Muvattupuzha

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For the Taluk, see Moovattupuzha Taluk.
Moovattupuzha
മൂവാറ്റുപുഴ
Moovattupuzha
Big Town
Muvattupuzha Old and New Bridges
Muvattupuzha Old and New Bridges
Moovattupuzha is located in Kerala
Moovattupuzha
Moovattupuzha
Moovattupuzha is located in India
Moovattupuzha
Moovattupuzha
Location in Kerala, India
Coordinates: 9°58′01″N 76°34′59″E / 9.9670°N 76.5830°E / 9.9670; 76.5830Coordinates: 9°58′01″N 76°34′59″E / 9.9670°N 76.5830°E / 9.9670; 76.5830
Country  India
State Kerala
District Ernakulam
Government
 • Type Municipality
 • Municipal Chairperson Usha Sasidharan
Area
 • Total 13.18 km2 (5.09 sq mi)
Elevation 15 m (49 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 30,397
 • Density 2,306.3/km2 (5,973/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Malayalam, English
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 686661
Telephone code 0485
Vehicle registration KL-17
Nearest city Ernakulam, Kottayam
Sex ratio 1023 /
Lok Sabha constituency Idukki
Climate Tropical monsoon (Köppen)
Avg. summer temperature 32.5 °C (90.5 °F)
Avg. winter temperature 20 °C (68 °F)
The town where three rivers merge to form Muvattupuzha river.
Muvattupuzha River
The name Moovattupuzha written on a wall in Toronto Canada
Muvattupuzha Town (Kacherithazham)
Anchal Post with spelling Moovattupuzha
Anchal Post with spelling Muvattupuzha
Statue of Nehru in Nehru Park

Moovattupuzha is a merger place of three rivers namely Thodupuzhayar(Thodupuzha river), Kaliyar (Kali river) and Kothayar (Kothamangalam river) to form Muvattupuzhayar and hence this Thriveni Sangamam or confluence of three rivers is called Moovattupuzha.

Moovattupuzha is a municipality in the eastern side of Ernakulam district in the Indian state of Kerala. The town is bordered by Kottayam district on southern side and Idukki district on eastern side approximately 20 km from the town. Muvattupuzha lies on the intersection between M C Road and National Highway 49, about 43 km from district capital Ernakulam.

Etymology[edit]

The town is named after the Moovattupuzha river which flows through it. The name is made up of three Malayalam words: Moonnu, which stands for three, aaru - small river, and puzha, which also means river. Aaru is a word that is usually used for rivers in the southern half of Kerala, while the term puzha is used in the northern parts. The three rivers in this case are the Kothamangalam river or Kothayaar, Kaliyar and Thodupuzhayar, which merge to form a single river called Muvattupuzhayar. This place is called Thriveni Sangamam in Malayalam which means the point of confluence of three rivers.[citation needed]

In English both spellings viz. Muvattupuzha and Moovattupuzha are interchangeably used. Etymologically Moovattupuzha, is the correct spelling how ever commoners widely use the spelling Muvattupuzha and is also well accepted.[citation needed]

History[edit]

Muvattupuzha was part of the Vadakkumkoor[1] Kingdom until it was captured by the Travancore Kingdom. Old documents show that parts of the lands of Muvattupuzha belonged to ‘Edappally Swaroopam’, but were later transferred to Manas’ (Brahmin Families).[2]

After Indian Independence, from 1949 to 1956, Muvattupuzha was a part of the Kottayam district in Travancore-Cochin state.[3] In 1956, when Kerala state was formed, Muvattupuzha remained as a part of Kottayam district till 1958. Muvattupuzha, as a village union, came under the control of a council of three members nominated by the Government. V. P. Govindan Nair was the first president of the village union. By 1953, Muvattupuzha was declared a Panchayat. Kunnappillil Varkey Vaidyan was the first president of the elected Panchayat Committee. Muvattupuzha was raised to the status of a Municipality in the year 1958. N. Parameshwaran Nair became the first Municipal Chairman. Muvattupuzha made history as the first Municipality where the Communist Party came to power in a general election.

