- This article discusses Myanmar Railways, originally known as Burma Railways. For the article on the World War II railway between Thailand and Burma, see Burma Railway.
Rail network in 2017,
SE Asia passenger trains interactive map
|Dates of operation||1.5.1877–present|
|Predecessor||Irrawaddy Valley State Railway, Sittang Valley State Railway, Mu Valley State Railway|
|Track gauge||1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in), Metre gauge|
|Length||5,403 km (3,357 mi) (2010)|
Myanmar Railways (MR) (Burmese: မြန်မာ့ မီးရထား, pronounced [mjəma̰ míjətʰá]; also spelled Myanmar Railways; formerly Burma Railways) is the state-owned agency that operates the railway network in Myanmar. The 5,403-kilometre (3,357 mi) metre gauge rail network consists of 858 stations, and generally spans north to south with branch lines to east and west. MR also operates the Yangon Circular Railway line, Yangon's commuter rail network. MR operates 18 freight trains, and 379 passenger trains, transporting over 100,000 passengers daily.
The quality of the railway infrastructure is generally poor. Most remains in poor repair, and is not passable during the monsoon season. The speeds of freight trains are heavily restricted on all existing links as a consequence of poor track and bridge conditions. The maximum speed for freight trains has been quoted as 24 km/h (15 mph), suggesting that commercial speeds on this section could be as low as 12–14 km/h (7.5–8.7 mph).
MR has steadily increased the reach of its network in the last two decades, from nearly 3200 km in 1988 to 5403 km in 2010. MR is currently undertaking an ambitious expansion program that will add another 3,645 km (2,265 mi) to its network, including extensions to Myeik in the south, Kyaingtong in the east, Sittwe in the west. Also, conversion from metre gauge to standard gauge is proposed.
Rail transport was first introduced in Myanmar in May 1877 when Lower Burma was a British colony with the opening of the 163-mile (262 km) Yangon to Pyay line by The Irrawaddy Valley State Railway. In 1884, a new company, The Sittang Valley State Railway, opened a 166-mile (267 km) line along the Sittaung River from Yangon to the town of Taungoo via Bago. After the annexation of Upper Burma following the Third Anglo-Burmese War of 1885, the Taungoo line was extended to Mandalay, the fallen capital, by 1889. Following the opening of this section, the Mu Valley State Railway was formed and construction began on a railway line from Sagaing to Myitkyina and connected Mandalay to Shwebo in 1891, to Wuntho in 1893, to Katha in 1895, and to Myitkyina in 1898.
In 1896, before the completion of the line to Myitkyina, the three companies were combined into the Burma Railway Company as a state owned public undertaking. The railway was known as Burma Railways between 1928 and 1989. The railway's reach to the Taninthayi coast first came in 1907 with the opening of the Bago-Mottama line. Passengers had to take a ferry over the Thanlwin River (Salween River) to Mawlamyaing. In 1942, the country had 3,313 km (2,059 mi) (route-km) of metre gauge track, but during World War II the Japanese removed about 480 km (298 mi). By the end of the conflict only 1,085 km (674 mi) (route-km) was operational, in four isolated sections. They constructed the only international link the country has enjoyed, from Thanbyusayat Junction via Three Pagodas Pass to Thailand, the short-lived Death Railway.
