Muzaffarpur

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Muzaffarpur
Metropolitan City
Muzaffarpur is located in Bihar
Muzaffarpur
Muzaffarpur
Coordinates: 26°7′21″N 85°23′26″E / 26.12250°N 85.39056°E / 26.12250; 85.39056
Country India
State Bihar
District Muzaffarpur district
Established 1875
Government
 • Member of Parliament Ajay Nishad
 • Member of Legislative Assembly Suresh Sharma
 • Mayor Varsha Singh
Area
 • Total 93 km2 (36 sq mi)
Elevation 60 m (200 ft)
Population
 • Total 393,724[1]
 • Rank 4th (Bihar)
127th (India)
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 842001-05
Telephone code 0621
Vehicle registration BR-06
Sex ratio 890 (females per thousand males)[2]/
Literacy 85.16[2]
Lok Sabha constituency Muzaffarpur
Vidhan Sabha constituency Muzaffarpur
Website muzaffarpur.bih.nic.in

Muzaffarpur (About this sound pronunciation ) is a sub-metropolitan city located in Muzaffarpur district in the Tirhut region of Bihar. It is the fastest developing city in the state of Bihar, and also defeats Patna in this respect. It also serves as the headquarters of Muzaffarpur district and Tirhut division. It is the fourth largest city in Bihar after Patna, Gaya and Bhagalpur. It is also amongst the few cities in Bihar other than state capital Patna which fulfill nearly all the criteria to be called a Sub Metropolitan City.

It is located at a distance of 68 kilometres from Patna.

Muzaffarpur is famous for Shahi lychees and is known as the Lychee Kingdom.[3] It is situated on the banks of the perennial Burhi Gandak River, which flows from the Someshwar Hills[4] of Himalayas. The present city of Muzaffarpur came into existence in the 18th century and is named after Muzaffar Khan, a Revenue Officer during the British Raj.

History[edit]

Muzaffarpur was created in 1875 for the sake of administrative convenience by splitting up the earlier district of Tirhut. The present district came into existence in the 18th century, being named after Muzaffar Khan, an Amil (Revenue Officer) under British rule. It is surrounded to the north by Purbi Champaran and Sitamarhi districts, to the south by Vaishali and Saran districts, to the east by Darbhanga and Samastipur districts and to the west by Saran and Gopalganj districts.

According to the Ramayana, Rajarsi ("wise king") Janaka, the father of Sita, ruled Videha, an area that once encompassed eastern Nepal and northern Bihar. Sitamarhi, a town in this region, ascribes to the Hindu mythological belief where Sita sprang to life out of an earthen pot at nearby Punaura dham, while Janaka was tilling the land from Haleshwar westwards. Sita was to become the wife of Rama, the central figure in the Ramayana.[citation needed] As per recorded history, a confederation of eight clans known as the Vajjis succeeded Videha, of which the Licchavis were the most powerful and influential. Even the powerful kingdom of Magadha had to conclude matrimonial alliances in 519 B.C. with the neighbouring estates of the Licchavis.

Ajatashatru invaded Vaishali and extended his sway over Tirhut. It was at this time that Pataliputra (modern Patna) was founded at the village Patali on the banks of the sacred river Ganges and Ajatashatru built a supposedly invincible fortress to keep vigil over the Licchavis on the other side of the river.

Ambarati, 40 km from Muzaffarpur is believed to be the village home of Amrapali, the famous royal court dancer of Vaishali. Vaishali, a centre of religious renaissance, and Baso Kund, the birthplace of Mahavira, the 24th Tirthankara of Jainism and a contemporary of Gautama Buddha, continue to attract visitors from across international borders.

From the visit of the Chinese traveller Xuanzang till the rise of the Pala Empire, Muzaffarpur was under the control of Harsha Vardhan. After 647 A.D. the district passed on to the local chiefs. In the 8th century A.D. the Pala kings continued to hold Tirhut until 1019 A.D. Later Chedi kings of Central India ruled till they were replaced by the Sena dynasty in the 11th century.