N. P. Varghese was the first elected M.L.A. from Muvattupuzha Assembly Constituency. He defeated Manjunatha Prabhu of Communist party.[4] Later, K. M. George, founder of Kerala Congress represented Muvattupuzha. The first M.P. of Muvattupuzha (Lok Sabha constituency) was George Thomas Kottukapally. Of all the Municipal Chairmen of the town, P. P. Esthose deserves special mention. He was simultaneously an MLA and the Municipal Chairman of Muvattupuzha. He got state-level recognition as the Chairman of Chamber of Chairmen. In its entire history, he is the only Communist member elected to the Parliament from the constituency.

St. Thomas, the Apostle of Jesus Christ who introduced Christianity to India, is believed to have visited this region. The Marth Mariam Syro-Malabar Catholic Church of Arakuzha has a recorded history of over 1000 years, making it one of the oldest Syrian churches in Kerala.[5][6] It is known for its paintings and sculptures. Muvattupuzha was also known as Arakuzha Pakuthi (meaning half of Arakuzha).

Demographics[edit]

As of 2001 India census,[7] Muvattupuzha had a population of 29,230. Males constitute 49% of the population and females 51%. Muvattupuzha has an average literacy rate of 84%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 85%, and female literacy is 82%. In Muvattupuzha, 11% of the population is under 6 years of age.

Religion[edit]

The region has Hindus, Syrian Christians and Muslims.

Kavumpady Road in the heart of the town contains major Agraharam of Kerala Iyers. Konkanis are also in lesser numbers. Hindus are majority in the region with castes like Nair, Ezhava, Namboodiri, and Pulayar present around the Taluka.

Syrian Christians include a majority of Syro-Malabar Catholics and Jacobites. There are Orthodox, Syro-Malankara Catholics, Marthomites and Evangelists also. Muvattupuzha is the seat of Muvattupuzha diocese of Jacobite Syriac Orthodox Church and Kandanad East diocese of Orthodox.

Mappila Muslims make up most of the Muslim population. Hanafi sect called Thulukkar are concentrated around Pettah, near Post office Junction. Muslims include Sunni, Ahmediyya.

Geography[edit]

The town is situated on highland regions.[8] Essentially, the regions of Thodupuzha, Muvattupuzha and Kothamangalam were called sub-high range[9] or Keezhmalanad[10] of erstwhile Vadakkumkoor Kingdom[11] indicating these as lands with fertile soils deposited by Thodupuzha and Muvattupuzha rivers over a period of time due to floodings of the banks. The town is 20m above mean sea level (MSL).

Politics[edit]

Muvattupuzha is one of the 140 legislative assembly constituencies of Kerala state. Muvattupuzha assembly constituency is part of Idukki (Lok Sabha constituency). Previously it was a part of Muvattupuzha (Lok Sabha constituency). The major political parties of Muvattupuzha are Indian National Congress, CPI (M), Muslium League, CPI, Kerala Congress (mani), Kerala Congress (Jacob) and B.J.P.

Eminent political leaders of the past include K. M. George (former Minister and the founder of Kerala Congress)and P.P Esthose (Former M.P and M.L.A ). The present political leaders of Kerala who are from Muvattupuzha are Johny Nelloor, former M.L.A and Chairman of Kerala Congress Jacob faction and Chairman of Oushadhi and Francis George (Former M.P), Gopi Kottamurikkal (Former M.L.A and Ernakulam district secretary of CPI(M).

Muvattupuzha river[edit]

The Muvattupuzha river (Malayalam: മൂവാറ്റുപുഴയാർ ) which starts and flows through Muvattupuzha town runs for 121 km and enters the Kottayam district. The major source of water is the Thodupuzha river which starts in the Idukki district and provides water throughout the year, enabled by the supply of water from Idukki arch dam. Idukki dam is the largest arch dam in India and it is used for hydro-electric power generation.[12] this is an old heritage route all along the river's path up to Vaikom. Old settlements along the path of the river evolved into towns along the Muvattupuzhayaar flow, including Vaikom, Piravom, Muvattupuzha. In ancient times,[when?] transportation was essentially through Kettuvallam (Country boat) travelling to Vettikkattumukku and Vaikom to reach Alappuzha and Kochi. before Kothamangalam and Thodupuzha evolved as prominent hill produce market, Muvattupuzha was the old centre owing to the connectivity through the river. Muvattupuzha river is the prime victim of river pollution nowadays.[according to whom?] Green People, an environmental organization is now leading a campaign to save the Muvattupuzha river. Companies like Hindusthan Newsprint Limited functions near the banks of this river but this company was having advanced effluent treatment system but these days this system is not functioning as per expectation and the river water turns black where effluent joins river at pipeline junction.

