle of Zenta and Grand Vizier Elmas Mehmed Pasha died in the battle. Afterwards the Ottomans signed a treaty with the Holy League.
Yet even if Ottoman power seemed to wane on one side of the empire, this did not mean that Ottoman efforts at expansion ceased. In 1700, for example, the Grand Vizier Amcazade Hüseyin boasted to a recalcitrant tribe residing in swamps near Baghdad that they ought to abide by the sultan's rule, since his grasp extended even to their marshy redoubts. The Grand Vizier added that, after all, Mustafa was "the Lord of Water and Mud."
At the end of his reign, Mustafa II sought to restore power to the Sultanate, which had been an increasingly symbolic position since the middle of the 17th century, when Mehmed IV had signed over his executive powers to the Grand Vizier. Mustafa II's strategy was to create an alternative base of power for himself by making the position of timars, the Ottoman cavalrymen, hereditary and thus loyal to him. The timars, however, were at this point increasingly an obsolete part of the Ottoman military machine.
Marriages and progeny
- Alicenab Kadın (died Adrianople, 20 April 1699);
- Saliha Sultan;
- Valide Şehsuvar Sultan;
- Afife Kadın (died 12 June 1723);
- Bahtiyar Kadın;
- Ivaz Kadın;
- Mahmud I (2 August 1696 – 13 December 1754), son with Saliha Sultan;
- Şehzade Suleiman (25 December 1697 – 25 December 1697), son with Afife Kadın;
- Şehzade Mehmed (22 November 1698 – 5 June 1703), son with Afife Kadın;
- Osman III (2/3 January 1699 – 30 October 1757), son with Şehsuvar Sultan;
- Şehzade Hasan (27 March 1699 – May 1733), became heir apparent from 1730.
- Şehzade Hüseyn (7 May 1699 – 24 August 1700), son with Afife Kadın;
- Şehzade Selim (16 May 1700 – 8 June 1701), son with Afife Kadın;
- Şehzade Ahmed (3 March 1703 – 7 September 1703), son with Afife Kadın;
- Ayşe Sultan (30 March 1696 – 26 September 1752), married firstly 14 March 1710 Damad Haji Fazil Numan Pasha Koprulu, Grand Vizier, married secondly 15 September 1720, Damad Ibrahim Pasha Tazkarachi.
- Emine Sultan (1 September 1696 – 1739), married firstly 9 April 1708 Damad Ali Pasha, Grand Vizier, married secondly July 1728, Damad Muhassil Abdullah Pasha, Governor-General of Aydin.
- Safiye Sultan (13 December 1696 – 15 May 1778), married firstly 8 May 1710, Damad Genc Ali Pasha, 3rd Vizier in 1701, married 30 April 1740, Damad Alaiyali Haji Abu Bakar Pasha, Vizier in 1724.
- Rukiye Sultan (13 November 1697 –28 March 1698).
- Hatice Sultan (14 February 1698 – died young).
- Fatma Sultan (8 October 1699 – 20 May 1700).
- Ismihan Sultan (23 April 1700 – 1 June 1700).
- Ümmügülsüm Sultan (10 June 1700 – 1 May 1701), twin with Zainab.
- Zeyneb Sultan (10 June 1700 – 18 December 1705), twin with Umm ul-Kulsum.
- Emmetullah Sultan (22 June 1701 – 12 April 1727), married 13 September 1720 Damad Kanijali Sirki Osman Pasha.
- Baker, Anthony E (1993). The Bosphorus. Redhouse Press. p. 146. ISBN 975-413-062-0.
The Valide Sultan was born Evmania Voria, daughter of a Greek priest in a village near Rethymnon on Crete. She was captured by the Turks when they took Rethymnon in 1645.
- Bromley, J. S. (1957). The New Cambridge Modern History. University of California: University Press. p. 554. ISBN 0-521-22128-5.
the mother of Mustafa II and Ahmed III was a Cretan
- Sardo, Eugenio Lo (1999). Tra greci e turchi: fonti diplomatiche italiane sul Settecento ottomano. Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche. p. 82. ISBN 88-8080-014-0.
Their mother, a Cretan, lady named Rabia Gulnus, continued to wield influence as the Walide Sultan - mother of the reigning sultan
- Library Information and Research Service (2005). The Middle East. Library Information and Research Service. p. 91.
She was the daughter of a Cretan (Greek) family and she was the mother of Mustafa II (1664-1703), and Ahmed III (1673-1736).
- Gülen, Salıh (2010). Ottoman Sultans. New York: Bluedome press. p. 207.
- Somel, Selcuk Aksin. Historical Dictionary of the Ottoman Empire. Scarecrow Press, 2003. p. XIIV chronology. ISBN 0810866064.
- Husain, Faisal (October 2014). "In the Bellies of the Marshes: Water and Power in the Countryside of Ottoman Baghdad". Environmental History.
- Abou-El-Haj, R. A. (1974). "The Narcissism of Mustafa II (1695-1703): A Psychohistorical Study". Studia Islamica (40): pp. 115–131.
Media related to Mustafa II at Wikimedia Commons
Mustafa IIBorn: February 6, 1664 Died: December 28, 1703[aged 39]
|Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
Feb 6, 1695 – August 22, 1703
|Sunni Islam titles|
|Caliph of Islam
Feb 6, 1695 – August 22, 1703