Between 1210 and 1226, Ghias-u-ddin Iwaz, the ruler of Bengal, was the first Muslim invader of Tirhut. Though he could not succeed in conquering the kingdom, he extorted tributes. In 1323 Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq established control over the district. Nanyupa Deva, founder of the Simraon dynasty in the north-east part of Champaran, extended his power over the whole of Mithila and Nepal.[citation needed]

During the regime of Harasimha Deva, the last king of the dynasty, Tughlaq Shah invaded Tirhut in 1323 and gained control over the territory. Tughlaq Shah handed over the management of Tirhut to Kameshwar Thakur. Thus, the sovereign power of Tirhut passed from the Hindu chiefs to the Muslims, but the Hindu chief continued to enjoy autonomy. By the end of the 14th century, the whole of North Bihar including Tirhut passed on to the Rajahs of Jaunpur and remained under their control for nearly a century until their defeat by Sikandar Lodi of Delhi. Meanwhile, Alauddin Husain Shah, the Nawab of Bengal, had become so powerful that he exercised his control over large tracts including Tirhut.

The emperor of Delhi advanced against Husain Shah in 1499 and got control over Tirhut after defeating its Raja. The power of the Nawabs of Bengal began to wane, and with the decline and fall of Mahmood Shah, north Bihar including Tirhut formed a part of the Mughal Empire. Though Muzaffarpur with the entire north Bihar had been annexed, powerful chieftains continued to exercise effective control over this area till the days of Daud Khan, the Nawab of Bengal. Daud Khan had his stronghold at Patna and Hajipur, and after his fall a separate Subah of Bihar was constituted under the Mughal Empire, of which Tirhut formed a part.

The East India Company, after the Battle of Buxar in 1764, controlled the whole of Bihar. The success of the insurgents at Delhi in 1857 caused grave concern to the English inhabitants in this district, and revolutionary fervor began to permeate the entire district.[citation needed]

In 1908 the young Bengali revolutionary, Khudi Ram Bose, an 18-year-old, was hanged for having thrown a bomb at the carriage of Pringle Kennedy, whom he mistook for Kingsford, the District Judge of Muzaffarpur. After Indian independence in 1947, a monument to the bomb-thrower was constructed at Muzaffarpur. The Antarrashtriya Bajjika Parishad, during its 12th Bajjika Sammelan on 2 October 2004, in the presence of local MLA Bijendra Choudhary and MLC Devesh Chandra Thakur, unanimously passed a resolution to rename the city as Khudirampur. However, such a resolution has only a symbolic significance, as the change of name would require administrative approval.

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi's visits to Muzaffarpur district in December 1920 and in January 1927 had the political effect of arousing the population, and the district continued to play a prominent role in the country's freedom struggle.

In 1972 both Sitamarhi and Vaishali districts were split off from Muzaffarpur.[5]

The significance of Muzaffarpur in Indian civilisation arises out of its position on the frontier line between prominent spiritual influences, and it is a meeting place of Hindu and Islamic culture and thoughts. Muzaffarpur fostered political leaders and statesmen alike, among whom were Rajendra Prasad, George Fernandes and Acharya Kriplani. The vernacular language of the region is Bajjika, as per the linguist George Grierson;[6] some people call it Vajjika, derived from the language of the Vajji confederation. The city was a major centre of the anti-emergency movement of Jai Prakash Narayan in the late 1970s. The politics of the city in the 1980s was greatly influenced by that movement, as was the rest of Bihar. The significance of caste in politics gained prominence in the 1990s and 2000s when the party of Lalu Prasad gained prominence in the state.