Muvattupuzha Bridge[edit]

It was in 1914 when Colonel Munroe, the Resident Diwan of Travancore,the first concrete bridge in Kerala was built in Muvattupuzha under the supervision of the British engineer W.H. Emrald. It is said that on its inauguration, to convince the strength & stability of the bridge, the British engineer sat beneath the bridge while 12 elephants walked over it.[13] This bridge is across the Muvattupuzha river connecting Nehru Park and Kacherithazham.

There was a wooden bridge across the river through which the steam bus(കല്ക്കരി വണ്ടി ) goes from Muvattupuzha to Ernakulam in olden days. The border to Cochin state was at Chungam, Mamala, near Thiruvankulam. Until late 70's traffic was through the old concrete bridge. There was a traffic police outpost on either side of the bridge to control one way traffic at a time through the narrow bridge. Later in 1970's a new bridge was constructed and in late 70's the traffic diverted through this wider two way bridge.

Folklore[edit]

Kadamattathu Kathanar was a magician in this region who travelled Kerala to immobilize Yakshis (female demons).[14]

Theevettikkolla (തീവെട്ടിക്കൊള്ള) is a term that originated from Muvattupuzha.[citation needed]

Suburbs[edit]

In olden days there was petroleum pump in B O C junction which is a short form for Burma Oil Company. Later it is said that Jawaharilal Nehru addressed people in this junction and now called Nehru Park after his name . The town consists of two regions separated by the Muvattupuzha bridge. Kacherithazham is the main centre of the town to the east of the Muvattupuzha bridge. Nehru Park, Velloorkunnam and Vazhappilly are to the north of the bridge. TB.Junction and P.O Junction lies East of the bridge. Kavumkara is an old market which lies to the northeast of the town after the bridge on the Muvattupuzha-Kothamangalam road.

Latha bridge or Thodupuzha bridge is over the Thodupuzha river, which flows through the southeast portions of the town before merging with Muvattupuzha river near Kacherithazham. Kizhakkekara and Randaattinkara (Randarkara or Randar) lies on the eastern part of the town on the banks of the Muvattupuzha river. From the olden times, south of Marady (മാറാടി) panchayat towards Kottayam were sparsely occupied and still has old rubber plantations and a hilly terrain till Koothattukulam. Aaroor (ആറൂര്‍) (near Meenkunnam) was a forest before 5-6 decades. While every direction from Muvattupuzha is populated and almost urbanized, the southern direction towards Kottayam via M C Road is not so developed in terms of infrastructure. At a distance approximately 8 km southwards, Muvattupuzha town is covered by a curve-like hilly region of 40-60 MSL in the whole southern side which crosses Kottayam and Piravom routes. Most of these hills are rubber plantations.[15] KSTP's second phase project of straightening of the Muvattupuzha - Chengannur MC Road is recently inaugurated.

The old Muvattupuzha bridge built over the Muvattupuzha river was the first concrete bridge in Asia. It was completed in 1914.[13] This serves as the connection between Nehru Park and Kacherithazham.

The nearby panchayaths are mostly into agriculture, small- and medium-scale industries. Pineapple and rubber plantations are the common agrarian efforts. Match box industries, plywood factories, saw mills, paper, plastic and wood carton making are the main industries in this area. KINFRA's Small Industries Park at Nellad is 9 km from Muvattupuzha on SH41.[16]

Nearby towns[edit]

The nearby main towns are Kothamangalam, Thodupuzha, Piravom, Koothattukulam, Kolenchery, Perumbavoor. There are many small suburban towns close to Muvattupuzha like Vazhakulam, Kalloorkkad, Pothanicad, Nellikuzhy, Nellad etc.

Neighbouring cities & towns

Culture[edit]

Muvattupuzha has a rich cultural tradition. Margamkali and martial arts like Parichamuttukali, are popular among the Syrian Christian community. It is performed by men and women separately during Syrian Christian weddings. Shadkala Govinda Marar was born on the banks of the Muvattupuzha river. In the new era,Mela (Muvattupuzha Enlightened Lovers of Arts) - a registered fine arts society which was established in 1968 plays the lead role in the cultural life of this town.

