|Number of Tehsil||4|
|• Total||8,435 km2 (3,257 sq mi)|
|Elevation||122 m (400 ft)|
|Population (2012)|
|Time zone||PST (UTC+5)|
|• Summer (DST)||PDT (UTC+6)|
- 1 History
- 2 Language
- 3 Religion
- 4 Main towns
- 5 Geography and climate
- 6 Transportation
- 7 Educational institutions
- 8 Agriculture
- 9 Forests
- 10 Major industries
- 11 Prominent Places
- 12 Picnic Points
- 13 Notable people
- 14 References
- 15 External links
Muzaffargarh region was agricultural region with forests during the Indus Valley Civilization. The Vedic period is characterized by Indo-Aryan culture that invaded from Central Asia and settled in Punjab region. The Kambojas, Daradas, Kaikayas, Madras, Pauravas, Yaudheyas, Malavas and Kurus invaded, settled and ruled ancient Punjab region. After overunning the Achaemenid Empire in 331 BCE, Alexander marched into present-day Punjab region with an army of 50,000. The Muzaffargarh region was ruled by Maurya Empire, Indo-Greek kingdom, Kushan Empire, Gupta Empire, White Huns, Kushano-Hephthalites and Shahi kingdoms.
In 997 CE, Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi, took over the Ghaznavid dynasty empire established by his father, Sultan Sebuktegin, In 1005 he conquered the Shahis in Kabul in 1005, and followed it by the conquests of Punjab region. The Delhi Sultanate and later Mughal Empire ruled the region. The Punjab region became predominantly Muslim due to missionary Sufi saints whose dargahs dot the landscape of Punjab region.
After the decline of the Mughal Empire, the Sikh invaded and occupied Muzaffargarh District. The Muslims faced severe restrictions during the Sikh rule. The British took over Muzaffargarh District in 1848.
The Town of Muzaffargarh was founded in 1794 by the Governor of Multan Nawab Muzaffar Khan. The Meaning of Muzaffargarh is "Fort of Muzaffar" because the old town lies inside the walls of a fort built by Nawab Muzaffar Khan of Multan. Prior to that the place was known by a shop called "Musan Hatti", on the road leading from Multan to Dera Ghazi Khan. The city was founded in the sixteenth century. In 1864 it became the headquarters of Muzaffargarh District.
The predominantly Muslim population supported Muslim League and Pakistan Movement. After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, the minority Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India while the Muslim refugees from India settled in the Muzaffargarh District.
Muzaffargarh spreads over an area of 8,249 km2 and forms a strip between the Chenab River on its east and Indus River on its west. Muzaffargarh is one of oldest districts of Punjab. The city is famous for sweet mangoes and nuts. Wheat, cotton and sugarcane are major crops of this area. Muzaffargarh was especially hard hit by the 2010 Pakistan floods, given its position between the Chenab and Indus rivers.
Following are the demographics of the Muzafargarh district, by spoken language:
- Punjab local people different dialects: 95%
- Other: 5%
Inhabitants of Muzafargarh District speak a great variety of Punjabi dialects.
- Saraiki (All over the district specially Jatoi, Alipur "From Kalar Wali to Borders of RYK, RJP)
- Thalochi (Mainly)
- Majhi or standard (Sizable population in cities also in newly cultivated areas)
- Raangri (A mixture of Punjabi and Urdu spoken by sizeable population in cities)
- Chinawari/Jhangvi (North Border areas near Khanewal district)
- Derawali (West Border areas near DG khan & Rajan pur districts)
- Multani (East Border areas near Multan district)
- Riyasti (South Border areas near Rahim yar khan district)
Other Languages include:
- Urdu is mother tongue of few people but being national language is spoken and understood by the sizeable population.
- English is also understood and spoken by the educated elite.
- Pashto is also spoken by very few people in the cities.
Majority of the population of Muzaffargarh is Muslim.
