Mycobacterium chimaera

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Mycobacterium chimaera
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Actinobacteria
Order: Actinomycetales
Suborder: Corynebacterineae
Family: Mycobacteriaceae
Genus: Mycobacterium
Species: M. chimaera
Binomial name
Mycobacterium chimaera
Tortoli et al. 2004, CCUG 50989

Mycobacterium chimaera is a species of the phylum actinobacteria (Gram-positive bacteria with high guanine and cytosine content, one of the dominant phyla of all bacteria), belonging to the genus mycobacterium and part of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC).

Type strain: strain FI-01069 = CCUG 50989 = CIP 107892 = DSM 44623.
Etymology: L. fem. n. chimaera, the chimaera, the mythological being made up of parts of three different animals, referring to the apparent mix of genetic features characterizing the strains.[1]

There is an association of this organism with infections following cardiac bypass surgery, with an onset of symptoms from 1.5 to 3.6 years following the operation.[2] Non-specific clinical findings have led to a time-to-diagnosis of up to four years. Most reported infections are of prosthetic valves or vascular grafts.


  1. ^ Tortoli, E; Rindi, L; Garcia, MJ; Chiaradonna, P; Dei, R; Garzelli, C; Kroppenstedt, RM; Lari, N; Mattei, R; Mariottini, A; Mazzarelli, G; Murcia, MI; Nanetti, A; Piccoli, P; Scarparo, C (July 2004). "Proposal to elevate the genetic variant MAC-A, included in the Mycobacterium avium complex, to species rank as Mycobacterium chimaera sp. nov.". International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology. 54 (Pt 4): 1277–85. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.02777-0. PMID 15280303. 
  2. ^ Sax, H; Bloemberg, G; Hasse, B; Sommerstein, R; Kohler, P; Achermann, Y; Rössle, M; Falk, V; Kuster, SP; Böttger, EC; Weber, R (1 July 2015). "Prolonged Outbreak of Mycobacterium chimaera Infection After Open-Chest Heart Surgery.". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 61 (1): 67–75. doi:10.1093/cid/civ198. PMID 25761866. 

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