Notable people[edit]

  • K. M. George was a veteran politician and former Minister. He was the founder of the Kerala Congress Party and former Muvattupuzha M. L. A. His son Francis George is former M. P. of Idukki.
  • Johnny Nellore is a veteran politician and former M.L.A of Muvattupuzha from 1991 to 2006. He is the chairman of Kerala Congress (Jacob).
  • Francis George is a Kerala Congress leader and former M.P. of Idukki. He is the son of K. M. George.

Places of worship[edit]

  • Velloorkunnam Shiva Temple
  • Puzhakkarakavu Bhagavati Temple
  • Sree Kumara Bhajana Devaswom Temple
  • Pallikavu Bhagavati Temple
  • Mattapili Sri. Krishna Temple
  • Sivankunnu Temple
  • Ramakrishna Math
  • Kizhakkekara Sri Dharma Sastha Temple
  • Nettorkottu Vanadurga Devi Temple
  • Kadamattom Church
  • Marth Mariam Syro-Malabar Catholic Forane Church
  • Marth Mariam Syro-Malabar Catholic Forane Church[17]
  • Holy Magi Syro-Malabar Catholic Forane Church
Holy Magi Forane Church Muvattupuzha
Cental Mahallu Jama ath
  • Mappila Muslims following Shafi'i Fiqh are the majority in Muvattupuzha, Kothamangalam Talukas. the main Masjid is Central Mahallu Jama'ath[18] situated at Kavumkara market.
  • Perumattom Dasukhi Masjid is one of the oldest one. Valiyuppappa, a Sufi Darvesh famous for his treatments and mystical capabilities lived in Perumattom.[citation needed] Mappila Muslims of this region considers Perumattom as the main centre from where many of them migrated to Nellikkuzhy, Kothamangalam and parts of Idukki.
  • Petta Juma Masjid in Pettah, near Post office Junction, Muvattupuzha is the main mosque of Thulukkar or Tamil Muslims who follow Hanafi Fiqh.
  • Ahmediyya Mosque is situated in Vazhappilly towards Pattimattom route.

Educational Organizations[edit]

  • Nirmala College
  • Nirmala College of Pharmacy
  • Nirmala Public School[19]
  • Nirmala Higher Secondary School
  • St. Augustines Girls Higher Secondary School
  • St. Thomas Public School
  • Vimelagiri International School
  • Presidency Central School
  • Ilahia College of Engineering and Technology[20]

Sports[edit]

Football[edit]

Muvattupuzha FC is the only Kerala Football Association affiliated football club in Muvattupuzha taluk. It was founded by Mr.Eldho Babu Vattakkavil in 2006.

Transportation[edit]

KL-17 is the RTO code for Muvattupuzha taluka including Muvattupuzha town. Muvattupuzha KSRTC depot is located on MC Road towards south of the town. KSRTC operates few long distance services and mostly caters to the Ernakulam to Thodupuzha route. Private bus services are available to major towns in the Ernakulam district as well as Kottayam and Idukki districts. Frequent buses are available to neighbouring towns like Kothamangalam, Piravom, Koothattukulam, Perumbavoor, Pattimattom and Thodupuzha. Auto rickshaws are commonly used for small distances. Taxis are also available in plenty. The nearest major railway station is Aluva railway station 34 km away. The Cochin International Airport at Nedumbassery is 34 km away from the town.

Muvattupuzha town is a major junction for highways passing through the town. major highways are:

Muvattupuzha is surrounded by a few small, populous commuter villages, connected to the town by buses. The notable ones are Ayavana, Paipra, Avoly, Valakom, Cheruvattor, Mannoor, Marady etc. Vazhakulam town is one of the main interchange points for public transport.

Health[edit]

Major Hospitals in Muvattupuzha are Muvattupuzha Medical Center, Nirmala Medical Centre run by Franciscan Clarist Sisters under the Syrian Catholic Eparchy of Kothamangalam,[21][22] Nedumchalil Trust Hospital and Vallakalil Hospital apart from the Government District Hospital. It also has many homeopathic and ayurvedic clinics. Sabine Hospital and Research Centre is an advanced referral centre for infertility, laparoscopic surgeries, high risk pregnancy and neonatology run by Dr Sabine S, a renowned infertility specialist in Kerala.