The district's towns include
- Khan Garh
- Kot Adu
- Zafar Colony
- Bhutta Pur
- Peer Jahanian
- Shahr Sultan
Geography and climate
|Climate chart (explanation)|
The city of Muzaffargarh is located in southern Punjab province at almost the exact centre of Pakistan. The closest major city is Multan. The area around the city is a flat, alluvial plain and is ideal for agriculture, with many citrus and mango farms. There are many canals that cut across the Muzaffargarh District, providing water from nearby farms. This makes the land very fertile. However usually land close to the Chenab are usually flooded in the monsoon season.
Muzaffargarh features an arid climate with very hot summers and mild winters. The city witnesses some of the most extreme weather in the country. The highest recorded temperature is approximately 54 °C (129 °F), and the lowest recorded temperature is approximately −1 °C (30 °F). The average rainfall is roughly 127 millimetres (5.0 in). Dust storms are a common occurrence within the city.
Muzaffargarh has connections with other cities by a variety of means of transportation.
The district has concrete road reaching up to 983.69 km. The district is linked with D.G. Khan, Layyah and Multan districts through concrete roads. Buses to Multan leave frequently, since it is located closely to the city. There are a variety of buses travelling farther from the city. Many of them are now air-conditioned with a fairly good safety record. The N-5 connects the city to connect to all parts of Pakistan. The road otherwise, known as GT Road, allows connections to Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Faisalabad, Karachi, Lahore as well as Bahawalpur. Coach services such as Daewoo Bus Service, Faisal Movers Express, Niazi Express, Khan Brothers Transport, Punjab Tourism Department, Skyways AC Coaches and New Khan Bus Service are some of the most reliable coach companies operating out of Muzaffargarh.
Muzaffargarh is connected by rail with all parts of the country and lies on the Branch track between Rawalpindi, Multan, Mianwali and Attock. The main Peshawar-Karachi railway line passes through Multan district.
The people of Muzaffargarh use Multan International Airport because it is nearer to Muzaffargarh and a 25-minute drive. Multan International Airport is an airport situated 10 km away from the city centre of Multan. It is not as large as the other airports in Pakistan, as it operates to cater mainly to the population of Multan, Vehari, Khanewal, Rajanpur, Sahiwal, and Pakpattan to mainly to other points within Pakistan as well as the Middle East. Flight are currently operated by the national flag carrier, Pakistan International Airlines. However, since the growth of air travel within the region, there has been speculated interest from other private carriers. The rise in air-travel has also led to the expansion of the current airport with a new runway and terminal.
Muzaffargarh is one of the oldest and largest districts of Pakistan by area and population, bigger even than Karachi by area, Lahore and Multan both by area and population. There are many schools and colleges. Main education institutions are as under:
- Govt High School Muzaffargarh
- Sardar Kaurey Khan Public Higher Secondary School
- Beacon Hall College Of Commerce,Education & Technology Muzaffargarh
- Govt. College for Elementary Teachers Muzaffargarh
- Govt. College for Boys, Muzaffargarh
- Govt. College for Women
- Govt. College for Boys
- Govt. College of Commerce
- Jevan Peramedical College
- The Country School
- Workers Welfare School
- Punjab Group of Colleges
- Rise College
- Govt. Comprehensive Higher Secondary School
- Govt. Normal higher Secondary School for Girls
- Govt. Model High School Girls And Boys Mahrha Khas
- Govt. College of Technology,GCT Muzaffargarh
Muzaffargarh has some famous academies which includes
- Wakeel Higher Secondary School
- Superior Science Secondary School
- Misali Zikriya Higher Secondary School
- Misali Middle School
- Shakir Science Higher Secondary Scohool
- Abdalian Science Higher Secondary School
- Ibn-e-Bashir Academy Rawvelay Wala
Wheat, sugarcane and cotton are the main crops grown in the district. Rice, jawar, bajra, moong, mash, masoor, ground nuts, maize and oil seeds such as rape / mustard and sunflower are also grown in minor quantities in the district.Different Agricultural Farms are available in the District like Rabia Bibi Agricultural Farm and Shahid Agriculture and Fruit Farm .