Geography[edit]

Muzaffarpur is located at 26°07′N 85°24′E / 26.12°N 85.4°E / 26.12; 85.4.[7] The city lies in a highly active seismic zone of India. In the disastrous earthquake on 15 January 1934, much of the town suffered severe damage and many lives were lost.[8] It has an average elevation of 47 meters (154 feet). This saucer shaped, low-centered town lies on the great Indo-Gangetic plains of Bihar, over Himalayan silt and sand brought by the glacier-fed and rain-fed meandering rivers of the Himalayas.

Climate[edit]

The summer, between April and June, is extremely hot and humid (28/40 °C, 90% max.) and winter is pleasantly cool, around 06/20 °C.

Climate data for Muzaffarpur
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 22
(72)
26
(79)
32
(90)
37
(99)
44
(111)
40
(104)
36
(97)
33
(91)
32
(90)
32
(90)
29
(84)
24
(75)
32.3
(90.2)
Average low °C (°F) 06
(43)
12
(54)
17
(63)
22
(72)
25
(77)
27
(81)
26
(79)
26
(79)
26
(79)
22
(72)
15
(59)
07
(45)
19.3
(66.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 12
(0.47)
17
(0.67)
7
(0.28)
16
(0.63)
42
(1.65)
185
(7.28)
339
(13.35)
259
(10.2)
242
(9.53)
39
(1.54)
17
(0.67)
7
(0.28)
1,182
(46.55)
Source: Muzaffarpur Weather

Lychee[edit]

Lychee garden in Muzaffarpur

The litchi crop, which is available from May to June, is mainly cultivated in the districts of Muzaffarpur and surrounding districts. Cultivation of litchi covers approximately an area of about 25,800 hectares producing about 300,000 tonnes every year. Litchi are exported to big cities of India like Bombay, Kolkata, and even to other countries. India's share in the world litchi market amounts to less than 1%. The names of the litchi produced in Muzaffarpur are Shahi and China. The fruits are known for excellent aroma and quality.[9]

Bihar has emerged as a brewery hub with major domestic and foreign firms setting up production units in the state. Vijay Mallya's group, United Breweries Group, is setting up a production unit to make litchi-flavoured wine, in Muzaffarpur in 2012. The company has leased litchi gardens.[10]

Economy[edit]

A view of a winter morning sunrise from a lychee garden in Muzaffarpur

In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj named Muzaffarpur one of the country's 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640).[11] It is one of the 36 districts in Bihar currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF).[11]

Muzaffarpur is famous for exporting lychee. Long ago, the area was famous for hand-woven textiles, sugar cane, and other products. The district has a few sugar mills, which are now old and dilapidated. It is the commercial hub of North Bihar and the wholesale market of Mumbai, Surat and Ahmedabad. Textile mills in the famous Marwari community dominate Suta Patti. The commercial hub of the city is Motijheel, Kalyani Chowk, SarriyaGanj, Jawaharlal Road, Bela Industrial Area, Club Road, Islampur, Shafi Daudi Market, Aam Gola, Chata Bazar, Company Bagh, Tilak Maidan Road, Juran Chapra, Bank Road, and Mithanpura.

Lychee.
Lychee of Muzaffarpur

The land use around Muzaffarpur is mainly agricultural and horticultural. While litchee and mangoes are abundantly grown, principal crops are rice, wheat, pulses, jute, maize and oil seeds. Vegetables like cauliflower, cabbage, onion, tomato, radish, carrot, beetroot, among others, are also grown. Sugar cane, potato and barley are some of the non-cereal crops grown.

The main livestock of the town are cows, buffalo, goats, and poultry.

Muzaffarpur City has several industries, big and small. The railway wagon industry is one of the city landmarks. Muzaffarpur is an important centre for the wholesale cloth trade.