In 1950's, the rail network was rebuilt. By 1961 the network extended to 3,020 km (1,877 mi), and then remained constant until the opening of a 36 km (22 mi) line from Kyaukpadaung to Kyini in October 1970. In 1988, MR operated 487 railway stations over a 3,162 km (1,965 mi) long network. Since coming to power in 1988, the military government embarked on a railway construction program, and by 2000 MR operated 5,068 km (3,149 mi) (track-km) divided into 11 operating divisions. Most of the routes are single track although large parts of Yangon-Pyay and Yangon-Mandalay routes are double track. 1994 saw the start of construction of the initially isolated 160 km (99 mi) Ye-Dawei (Tavoy) railway, completed March 1998. This was later joined to the route north at Ye by the new 250 m (270 yd) road/rail bridge across the Ye River, opened November 2003. In April 2008, the tracks were extended across the 2.4 km (1.5 mi) Thanlwin Bridge, a road/rail bridge located in Moulmein, provision having been made in its design when it was opened a few years earlier. This allowed the long isolated section south to Ye and later Dawei (Tavoy) to receive trains from the north of the country. Also in 2008/9, the Ayeyawady Valley route was extended north along the west bank of the river towards Pakokku in the far north of the country. The 60 km (37 mi) Kyangin-Okshippin (Padang) section of Kyangin-Thayet railway was opened in March 2008 and the 56 km (35 mi) Okshippin-Kamma railway section was opened in March 2009. In 2009, planning started on a link from Lashio to Jiegao in China. This links would have a 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in) - 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) dual gauge. (International link to be 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge)
In 2010, MR is constructing multiple new railways: Motagyi-Bhamo (130 km or 81 mi), Mongnai-Kyaingtong (346 km or 215 mi), Minbu-An-Yechanpyin (395 km or 245 mi), Dawei-Myeik (213 km or 132 mi), Pathein-Nyaungdon-Yangon Hlaingthaya (143 km or 89 mi), Pyay-Taungoo-Naypyidaw (193 km or 120 mi), Hinthada-Nyaungdon (77 km or 48 mi), Thayet-Kyunchaung (307 km or 191 mi), Ywataw-Kanpya (105 km or 65 mi).
The following four lines are currently under construction:
- Kyaukyi–Sinkhan–Bamow with a distance of 94.87 miles (152.68 km) as a part of Katha–Bamow railway project to allow the passengers and cargo to reach Bamow by rails rather by the Irrawaddy flotilla service. So far, the opened section is 37.06 miles (59.64 km) while the other 57.81 miles (93.04 km) is still under construction. The section under construction is the Kyaukkyi Bridge across Ayarwaddy Bridge at Sinkhan–Bamaw (57.81 miles (93.04 km)). Construction started 16 May 2007 expecting to finish the project in 2018–2019. The opened sections are:
- Katha-Moetagyi (16.68 miles (26.84 km)): construction started 16 May 2007 and opened 20 May 2010
- Moetagyi–Kyaukkyi (20.38 miles (32.80 km)): construction started 16 May 2007 and opened 7 February 2014
- Natmouk- KanPyar with a distance of 94.71 miles (152.42 km) as a part of Pyawbwe-Natmouk-Magwe railway project. So far, the opened section is 65.22 miles (104.96 km) while the other 29.49 miles (47.46 km) are still under construction, being Kanbya-Natmauk. Construction started 10 November 2008, expecting to finish in 2017 - 2018. The opened sections are:
- Magwe-Kanbya (7.68 miles (12.36 km)): construction started 10 November 2008, opened 19 December 2009
- Pyawbwe(Yan Aung) - Ywadaw (22.12 miles (35.60 km)): construction started 10 November 2008, opened 16 January 2010
- Ywadaw-Natmauk (35.42 miles (57.00 km)): construction started 10 November 2008, opened 16 March 2013
- Yechanbyin - Kwantaung and Kyauk Taw - An- Minbu with a distance of 257.00 miles (413.60 km) as a part of Minbu-An-Sittway railway project to allow the connection to Port of Sittway. So far, the opened section is 54.00 miles (86.90 km) while the other 203.00 miles (326.70 km) is still under construction, one of them being Yechanbyin-Pardaleik (5.81 miles (9.35 km)). Construction started 15 February 2009. The other sections which are waiting for budget and contract signing is Pardaleik-Kwan Taung (4.18 miles (6.73 km)) and Kyauk Taw-An- Minbu (193.01 miles (310.62 km)) with a hope to finish the project in 2021 - 2022. The opened sections are:
- Sit twe-Yechanbyin (11.46 miles (18.44 km)): construction started 15 February 2009, opened 19 May 2009
- Kwan Taung- Ponnagyun-Yotayouk (22.72 miles (36.56 km)): construction started 15 February 2009 and opened 15 May 2010
- Yotayouk-Kyauk Taw (19.28 miles (31.03 km)): construction started 16 May 2010, opened 11 April 2011
- Einme-Nyaundong with a distance of 96.51 miles (155.32 km) as a part of Pathein(Begayet) – Einme - Nyaundong Yangon (Hlaing Thayar) to allow the connection between Yangon with Port of Pathein. The section under construction is Einme-Nyaungdong-Hlaingthayar (75.76 miles (121.92 km)). Construction started 1 December 2009 with a hope to be done in 2017 - 2018. So far, the opened section is 61.09 miles (98.31 km) while the other 35.42 miles (57.00 km) is still under construction. The opened sections are:
- Pathein(Begayet)-Einme (20.75 miles (33.39 km)): construction started 1 December 2009 and opened 20 March 2011
MR operates 858 stations throughout the country. Yangon Central and Mandalay Central have been the twin anchors of the network. Recently, MR has extended rail service along the Taninthayi coast to Mon State and Tanintharyi Region with Mawlamyine station as the southern hub. The network generally runs north to south with branches to east and west.
