Mustafa Pasha Bushatli

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Mustafa Pasha Bushatli
Born Scutari, Sanjak of Scutari (modern Albania)
Died May 27, 1860
Medina
Nationality Ottoman
Occupation Governor
Years active 1810–60

Mustafa Pasha Bushatli (Turkish: Mustafa Paşa Buşatlı, 1797 – May 27, 1860), called Işkodralı ("from Scutari"), was an Ottoman statesman, the last hereditary governor of the sanjak of Scutari.[1] In 1810 he succeeded Ibrahim Bushati and ruled Scutari until 1831.

History[edit]

Mustafa was the son of Kara Mahmud Bushatli. He succeeded his uncle, Ibrahim Pasha in c. 1810 and received the rank of Vizier in 1812.[1]

In 1820, the sanjak of Berat was appropriated to him.[1]

Mustafa led contingents against the Greeks in the Greek War of Independence. The 1823 campaign in Western Greece was led by Mustafa Pasha and Omer Vrioni;[2] On August 24, 1823, Markos Botsaris and 240 Souliots attacked the army of Mustafa Pasha near Karpenisi,[3] attempting to stop the Ottoman advance.[2] The battle ended in Ottoman defeat, and Botsaris was killed in action.[3]

In 1824 the sanjaks of Ohrid and Elbasan were appropriated to him, and he received the title of serasker.[1]

As his father, Mustafa aimed at greater independence, and when Mahmud II's Ottoman military reform efforts threatened to deprive him of his hereditary rights and privileges, he became hostile to the sultan and maintained friendly relations with Serbian Prince Miloš Obrenović, the discontented Bosniaks and Muhammad Ali of Egypt.[1] Thus, he was passive in the early stage of the Russo-Turkish War (1828–29), only in May 1829 he appeared with his Albanians on the Danube (Vidin, Rahovo), then continued to Sofia and Philippopolis, without taking active part in the fighting.[1]

With the conclusion of peace, the Porte, in 1831, demanded that Mustafa hand over the districts of Dukakin, Debar, Elbasan, Ohrid and Trgovište to Grand Vizier Reşid Mehmed Pasha, and to implement certain reforms in Scutari.[1] Mustafa resisted, and with the financial and moral support of Prince Miloš, he led an army against the Grand Vizier in mid-March 1831.[1] He was joined by other pashas of northern Albania and Old Serbia who objected the reforms.[1] The rebels had some success, including occupying Sofia, but they were routed at Skopje by the Grand Vizier's regular troops in the beginning of May 1831.[1] Mustafa retreated via Skoplje and Prizren and fortified himself in Scutari.[1] After a six-month long siege, he surrendered on 10 November 1831.[1] On Metternich's petition, he was pardoned and taken to Constantinople.[1]

After 15 years, he was again a governor, in the Ankara Eyalet (from 1846).[1]

Next, he was appointed the governor of the Herzegovina Eyalet, and appeared on May 22, 1853.[4] According to Serbian sources, he was fair, and if someone wronged, he could let it pass. During his office, the hajduk bands multiplied to the extent that he was afraid that he would be captured in the night in Mostar and killed.[4]

His last office was in Medina where he died on May 27, 1860.[1]

Annotations[edit]

He was often called by the demonym Işkodralı.[1] In modern historiography, he is known in English-language works as "Mustafa Pasha Bushatli".[1] In Serbian, he is known as Mustafa-paša Bušatlija (Мустафа-паша Бушатлија). Robert Elsie calls him by the Albanian neologism "Mustafa Reshiti Pasha Bushatlliu".[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q First Encyclopaedia of Islam: 1913-1936. BRILL. 1993. p. 765. ISBN 90-04-09796-1. 
  2. ^ a b Dakin, Douglas (1 January 1973). The Greek Struggle for Independence, 1821-1833. University of California Press. p. 99. ISBN 978-0-520-02342-0. 
  3. ^ a b c Elsie, Robert (24 December 2012). A Biographical Dictionary of Albanian History. I.B.Tauris. pp. 44–. ISBN 978-1-78076-431-3. 
  4. ^ a b Prokopije Čokorilo; Joanikije Pamučina; Staka Skenderova (1976). Ljetopisi. Veselin Masleša. p. 69. Послије Смаил-паше, за нашег валију и главнокомандујућег именован је Мустафа-паша Бушатлија,65 родом из Скадра, те нам је дошао 22. маја 1853. године. Он се правио правичним чо- вјеком, и, ако је неко скривио, наређивао је да га мало „пропуш- ће кроз руке" али, свакако, јаче хришћанина него Муслимана. За вријеме његове управе намножиле су се хајдучке чете толико да се сам паша бојао да га ноћу не ухвате и убију у Мостару. Он је препоручивао коџабаши Јовану Анђелопољу да се Мостар- ... 
Preceded by
Ibrahim Pasha
Pasha of Scutari
1810––1831
Succeeded by
?
Preceded by
?
Ankara Eyalet
1846–?
Succeeded by
?
Preceded by
?
Herzegovina Eyalet
1853
Succeeded by
?
Preceded by
?
Medina
?–1860
Succeeded by
?