Demographics[edit]

Road connecting New Zero Mile with NH-57 and Muzaffarpur Bypass Road

As of the 2011 India census,[12] Muzaffarpur had a population of 393,724.[1] Males constituted 52.96% (208,509) of the population and females 47.04% (185,215).[1] Muzaffarpur had a literacy rate of 85.07%. Male literacy was 88.77%, and female literacy was 80.91%.[13]

Religion in Muzaffarpur city (2011)[14]
Religion Percent
Hindus
  
77.65%
Muslims
  
21.07%
Others
  
1.28%

Industry[edit]

Muzaffarpur is the main Industrial hub of the Mithila region. It has many industries ranging from small to big. Prabhat Zarda Factory, Ganesh Foundries Limited, Bharat Wagon and Engineering Ltd., N.T.P.C., Bihar Drugs & Organic Chemicals Ltd., Muzaffarpur – a unit of IDPL, units of Leather Development Corporation, Muzaffarpur Dairy, a unit of the Bihar State Dairy Corporation unit Bihar State Cooperative Milk Producers’ Federation Ltd, Muzaffarpur producing Sudha brand packaged milk, and Parle Agro are the major industries located in Muzaffarpur. The above industries have generated considerable employment and have also been helpful in establishing a number of small industries including a few cottage industries. The most important item that is manufactured in Muzaffarpur is railway wagons. Muzaffarpur is an important centre for the wholesale cloth trade. Agro-based industries like sugar mills and Britannia Biscuits have newly been established in the city.[15] The mention of Muzaffarpur would remain incomplete without mentioning Jawahar Picture Palace, a centrally air-conditioned cinema hall having three cinema screens in a single building from as far back as the early 1980s, when the term multiplex was not even known in India and quite peculiarly the first proclaimed multiplex of India - being PVR- Saket in New Delhi happened to come into existence as late as in the year 1998-99.

Education[edit]

Muzaffarpur is one of the leading centres of education in Bihar. It has a medical (Sri Krishna Medical College and Hospital) and an engineering college (Muzaffarpur Institute of Technology) and is the seat of one of the oldest universities of Bihar (Bihar University, now known as B. R. Ambedkar Bihar University). The headquarters of Bihar University was at Patna. People of Muzaffarpur demanded shifting of its headquarters to Muzaffarpur. A steering committee was formed under convenorship of Dr. Maghfoor Ahmad Ajazi; other members of the committee included Acharya J.B.Kripalani, Ashok Mehta, Mahamaya Pd, and Mahesh pd Sinha. The people's movement succeeded and UGC directed the Bihar Govt. to shift HQ of BU to Muzaffarpur. The first president of the Indian Republic, Dr Rajendra Prasad, was a teacher in the Greer Bhumihar Brahman College, Muzaffarpur.

Transport[edit]

Railways[edit]

MFP/Muzaffarpur Junction is a main railway junction, with two suburban stations, Ram Dayalu Nagar and Narayanpur Anant (Sherpur). It is well connected to major cities of Bihar like Patna, Bhagalpur, Gaya, and Darbhanga.

Aerial view of Muzaffarpur Junction with sunset view

.

Muzaffarpur is amongst the top hundred booking stations of Indian Railways.[16] It handles over 150 trains and about 1,00,000[clarification needed] passengers daily.

Trains[edit]

Passenger train at Muzaffarpur Junction. (From Motihari)

Sonpur is the divisional headquarters; all the trains passing through this route have stoppages here. Several electrified local passenger trains and express trains run from Muzaffarpur to neighbouring destinations. The following is a list of all the trains passing from Muzaffarpur Junction (as of 10 May 2012). The Muzaffarpur Junction railway station is well connected to most of the major cities in India by the railway network and serves the city with numerous trains. Muzaffarpur is well connected to Patna, New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Howrah, Chennai, Bangalore, Ajmer, Kanpur, Guwahati, Surat, Lucknow, Chandigarh, Jammu, Vishakhapatnam, Raipur, Allahabad, Ranchi, Gwalior, Ahmedabad, Rajkot, Jaipur, Porbander, Kochi and other cities. It is also the originating station for many superfasts and express trains like Muzaffarpur - Anand Vihar Garib Rath Express, 12538/Bapudham SF Express, Sapt Kranti Express, Vaishali Express, Maur Dhawaj Express etc. Dibrugarh-New Delhi Rajdhani Express crosses the junction once a week.:[17][18]