|Yangon-Mandalay||Yangon-Bago-Toungoo-Naypyidaw-Thazi-Mandalay||Express trains skip Bago|
|Tanintharyi Line||Mawlamyine-Ye-Dawei||under construction to Myeik|
|Northern Shan State Railway||Mandalay-Pyinoolwin-Kyaukme-Hsipaw-Lashio|
Yangon Circular Railway
MR also operates a 45.9-kilometre (28.5 mi) 39-station loop system that connects Yangon's downtown, satellite towns and suburban areas. The railway runs 200 times and sells 150,000 tickets daily. The loop, which takes about three hours to complete, is a way to see a cross section of life in Yangon for common people.
Beginning from 2005, members of Japan Railways Group and other, privately owned Japanese railway companies donated sizeable amount rolling stock to Myanmar Railways, including former JNR-era DMUs, railcars and passenger coaches. In 2006, China has donated 130 units of meter gauge carriages to Burma. In 2009, another 225 donated. In early 2011, MR operated 389 locomotives and 4673 railway coaches.
In 1999 MR had 201 diesel locomotives, and a further 88 were on order. Up to 1987 the main suppliers were Alstom, Krupp and various Japanese companies, but since then orders have been placed with China owing to Myanmar's lack of access to hard currency. In 2004, MR had approximately 40 oil-fired steam locomotives, of which about a dozen were serviceable and saw occasional use on goods, local passenger and tourist trains. Up to three heavy repairs are performed per year using locally manufactured parts. Between 1988 and 2009, MR imported 96 diesel locomotives, 55 from China and 41 from India. In December 2009, MR had a total of 319 locomotives. In October 2010, MR acquired 30 more locomotives from China.
MR also acquired a former JR "Hokutosei" Blue trainset after withdrawal of the Hokutosei Blue Train Service when the operation of Hokkaido Shinkansen began in 2014, the locomotive that they acquire is the former DD51 Diesel Locomotive along with the former Blue Trains that were formerly operated by JR Hokkaido.
In March 2018, India handed over the 18 diesel-electric locomotives to Myanmar under an Indian line of credit. These 18 locomotives were fitted with the microprocessor control based system. 1350 HP AC/DC main line diesel locomotives with a maximum speed of 100 KM PH had been customised for the Myanma Railways. From the Indian side, RITES Ltd., an Indian government enterprise, has been a principal partner of Myanma Railways and was involved in the supply of these 18 locomotives.
In 1999 MR had 868 coaches, with a further 463 on order. However many branch lines have only lightly built permanent way, and on these routes traffic is in the hands of a fleet of more than 50 light rail-buses built from lorry parts in MR's workshops. These are powered through their rubber-tired road wheels, and usually haul three small four-wheel coaches converted from goods wagons. Small turntables are used to turn the rail-buses at the termini.
There were 5187 freight wagons in 1999, with 1188 due to be delivered. The majority of goods trains on lines without significant gradients run without any train brakes, as most of the serviceable wagons have been cannibalised and now lack vacuum hoses. Goods trains up to 600 tonnes are braked by the locomotive only, and operate at a maximum speed of 32 km/h (19.9 mph). If the train is particularly heavy the wagons at the front will be fitted with hoses for the duration of the trip. On the steeply-graded ghat sections all wagons will be braked.
