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Mycetoma is a term for a chronic subcutaneous infection, a type of granulomatous infection. It is characterized by a triad of subcutaneous swelling, discharging sinuses, discharge containing granules.
- Actinomycetoma, the bacterial form. It shouldn't be confused with actinomycosis, which is a different entity caused by Actinomyces species mostly by Actinomyces israelii.
- Eumycetoma, the fungal form, caused by true fungi.
- Aspergilloma, is a misnomer or false usage because it is not a subcutaneous infection, but is fungal ball in lungs.
- the causative organism is believed to enter the body through minor trauma
- the disease begins as a subcutaneous swelling usually of foot,which enlarges and burrows into deeper tissues producing charecteristic abscess.the abscess burst with the formation of chronic multiple sinuses discharging viscid,seropurulent fluid containing granules.
- The colour and consistency of the granules vary with different causatibe agents.
Diagnosis is done by examination of granules.
Actinomycotic mycetoma usually respond well to sulphonamides and antibiotics, but mycotic mycetoma may require amputation.