Myanmar National Democratic Alliance Army
|Myanmar National Democratic Alliance Army|
မြန်မာအမျိုးသား ဒီမိုကရက်တစ် မဟာမိတ်တပ်မတော်
Yan Win Zhong
|Dates of operation||12 March 1989– present|
|Active regions||Kokang Self-Administered Zone, Myanmar|
|Part of||Myanmar National Truth and Justice Party|
|Opponents||Myanmar Union of Myanmar (until 2011)|
|Battles and wars||Internal conflict in Myanmar|
|Myanmar National Democratic Alliance Army|
The Myanmar National Democratic Alliance Army (MNDAA)[n 1] is an armed insurgent group in the Kokang region, Myanmar (Burma). The army has existed since 1989, having been the first one to sign a ceasefire agreement with the Burmese government. The ceasefire lasted for about two decades.
The group was formed on 12 March 1989, after the local Communist Party of Burma leader, Pheung Kya-shin (also spelt Peng Jia Sheng or Phone Kyar Shin), dissatisfied with the communist government, broke away and formed the MNDAA. Along with his brother, Peng Jiafu, they became the new unit in Kokang. The strength of the army is between 1,500 and 2,000 men.
The rebels soon became the first group to agree to a ceasefire with the government troops. Thus the Burmese government refers to the Kokang region controlled by the MNDAA as "Shan State Special Region 1", indicating the MNDAA was the first group in the area of Shan State to sign a ceasefire agreement. After the ceasefire, the area underwent an economic boom, with both the MNDAA and regional Myanmar Armed Forces (Tatmadaw) troops profiting from increased opium harvests and heroin-refining. The area also produces methamphetamine. The MNDAA and other paramilitary groups control the cultivation areas, making them an easy target for drug trafficking and organised crime groups. The Peace Myanmar Group allegedly launders and reinvests MNDAA's drug profits into the legal economy.
2009 Kokang conflict
In August 2009, the Myanmar National Democratic Alliance Army became involved in a violent conflict with the Myanmar Armed Forces. This was the largest outbreak of fighting between ethnic armies and government troops since the signing of the ceasefire 20 years earlier.
On 9 February 2015 the MNDAA tried to retake the area, clashing with Burmese government forces in Laukkai. The skirmishes left a total of 47 Government soldiers dead and 73 wounded. After several months of intense conflict, Kokang insurgents had failed to capture Laukkai. Following the incident, the government of China was accused of giving military assistance to the ethnic Kokang soldiers.
- Also known as the Myanmar Nationalities Democratic Alliance Army and Kokang Army.
- Neither War Nor Peace - Transnational Institute
- Myanmar Peace Monitor - MNDAA
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