- "MR to link Mandalay and Bhamo". New Light of Myanmar. 22 February 2010.
- "Myanmar imports more locomotives to help facilitate rail transportation". Xinhua News. 20 January 2009.
- Yeni (30 January 2008). "The Railway Bazaar". The Irrawaddy.
- "30 Locomotives Transferred from China". Bi-Weekly Eleven (in Burmese). 3 (30): 7. 15 October 2010.
- Dautremer, Joseph (1913) Burma under British Rule (translated from Dautremer, Joseph (1912) La Birmanie sous le régime britannique: une colonie modèle Guilmoto, Paris, OCLC 250415892) T.F. Unwin, London, page 205, OCLC 9493684; full text pp. 194-213 from the online library eBooksRead.com
- Ireland, Alleyne (1907). "The Province of Burma: A report prepared for the University of Chicago". Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin and Company.
- Dieter Hettler (1 November 2004). "Update from Myanmar". Railway Gazette International.
- "Developing a Myanma's Rail Network that meet demand by Ministry of 23rd November, 2015" (PDF). Ministry of Rail Transportation Myanma Railways. Retrieved 6 September 2016.
- "Third Regional EST Forum: Presentation of Myanmar" (PDF). Singapore: Ministry of Transport, Myanmar. 17–19 March 2008.
- Japanese rolling stock in Myanmar (in Japanese)
- In September 2006, China donated 130 carriages ...
- China presents railway carriages to Myanmar
- "Number of autos, motorcycles increases in Myanmar". Bi-Weekly Eleven News. 26 January 2011.
- / Myanmar Railways' Ex-JR Freight Class DD51 Diesel Locomotive]
- ANI (2018-03-20). "India hands over 18 high-end diesel locos to Myanmar". Business Standard India. Retrieved 2018-07-06.
- "India to hand over 18th locomotive". The Myanmar Times. Retrieved 2018-07-06.
- Ministry of Rail Transportation (Burmese) http://www.ministryofrailtransportation.com
- Myanmar Railways in Ministry of Rail Transportation (Burmese) https://web.archive.org/web/20091202002735/http://www.ministryofrailtransportation.com/myanma_railways.html
- Myanmar Railway Schedule http://www.yangonow.com/eng/transportation/train/schedule.html
- Myanmar Railway Fares http://www.yangonow.com/eng/transportation/train/fare.html
- Information about the construction of Ye - Dawei railway line- http://www.myanmar.gov.mm/Perspective/persp1998/3-98/con3-98.htm[permanent dead link]
- Inauguration Ceremony for the construction of Dawei- Myeik railway by Myanmar TV 3 - https://web.archive.org/web/20110427223902/http://www.mrtv3.net.mm/open5/061208tran.html
- New Construction Projects of Myanmar Railway - https://web.archive.org/web/20110427223916/http://www.mrtv3.net.mm/open5/051208tran.html
- The inauguration for the construction of Katha - Bhamo railway - https://web.archive.org/web/20110427223817/http://www.mrtv3.net.mm/open4/010108tran.html
- Information about Kyangin-Pakokku railway project - https://web.archive.org/web/20110501032517/http://www.myanmar-information.net/infosheet/2006/070129.htm
- Map, Schedules and Fares of Myanmar Railway -http://www.freewebs.com/myanmar2005/transport.htm
- The New Light of Myanmar - 4 April 2009 - https://web.archive.org/web/20110427205339/http://myanmargeneva.org/NLM2009/eng/4Apr/n090404.pdf
- Opening of Moulmein Bridge -16/4/08 - https://web.archive.org/web/20071022160703/http://www.myanmar-information.net/infosheet/2006/060419.htm
- Winchester, Clarence, ed. (1936), "Burma's metre-gauge system", Railway Wonders of the World, pp. 1329–1331, illustrated account of Burma's railways in the 1930s
- Train from Kiaukme to PYin Oo Lwin https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P5TFqgMZW_E