Mustafa Râkim

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Mustafa Râkim
Mustafa Rakim, calligraphic panel.jpg
Calligraphic panel written by Mustafa Rakim, late 18th - early 19th century
Born 1757
Died 1826
Known for Islamic calligraphy
Movement Naskh (script), Thuluth

Mustafa Râkim (Ottoman Turkish: مصطفى رآقم‎; Modern Turkish: Mustafa Râkım) (1757–1826), was an Ottoman calligrapher.[1] He extended and reformed Hâfiz Osman's style, placing greater emphasis on technical perfection, which broadened the calligraphic art to encompass the Sülüs script as well as the Nesih script.[2]


With the revolutionary changes brought about in calligraphy by Mustafa Rakim,[3] Turkish calligraphic art history is divided in two by researchers: Pre-Rakim and Post-Rakim. He was able to accomplish what nobody before him could in the Jali-Thuluth script and tughras of sultans. By finding the ideal measurement between the letter thickness and pen (writing tool) thickness, he established the style and form for the ideal beauty of tughras. He is regarded as the first great Turkish painter in the Western sense of painting. His bird, parrot, painting is considered to be the first realist work of Turkish painting.[4] He drew a portrait of Sultan Selim III who was amazed by his work and recited a poem in his honor in return.

See also[edit]


  • Rapture and revolution: essays on Turkish literature, Talât Sait Halman, Jayne L. Warner, 2007