Roads[edit]

Road connecting New Zero Mile with NH-57

National Highway 57 (India) comes via Gorakhpur, Motihari and crosses Muzaffarpur and National Highway 57 (India) goes to Darbhanga, Purnia. The East–West Corridor crosses Muzaffarpur thus connecting it to all the major towns and cities in India. National Highway 77 (India) starting from Hajipur passes through Muzaffarpur and connects Muzaffarpur to Sitamarhi. Recently, National Highway 102 (India) has been constructed which connects Muzaffarpur to Chhapra. National Highway 28 (India) connects Muzaffarpur to Barauni, all 6 National Highways having junction there. Currently, a Ring Road is under construction all around Muzaffarpur and a new bridge over Burhi Gandak river. Buses, taxis, rickshaws, auto rickshaws, etc. are used for local transportation.

Airport[edit]

The nearest airport is in Patna, whereas the city's own airport, Patahi Airport, is under construction. Muzaffarpur Airport (IATA: MZU, ICAO: VEMZ) is an under-construction civil airport at Muzaffarpur, in the state of Bihar, India. It was to be built for the arrival of Indira Gandhi, the then Prime Minister of India. The airport is to be built over 102 acres, located five kilometers west of the city on State Highway 46. In a bid to give a boost to civil aviation sector and enhance air connectivity to Tier-II and Tier-III cities, the government has proposed to set up a low-cost airport here.

The airport is located at an elevation of 174 feet (53 m) above mean sea level. It has one paved runway designated 10/28 which measures 3,990 (1,216 m) with asphalt surface.

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f "Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011. Government of India. Retrieved 2012-04-16. 
  2. ^ a b c "Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011. Government of India. Retrieved 2012-04-16. 
  3. ^ Destinations :: Vaishali ::Bihar State Tourism Development Corporation. Bstdc.bih.nic.in. Retrieved on 2011-01-09.
  4. ^ "bihar". Scribd.com. Retrieved 2014-08-02. 
  5. ^ Law, Gwillim (2011-09-25). "Districts of India". Statoids. Retrieved 2011-10-11. 
  6. ^ Abhishek Kumar Kashyap, "The Bajjika language and speech community" in International Journal of the Sociology of Language 227:209-224, May 2014. DOI: 10.1515/ijsl-2014-0001. Accessed 18 February 2017
  7. ^ Falling Rain Genomics, Inc – Muzaffarpur
  8. ^ Bihar India Earthquake Movie, 15 January 1934. Harappa.com (15 January 1934). Retrieved on 2011-01-09.
  9. ^ "7. LYCHEE PRODUCTION IN INDIA". Fao.org. 1992-05-31. Retrieved 2014-08-02. 
  10. ^ "Bihar emerging as brewery hub". Economic Times. Retrieved 16 January 2012. 
  11. ^ a b Ministry of Panchayati Raj (8 September 2009). "A Note on the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme" (PDF). National Institute of Rural Development. Retrieved 27 September 2011. 
  12. ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01. 
  13. ^ Muzaffarpur City Census 2011 data Census2011.co.in
  14. ^ "Muzaffarpur City Census 2011 data". Census 2011 India. Retrieved 7 April 2017. 
  15. ^ http://www.mymuzaffarpur.com/about_muzaffarpur.html
  16. ^ "Indian Railways Passenger Reservation Enquiry". Availability in trains for Top 100 Booking Stations of Indian Railways. IRFCA. Retrieved 21 June 2013. 
  17. ^ "Sonpur Junction Details". indiantrains.org. Retrieved 18 April 2012. 
  18. ^ "Trains at Muzaffarpur Junction". India Rail Info. Retrieved 18 April 2012. 

External links[edit]