Mutesa II of Buganda
||This article needs attention from an expert in Uganda. The specific problem is: unclear use of titles Ugandan royalty. (February 2015)|
|Kabaka of Buganda|
|Reign||22 November 1939 – 21 November 1969|
|Coronation||19 November 1942 at Buddo|
|Predecessor||Daudi Cwa II of Buganda|
|Successor||Muwenda Mutebi II of Buganda|
|1st President of Uganda|
|Reign||9 October 1963 – 2 March 1966 (Deposed)|
|Born||19 November 1924
|Died||21 November 1969
Rotherhithe, London, United Kingdom
|Spouse||1. Naabakyaala Damali Catherine Nnakawombe, the Naabagereka
2. Lady Edith Kasozi
3. Omubiitokati Beatrice Kabasweka
4. Lady Kate Ndagire
5. Naabakyaala Sarah Nalule
6. Muzaana Nalwooga
7. Lady Nesta M. Rugumayo
8. Lady Kaakako Rwanchwende
9. Lady Winifred Keihangwe
10. Lady Zibiah Wangari Ngatho
11. Lady Catherine Karungu
12. Lady Naome Nanyonga
13. Lady Margaret Nakato
|Issue||12 sons and 9 daughters|
|Father||Daudi Cwa II of Buganda|
|Mother||Abakyala Irene Drusilla Namaganda|
Major General Sir Edward Frederick William David Walugembe Mutebi Luwangula Muteesa II KBE (19 November 1924 – 21 November 1969), was Kabaka of the Kingdom of Buganda from 22 November 1939 until his death. He was the thirty-fifth Kabaka of Buganda and the first President of Uganda. The foreign press often referred to him as King Freddie, a name rarely used in Uganda.
Mutesa was born at the house of Albert Ruskin Cook in Makindye, Kampala, on 19 November 1924, the fifth son of Daudi Cwa II of Buganda KCMG KBE, Kabaka of Buganda, who reigned between 1897 and 1939. His mother was Lady Irene Drusilla Namaganda, of the Nte clan. He was educated at King's College Budo, a prestigious school in Uganda.
Upon the death of his father on 22 November 1939, he was proclaimed Kabaka at the age of fifteen and was installed outside the Lubiri at Mengo on 26 November 1939. He reigned under a Council of Regents until he came of age and assumed full powers.
He attended King's College Budo before he went to England to complete his education at Magdalene College, Cambridge, where he joined the University Officer Training Corps and was subsequently commissioned as a captain in the Grenadier Guards.
The years between 1945 and 1950 saw widespread protests against both the Governor of Uganda's and King Mutesa's governments. In the early 1950s the British Government floated the idea of uniting British East Africa (Uganda, Kenya and Tanganyika) into a federation. Africans feared that this would lead to their coming under the control of Kenya's white settler community, as had happened in Rhodesia. The Baganda, fearing they would lose the limited autonomy they had under British rule, were particularly opposed. Mutesa himself opposed the proposal, and thus came into conflict with the British Governor, Sir Andrew Cohen. In 1953, the Lukiiko (Parliament) of Buganda sought independence from Uganda, with Mutesa himself demanding that Buganda be separated from the rest of the protectorate of Uganda and transferred to Foreign Office jurisdiction. Cohen's response was to depose and exile the Kabaka, creating massive protests among the Baganda. Mutesa's forced departure made him a martyr in the eyes of the Baganda, whose latent separatism set off a storm of protest. Cohen could find no one among the Baganda willing and able to mobilise support for his schemes. After two years of unrelenting Ganda hostility and obstruction, Cohen was forced to reinstate "Kabaka Freddie", who returned to Kampala on 17 October 1955 under a negotiated settlement which made him a constitutional monarch and gave the Baganda the right to elect representatives to the kingdom's parliament, the Lukiiko. Mutesa's standing up to Cohen greatly boosted his popularity in the kingdom.
In 1962 Uganda became independent from Britain under the leadership of Milton Obote. Under the country's new constitution, the Kingdom of Buganda became a semi-autonomous part of a new Ugandan federation. The federal Prime Minister was Obote, the leader of the Uganda People's Congress, which entered a governing coalition with the dominant Buganda regional party, Kabaka Yekka. The post of Governor General was abolished with the attainment of republican status and replaced by a non-executive President, a post first held by Mutesa.
