Myazedi inscription

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Myazedi Inscription in Mon language at the Gubyaukgyi Temple, Bagan

Myazedi inscription (Burmese: မြစေတီ ကျောက်စာ [mja̰ zèdì tɕaʊʔ sà]; also Yazakumar Inscription or the Gubyaukgyi Inscription), inscribed in 1113, is the oldest surviving stone inscription of the Burmese. "Myazedi" means "emerald stupa" ("zedi" being akin to the Pali "cetiya" and Thai "chedi"), and the name of the inscription comes from a pagoda located nearby. The inscriptions were made in four languages: Burmese, Pyu, Mon, and Pali,[1]:158 which all tell the story of Prince Yazakumar and King Kyansittha. The primary importance of the Myazedi inscription is that the inscriptions allowed for the deciphering of the written Pyu language.

There are two main inscriptions in Burma today. One exists on the platform of the Myazedi Pagoda, in the village of Myinkaba (south of Bagan), in Mandalay Division. The other was discovered by German Pali scholar Dr. Emil Forchammar in 1886-1887, and is currently in display at the Bagan Archaeological Museum.

Translation and Analysis[edit]

The inscription has 39 lines in Burmese language, 41 lines in Pali, 33 lines in Mon Language and 26 lines in Pyu language. It can be generally divided into three catagories, donation, wish and curse. The nearest translation is as follows:


The typical Bagan handwriting was either rectangular or circular in shape,but in this inscription,the handwriting reassembles Tamarind seeds.Being the beginning of Myanmar Literature,some words were not written systematically,that is,the consonants and vowels were separated (e.g,"သာသနာအနှစ် တစ်ထောင်ခြောက်ရာ" was written as "သာသနာ အနှစ်တ" on a line,and "စ်ထောင်ခြောက်ရာ" written on the next line).

There were only words for the first person,"I" and "my",in Bagan period.In the inscription,instead of "he",Yazakumar referred to himself as "The son of the beloved wife"(ထိုပယ်မယားသား)and "it" was referred as "This"(ဤ/ထို).Some words had archaic meanings(e.g,ပယ်,which has modern meaning of "abandon",meant "Lovely ,or beloved"and နှပ်, meaning "relax" or "mix thoroughly",meant "donate").

Yazakumar referred to his father as Śrī Tribhuvanāditya Dhammarāja,meaning "The king who can enlighten all three worlds like the sun",his mother as Trilokavaṭansakā devi (The queen who could lead all three worlds) and the Pagan Empire as Aryimadanāpη Empire (The place where they can successfully outnumber enemies) respectively.

The purpose of the donation category is to let people appreciate their deeds.The wishing category is part of the tradition of Buddhism.The main intention of writing curse to preserve the donations and to prevent donated structures from being damaged.

From this inscription,the reign periods of Kyansittha, Anawrahta, Saw Lu,and Alaungsithu can be calculated,old Pyu Language can be learnt,and Yazakumar's respect and love for his father can be observed.[2]

See also[edit]



  1. ^ Coedès, George (1968). Walter F. Vella, ed. The Indianized States of Southeast Asia. trans.Susan Brown Cowing. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-0368-1.
  2. ^ Burmese Encyclopedia,Volume 9
  • "Myazedi". Myanmar Travel information 2006. Archived from the original on 2006-07-01. Retrieved 2006-08-13.
  • Khin Maung Nyunt (December 2000). "Myazedi and Rosetta Stone Inscriptions". Perspective. Archived from the original on 2005-02-08. Retrieved 2006-08-13.
  • "Myazedi Pagoda". Myanmar's NET. Retrieved 2006-08-13.
  • Nishida Tatsuo 西田龍雄 (1955) "Myazedki 碑文における中古ビルマ語の研究 Myazedi hibu ni okeru chūko biruma go no kenkyū. Studies in the later ancient Burmese Language through Myazedi Inscriptions." 古代學 Kodaigaku Palaeologia 4.1:17-31 and 5.1: 22-40.
  • Yabu Shirō 藪 司郎 (2006). 古ビルマ語資料におけるミャゼディ碑文<1112年>の古ビルマ語 / Kobirumago shiryō ni okeru myazedi hibun senhyakujūninen no kobirumago ōbī / Old Burmese (OB) of Myazedi inscription in OB materials. Osaka: Osaka University of Foreign Studies.

Link to pictures[edit]

Myazedi Inscription at [1]

Myazedi Inscription A at Zenodo [2]

Myazedi Inscription B at Zenodo [3]