Mangoes, dates, citrus and pomegranate are the main fruits grown in the district. Dates, jaman, pears, phalsa and bananas are also grown in minor quantities in the district.
Onions, carrots, cauliflower and peas are the main vegetables grown in the district. Ladyfinger, turnips, tomatoes, potatoes, garlic and chillies are also grown in the district in minor quantities.
Muzaffargarh is the leading district in fish farming. About 15000 acres of land are under fish farming. Mainly Indian Major Carps are cultured. Now some progressive farmers are turning to Tilapia farming as well.
An area of 100,864 acres is forested in the district. There is also linear plantation of 1250 A.V. mile the roads/rails/canals in the district. Trees grown in the area are Kikar, Shisham, Mulberry and Eucalyptus.
The district's major industries include cotton ginning and pressing, flour mills, jute textile, oil mills, paper/paperboard articles, petroleum products, polypropylene bags, power generation, readymade garments, solvent extraction, sugar, textile composite and textile spinning.
Pak-Arab Refinery (PARCO)'s Mid-Country Refinery is the country's latest, largest and most complex refinery and employs critical processes involved in refining. Commissioned in the year 2000, Pak-Arab Refinery’s 100,000 barrels per day, state-of-the-art Mid-Country Refinery (MCR) at Qasba Gujrat in Muzaffargarh, represents about 35% of Pakistan’s refining capacity. It helps substitute import of refined, value-added oil products to the tune of US$100 million per year. The MCR mainly processes crude oil of Upper Zakum from Abu Dhabi and light Arabian crude from Saudi Arabia.
Kot Addu Power Company (KAPCO) was incorporated in 1996 with the purpose of contributing economic power to the national grid. KAPCO has shown exceptional results in the area of plant maintenance, availability, quality standards and financial performance. In April 2005 KAPCO was formally listed on all the three Stock Exchanges of Pakistan. The total generation capacity of KAPCO is 1600 MW.
Lal Pir Power owns and operates Lal Pir Thermal Power station, the most efficient power plant in Pakistan. It is located in Muzaffargarh. The total generation capacity of Lal Pir is 362 MW.
The Thermal Power Station Muzaffargarh consists of 3 oil-fired steam-operated units of 210 MW, each with provision of adding another 3 units of same or more capacity. The total generation capacity of TPS is 1350 MW. This Power Station is a vital and major thermal power generating installation connectedwith National grid system in Pakistan. This Power Station was constructed in different Phaseshaving total capacity of 1370 MW. It consists of:
- Three Russian units of 210 MW each
- Two Chinese units of 200 MW each
- One Chinese unit of 320 MW
The total power generation of these three plants add up to 3300 MW.
Muzaffargarh Nuclear Power Complex
According to the Wall Street Journal, Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) plans to install three Chinese nuclear reactors at Muzaffargarh and the site is now being prepared. Muzaffargarh Nuclear Power Complex would have 1100 MW Nuclear reactor.
Prominent places of Muzaffargarh are as under:
- Fayyaz Park
- Qinwan Chowk
- Kachahry Chowk
- Taleri ByPass
- Jhang Mor
- Chenab River
- Ghazi ghat
- Thal Chowk
- Bangla Anhar Head Bakaini
- Zoya Science School Usman Abad
There are Two place which is called picnic points of Muzaffargarh, that are River Chenab, 8 Kilometer from Muzaffargarh city, Head Punjnad, 8 Kilometer from Alipur City. Fiaz park in main city Chenab park Multan road
- Nawabzada Nasrullah Khan
- Jamshed Dasti
- Hina Rabbani Khar
- Ghulam Mustafa Khar
- Azhar Hussain, wrestler