In 1964 the coalition between Mutesa and Obote's parties collapsed over the question of a referendum which transferred two counties from Buganda to Bunyoro. In 1966 Mutesa's estrangement from Obote merged with another crisis. Obote faced a possible removal from office by factional infighting within his own party. He had the other four leading members of his party arrested and detained, and then suspended the federal constitution and declared himself President of Uganda in February 1966, deposing Mutesa. The Buganda regional Parliament passed a resolution in May 1966 declaring that de jure Buganda's incorporation into Uganda had ended with the suspension of the constitution and requesting the federal government to vacate the capital city, which was in Buganda. Obote responded with an armed attack upon the King's palace, sending Mutesa into exile in the United Kingdom via Burundi, and in 1967 a new constitution abolished all of Uganda's kingdoms, including Buganda.
The final years
While in exile, Mutesa wrote an autobiography, The Desecration of My Kingdom.
Mutesa died of alcohol poisoning in his London flat, No. 28 Orchard House in Rotherhithe, in 1969. Identified by the British police as suicide, the death has been viewed as assassination by those who claim Mutesa may have been force-fed vodka by agents of the Obote regime. Mutesa was interviewed in his flat only a few hours before his death by the British journalist John Simpson, who found that he was sober and in good spirits. Simpson reported this to the police the following day on hearing of Mutesa's death, but this line of inquiry was not pursued.
After Mutesa's body had been embalmed by Desmond Henley, it was returned to Uganda in 1971 after the overthrow of Obote and given a state funeral at Kasubi Nabulagala. Ironically, the new President who ordered the state funeral was Idi Amin, who as Army Commander had led the assault on Mutesa's palace in 1966. It is said that while in exile in London, King Freddie lived in poverty.
Mutesa married Lady Damali in 1948. He is said to have fathered many children with her and twelve other women:
- Naabakyaala Damali Catherine Nnakawombe, the Naabagereka, daughter of Christopher Kisosonkole of the Nkima clan. Wedding on 19 November 1948 at St. Paul's Cathedral Namirembe.
- Lady Edith Kasozi
- Omubiitokati (Princess) Beatrice Kabasweka, a Mutoro from Toro.
- Lady Kate Ndagire. Married in 1950
- Naabakyaala Sarah Nalule, Omuzaana Kabejja, sister of the Naabagereka, and daughter of Christopher Kisosonkole of the Nkima clan. Married in 1954.
- Lady Nalwooga. She died in 2003.
- Lady Nesta M. Rugumayo, a Mutoro, from Toro
- Lady Kaakako Rwanchwende, a Munyankole princess from Ankole.
- Lady Winifred Keihangwe, a Munyankole princess from Ankole. She was imprisoned by Milton Obote and released only shortly before going into labour, in 1966.
- Lady Zibiah Wangari Ngatho, a Kikuyu, from Nairobi, Kenya.
- Lady Catherine Karungu, a Munyankole princess from Ankole
- Lady Naome Nanyonga, of Nsenene clan from Masaka Buddu. Naome Nanyonga was a midwife and is the founder of Sunga Maternity Hospital. She died in 2006.
- Lady Margaret Nakato of Nkumba, Busiro County.
Mutesa is recorded to have fathered at least 12 sons and 9 daughters:
- Prince Kiweewa Luswaata. The very first son of Kabaka Muteesa II. He was born in Wakiso. He lived and studied in France. He died in the early 1990s and buried at Kasubi Tombs, Nabulagala.
- Prince Robert Masamba Kimera, whose mother was Nesta M. Rugumayo. He was born in Kampala in 1950. He was educated at St. Mary's College Kisubi, King's College Budo and in Canada. He worked as a geologist with the Swaziland Department of Geology, between 1980 and 1983. He was a Lecturer at the Nakawa Vocational School from 1991 until 1992. In 1993, he settled in Canada.
- Kabaka Ronald Muwenda Mutebi II, whose mother was Sarah Nalule
- Prince (Omulangira) Suuna Frederick Wampamba, whose mother was Edith Kasozi. He was a commissioned 2nd Lieutenant in the Uganda Army. He was killed on the orders of Idi Amin, at Bombo in 1972. He is buried at Kasubi Nabulagala.
- Prince (Omulangira) Henry Kalemeera, whose mother was Damali Nnakawombe. He was educated at King's College, Budo and Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia. He is an aeronautical engineer. He settled in the United States. Worked or still works as a Flight Engineer with American Airlines.
