Mycobacterium avium complex

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Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), also called Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex, is a microbial complex of 2 Mycobacterium species, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare and Mycobacterium chimaera.[1] It causes Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection.[2][3]

Some sources also include Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP).[4]

The Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) includes ubiquitous atypical bacteria, i.e. nontuberculous mycobacteria or NTM, found in the environment which can infect patients with HIV and low CD4 cell count (below 100/microliter); mode of infection is usually inhalation or ingestion.

MAC causes disseminated disease in up to 40% of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the United States, producing fever, sweats, weight loss, and anemia.[5][6][7] Disseminated MAC characteristically affects patients with advanced HIV disease and peripheral CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts less than 100 cells/uL. Effective prevention and therapy of MAC has the potential to contribute substantially to improved quality of life and duration of survival for HIV-infected persons.[8]


 This article incorporates public domain material from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention document "Recommendations on Prophylaxis and Therapy for Disseminated Mycobacterium avium Complex for Adults and Adolescents Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus".

  1. ^ Elsevier, Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary, Elsevier. 
  2. ^ White, Lois (2004). Foundations of Nursing. Cengage Learning. p. 1298. ISBN 978-1-4018-2692-5. 
  3. ^ "Disease Listing, Mycobacterium avium Complex". CDC Bacterial, Mycotic Diseases. Retrieved 2010-11-04. 
  4. ^ Irving, Peter; Rampton, David; Shanahan, Fergus (2006). Clinical dilemmas in inflammatory bowel disease. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 36. ISBN 978-1-4051-3377-7. 
  5. ^ Horsburgh CR (May 1991). "Mycobacterium avium complex infection in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome". N. Engl. J. Med. 324 (19): 1332–8. doi:10.1056/NEJM199105093241906. PMID 2017230. 
  6. ^ Chaisson RE, Moore RD, Richman DD, Keruly J, Creagh T (August 1992). "Incidence and natural history of Mycobacterium avium-complex infections in patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus disease treated with zidovudine. The Zidovudine Epidemiology Study Group". Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 146 (2): 285–9. doi:10.1164/ajrccm/146.2.285. PMID 1362634. 
  7. ^ Havlik JA, Horsburgh CR, Metchock B, Williams PP, Fann SA, Thompson SE (March 1992). "Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection: clinical identification and epidemiologic trends". J. Infect. Dis. 165 (3): 577–80. doi:10.1093/infdis/165.3.577. PMID 1347060. 
  8. ^ U.S. Public Health Service Task Force on Prophylaxis and Therapy for Mycobacterium avium Complex (June 1993). "Recommendations on prophylaxis and therapy for disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex for adults and adolescents infected with human immunodeficiency virus". MMWR Recomm Rep 42 (RR-9): 14–20. PMID 8393134.