The Referral Hospitals near to Muvattupuzha are Kolenchery Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church Medical College 13 km from the town, Medical Trust Hospital, Kochi 42 km from the town and AIMS, Ponekkara 40 km from the town. Kottayam Medical College lies 50 km from the town.

Economy[edit]

Ernakulam and Muvattupuzha are culturally and geographically different as Muvattupuzha taluk consists of midlands and highlands with agriculture and small-scale industries as its primary economic base, while Kochi has coastal regions whose lifestyle and culture are different to the eastern-central Midlands. Muvattupuzha was a part of erstwhile Travancore Kingdom. The border check posts of Travancore in Mamala, near Thiruvankulam prevented interconnectivity between Kochi and Muvattupuzha. Muvattupuzha was an important commercial centre and a prominent town till about 1975. Two decades back a separate Muvattupuzha district was to be carved out of the districts Ernakulam, Idukki and Kottayam. Demand for Muvattupuzha District still exists. But the new district formation is not yet supported from Kerala government. Census of India, 2011 noted a new, separate and distinct urban agglomeration including parts of Muvattupuzha and Kothamangalam talukas.[23] Lately, Kerala Government is supporting and considering the formation of Muvattupuzha district; but faces opposition from a regional party Kerala Congress (M). There is a strong lobby based on Thodupuzha who does not want to see realization of Muvattupuzha district. Their fear is, given the geographical proximity that Muvattupuzha enjoys as well as the biggest urban region in the central-eastern midlands makes Muvattupuzha grow into a major city in the eastern side of Kochi. Muvattupuzha-Kothamangalam will have the possibility of growing into a single city. This can kill the high growth Thodupuzha town is experiencing now. But Muvattupuzha still is a town with its own history and old glory being a major city in the central Kerala and the second biggest in the district.[24]

Entertainment[edit]

Grand Centre Mall is located in Aramanapady, Muvattupuzha. Canton shopping mall is situated near 130 junction, Muvattupuzha. This mall contains a 2 screen 3D multiplex.[25]

Movie houses in the town[edit]

  • Issac's and Maria A/C [DTS] Theatre, 130th mile junction near to K.S.R.T.C Bus Stand.
  • EVM Latha Theatre A/C [DTS], after Latha Bridge, Thodupuzha road.
  • Vettukattil Movies A/C [DTS], Velloorkkunnam.
  • Multiplex near KSRTC stand

Many old theatres once famous in Muvattupuzha town was closed down. Lone surviving theatre from the olden days is Latha theatre. Five decades back, Muvattupuzha boasted 5 theatres. Theatres which are closed:

  • Lakshmi theatre, Velloorkkunnam
  • Apsara theatre, market road
  • Sindhu theatre
  • Union theatre

Infrastructure[edit]

Muvattupuzha is a part of Central Kerala. It lies between Angamaly and Kottayam on the Main Central Road which runs along the length of the old Travancore, from Thiruvananthapuram to Angamaly. The first and second longest state highways of Kerala, Main Central Road (Angamaly - Thiruvananthapuram / SH-01 / 240 km) and Main Eastern Highway (Muvattupuzha - Punalur / SH-08 / 154 km), meet here. The Kochi - Madurai NH 49 passes through Muvattupuzha. The Muvattupuzha - Theni Highway (SH 43) starts at the Chalikkadavu Bridge and goes through Randattinkara, Kotta, Udumbannoor, Nedumkandam and Cumbum before ending at Theni. This is a shorter route to Madurai in neighbouring Tamil Nadu.[26] A bypass has been planned from Kadathy to Puthuppady to avoid traffic from the Kochi - Madurai NH 49 which is also the route to Munnar, a popular hill station.[citation needed] A bypass to Thodupuzha Road and MC Road is planned from Kadathi on NH49 via the proposed new bridge at Murikkallu.[27] Later the road will join MC Road towards Kottayam at Marady. A Muvattupuzha-Kakkanad-Palarivattom four-lane highway project is at discussion levels. Proposed route is via Vazhappilly, Pattimattom, Kizhakkambalam, Infopark to Reach Vyttila Central Bus Terminal in 30 minutes over 31 km.[28][29] Chalikkadavu bridge helps long distance travelers from being caught in traffic, particularly during the rush hour.[citation needed] The bypass will go through Kizhakkekara to Marady to link the SH-8 to Thodupuzha and to the MC Road.[citation needed]