- Prince (Omulangira) George Michael Ndawula, whose mother was Muzaana Nalwooga.
- Prince (Omulangira) Richard Walugembe Bamweyana, whose mother was Sarah Nalule. He was born in 1956, educated at Achimota School, Ghana and worked in the fashion and advertising industries. He died in the 2000s. He was buried at Kasubi Nabulagala.
- Prince (Omulangira) Katabaazi Mukarukidi, whose mother was Damali Nnakawombe. He is an airline pilot in Nigeria.
- Prince (Omulangira) Patrick Nakibinge, whose mother was Sarah Nalule. He died in the 2000s and is buried at Kasubi Nabulagala.
- Prince (Omulangira) Daudi Golooba. He was educated at King's College Budo and Makerere University. He is an accountant. He is a founder member and Chairman of the Buganda Heritage Association of UK and Ireland (Founded in 1998). He settled in the United Kingdom.
- Prince (Omulangira) Herbert Kateregga, whose mother was Kaakako Rwanchwende. He settled in the United Kingdom.
- Prince (Omulangira) Daudi Kintu Wasajja, whose mother was Winifred Keihangwe. He was born in Kampala in May 1966, after his father had left Uganda. He was educated at Nottingham University in the UK, graduating with a BA. He worked as an Executive Underwriter for Pan World Insurance Company and as Regional Retail Manager for Celtel (Uganda) Limited (now Airtel Uganda Limited). He is a member of Buganda Land Board, Kabira Country Club, Hash Harriers Athletic Club and others. Lives in Kampala, Uganda.
- Princess (Omumbejja) Dorothy Kabonesa Namukaabya, Nassolo, whose mother was Damali Nakawombe. She was born at the Mengo Palace in 1951. She is a graduate of the University of Nairobi. Lives in Kampala, Uganda.
- Princess (Omumbejja) Dina Kigga Mukarukidi, whose mother was Beatrice Kabasweka. She works at the headquarters of the African Union in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
- Princess (Omumbejja) Anne Sarah Kagere Nandawula, whose mother is Kate Ndagire. Born at Mengo in 1951.
- Princess (Omumbejja) Catherine Agnes Nabaloga, whose mother was Kate Ndagire. She was installed as the Lubuga at the coronation of her brother Kabaka Ronald Muwenda Mutebi II, the thirty-sixth Kabaka of Buganda, who has reigned since 1993 until today. Princess Nabaloga is the Patron of Buganda Heritage Association in Denmark. The association was founded in 1998. She holds a Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) degree in Linguistics.
- Princess (Omumbejja) Alice Mpologoma Zaalwango, whose mother was Edith Kasozi. She was born in 1961. She was educated at Gayaza Junior School, Kibuli High School and Makerere University. She died in Pretoria, South Africa from breast cancer on 23 March 2005. She is buried at Kasubi.
- Princess (Omumbejja) Stella Alexandria Sserwamutanda Ndagire. Born in Nairobi, Kenya, whose mother was Lady Zibiah Wangari Ngatho, a Kikuyu. She was raised in Kampala and Nairobi. Settled in Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
- Princess (Omumbejja) Jane Mpologoma Nabanakulya. Born in Sunga Village, Buyaga County, Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom, on 12 April 1964 by Omuzaana Naome Nanyonga. In 2003 she moved to London, England, where she lives with her husband, David Segawa Mukasa.
- Princess (Omumbejja) Gertrude Christine Nabanakulya Tebattagwabwe. Was born at Mengo Hospital on 20 August 1964. Her mother is Margaret Nakato of Nkumba, Busiro County. Grew up in Uganda until age 9 years, when she relocated to London in the United Kingdom. Studied to become an accountant. Moved back to Uganda in May 2013. (Luganda)
- Princess (Omumbejja) Diana Balizzamuggale Teyeggala. She is the youngest child of the late Kabaka. She was born in Kampala in October 1966, after her father had gone into exile. Her mother is Catherine Karungu, an Ankole princess. Teyeggala never saw her father alive. She resides in Kampala.
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Sir Daudi Chwa II
|Kabaka of Buganda
22 November 1939 – 21 November 1969
Title next held byRonald Muwenda Mutebi II
as Queen of Uganda
|President of Uganda
9 October 1963 – 2 March 1966