Mycobacterium ulcerans liflandii

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Mycobacterium liflandii
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Actinobacteria
Order: Actinomycetales
Suborder: Corynebacterineae
Family: Mycobacteriaceae
Genus: Mycobacterium
Species: M. ulcerans
Subspecies: M. ulcerans liflandii
Binomial name
Mycobacterium ulcerans liflandii

Mycobacterium ulcerans liflandii has been isolated from Xenopus tropicalis and Xenopus laevis in a laboratory in the US and causes a Mycobacterium ulcerans-like disease in anurans.[1][2] The strain was unofficially titled under its own species name until it was renamed to be a ecovariation of Mycobacterium ulcerans.[3]

The strain of M. liflandii that has been isolated from anuran sources at the University of California, Berkeley, has been designated KT1. KT1 is characterized and differentiated from its closest relatives, Mycobacterium ulcerans and Mycobacterium marinum, by the following molecular and physical traits.

Genomic results[edit]

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) assay KT1 has a three base-pair difference from M. ulcerans and M. marinum in its Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) that results in a lack of a Fok1 restriction enzyme site that is present in M. ulcerans and M. marinum. Amplification of ITS[1] followed by Fok1 digestion results in an RFLP with a major product of 213 base-pairs for both M. ulcerans and M. marinum, and a product band of 266 base-pairs for M. liflandii.

Sequence analysis[edit]

The following additional comparative differences were also used to identify M. liflandii KT1.[1] 1) KT1 is identical to M. ulcerans in the 5' signature region of RNA Polymerase subunit B (rpoB) and one base-pair off from M. ulcerans in the 3' region. It is three base-pairs different from M. marinum in the 5' region of rpoB and identical to M. marinum in the 3' region of rpoB. 2) KT1 is positive for both M. ulcerans-specific Insertion Sequences, IS2404 and IS2606. 3) KT1 is identical to the M. marinum heat shock protein 65 (hsp65) and 3 base-pairs different from M. ulcerans. 4) KT1 is 2 base-pairs different from the 16s ribosomal RNA gene (16sRNA) of M. marinum and 3 base-pairs different from M. ulcerans.

Physical characteristics[edit]

KT1 is a non-photochromogenic acid-fast mycobacterium. On Middlebrook 7H11 media supplemented with OADC, colonies are non-pigmented and slightly buff-colored, with rough morphology. KT1 has an optimal growth temperature of 28 °C with no growth seen at 35 °C. Growth rate on Lowenstein-Jensen is 30–35 days.

Information taken from


  1. ^ a b c Trott KA, Stacy BA, Lifland BD, et al. (June 2004). "Characterization of a Mycobacterium ulcerans-like infection in a colony of African tropical clawed frogs (Xenopus tropicalis)". Comp. Med. 54 (3): 309–17. PMID 15253278. 
  2. ^ Mve-Obiang A, Lee RE, Umstot ES, et al. (June 2005). "A newly discovered mycobacterial pathogen isolated from laboratory colonies of Xenopus species with lethal infections produces a novel form of mycolactone, the Mycobacterium ulcerans macrolide toxin". Infect. Immun. 73 (6): 3307–12. PMC 1111873Freely accessible. PMID 15908356. doi:10.1128/IAI.73.6.3307-3312.2005. 
  3. ^ Nicholas J. Tobias; Kenneth D. Doig; Marnix H. Medema; Honglei Chen; Volker Haring; Robert Moore; Torsten Seemann; Timothy P. Stinear (30 November 2012). "Complete Genome Sequence of the Frog Pathogen Mycobacterium ulcerans ecovar Liflandii" (PDF). Journal of Bacteriology. 195 (3): 556–564. PMC 3554023Freely accessible. PMID 23204453. doi:10.1128/JB.02132-12. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 December 2016. Retrieved 12 December 2016. 

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