Gallery[edit]

How to Reach[edit]

  • Kochi- Thrippunithura-Kolenchery-Muvattupuzha (43 km)
  • Kozhikode-Feroke-Parappanangadi-Tirur-Ponnani-North Paravur-Aluva-Muvattupuzha (200 km)
  • Trivandrum- Kottarakkara-Changanassery-Kottayam-Muvattupuzha (208 km)
  • Kottayam- Ettumanoor-Kuravilangad-Koothattukulam-Muvattupuzha (56 km)
  • Thrissur- Chalakudy-Angamaly-Perumbavoor-Muvattupuzha (80 km)
  • Alappuzha- Muhamma-Thanneermukkom-Vaikom-Peruva-Piravom-Pampakkuda-Muvattupuzha (81 km)
  • Munnar-Adimaly-Kothamangalam-Muvattupuzha (89 km)
  • Kollam - Kayamkulam-Thiruvalla-Muvattupuzha (150 km)
  • Theni - Bodinayakkanur-Pooppara-Rajakkad-Kallarkutty Dam-Neendapara-Kothamangalam-Muvattupuzha (150 km)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://inorite.wordpress.com/2010/04/04/the-rajahs-of-vadakkumkur/
  2. ^ http://www.muvattupuzha.com/religion.htm
  3. ^ K. M. Mathew, ed. (2006). Manorama Year Book. Malayala Manorama. p. 116. 
  4. ^ http://www.kerala.gov.in/docs/election_reportage/assembly_election/1951.pdf
  5. ^ http://nasrani.net/2007/01/16/ancient-stone-crosses-of-kerala-saint-thomas-cross-nazraney-sthambams-persian-crosses/
  6. ^ Arakuzha Church
  7. ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01. 
  8. ^ http://www.ekm.kerala.gov.in/physio.htm
  9. ^ http://deepika.epapr.in/c/3897647
  10. ^ http://www.southdreamz.com/tourisum/kerala-cities/thodupuzha
  11. ^ http://idukki.nic.in/formation.htm
  12. ^ http://www.zonkerala.com/tourism/Idukki-6/
  13. ^ a b http://www.metrovaartha.com/2008/12/31142059/muvattupuzha-bridge.html
  14. ^ "Wikibooks Malayalam- Aithihyamala- Kadamattathu Kathanar". Wikibooks-Malayalam. 2011-06-07. Retrieved 2011-06-10. 
  15. ^ http://wikimapia.org/#lat=9.9642857&lon=76.5966797&z=13&l=0&m=t
  16. ^ "Kinfra park at Nellad fully occupied". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 2007-11-13. 
  17. ^ http://www.smcim.org/church/arakuzha/article/391
  18. ^ http://www.cmjmasjid.org/about.php
  19. ^ http://nirmalapbs.org/
  20. ^ * Ilahia College of Engineering and Technology
  21. ^ Nirmala Medical Centre
  22. ^ Franciscan Clarist Sisters
  23. ^ http://www.censusindia.gov.in/2011-prov-results/data_files/kerala/Final_Kerala_Paper_1_Pdf.pdf
  24. ^ http://www.khaleejtimes.com/displayarticle.asp?xfile=data/international/2012/January/international_January1047.xml&section=international&col=
  25. ^ http://www.cinepoint.in/
  26. ^ http://www.metrovaartha.com/2009/01/09150145/MUVATTUPUZHATHENIROAD.html
  27. ^ http://www.mathrubhumi.com/localnews/story.php?id=151874&v_id=73
  28. ^ http://www.metrovaartha.com/2009/09/05092203/four-line-road.html
  29. ^ http://forum.skyscraperpage.com/showpost.php?s=01f8717204b946b43560c3c84e092206&p=4446928&postcount=3857
  1. Kerala PWD
  2. Statehighways in Yahoo Maps
  3. State Highway list

External links[edit]