Mycobiome

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The mycobiome, mycobiota, or fungal microbiome, is the fungal community in and on an organism.[1][2][3]

There is a low abundance of fungi associated with most human body sites, such as the gastrointestinal tract, where fungi typically compose just 0.001 - 0.1% of the microbial community.[4][5] However, fungi compose a significant fraction of the microbiome at some locations, such as the ear canal.[6]

The mycobiome is relevant to human physiology as fungi may be important in maintaining microbial community structure, metabolic function, and immune-priming.[7][8] Mutualism between humans and fungi is not yet well understood, and there is much to be learned about how fungi interact with the nonfungal constituents of the microbiome.

Human Diseases[edit]

Many human diseases, including hepatitis, cystic fibrosis, obesity, and inflammatory bowel disease have been associated with changes in the human mycobiome[9][10], and it has been proposed that any fungal colonization of the GI tract is a sign of disease.[4]

Fungal Biota Present[edit]

Vaginal Mycobiome[edit]

  • Candida (16 taxonomic units)
  • Ascomycota
  • Saccharomycetales
  • Ascomycota Davidiellaceae
  • Cladosporium
  • Eurotium
  • Alternaria
  • Basidomycota Rhodotorula

Intestinal Mycobiome[11][edit]

(Infant) Intestinal Mycobiome[edit]

  • Saccharomycetales (infant)
  • Cladosporium
  • Cryptococcus
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae
  • Malasseziales
  • Eurotiales
  • Botryosphaeriales
  • Filobasidiales[12]

Oral Mycobiome[edit]

  • Candida
  • Saccharomyces
  • Penicillium
  • Aspergillus
  • Scopulariopsis
  • Genotrichum[13][14][15][16]
  • Cryptococcus
  • Histoplasma
  • Mucor[17]
  • Cladosporium
  • Fusarium
  • Alternaria[18]
  • Malassezia
  • Epicoccum
  • Aureobasidium
  • Irpex
  • Cytospora
  • Lenziles
  • Sporobolomyces
  • Dothioraceae
  • Teratosphaeria
  • Glomus[19][18]
  • Pichia

Lung Mycobiome[edit]

  • Aspergillus
  • Penicillium
  • Davidiellaceae
  • Candida[20]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Cui, Lijia; Morris, Alison; Ghedin, Elodie (2013). "The human mycobiome in health and disease". Genome Medicine. 5 (7): 63. doi:10.1186/gm467. PMC 3978422Freely accessible. PMID 23899327. 
  2. ^ Ghannoum, Mahmoud (February 1, 2016). "The Mycobiome". The Scientist. Retrieved February 5, 2016. 
  3. ^ Suhr, M. J; Hallen-Adams, H. E (2015). "The human gut mycobiome: Pitfalls and potentials--a mycologists perspective". Mycologia. 107 (6): 1057–73. doi:10.3852/15-147. PMID 26354806. 
  4. ^ a b Auchtung, TA; Fofanova TY; Stewart CJ; Nash AK; Wong MC; Gesell JR; Auchtung JM; Ajami NJ; Petrosino JF (2018). "Investigating Colonization of the Healthy Adult Gastrointestinal Tract by Fungi". mSphere. 3 (2): e00092–18. PMID 29600282. 
  5. ^ Qin, Junjie; Li, Ruiqiang; Raes, Jeroen; Arumugam, Manimozhiyan; Burgdorf, Kristoffer Solvsten; Manichanh, Chaysavanh; Nielsen, Trine; Pons, Nicolas; Levenez, Florence; Yamada, Takuji; Mende, Daniel R; Li, Junhua; Xu, Junming; Li, Shaochuan; Li, Dongfang; Cao, Jianjun; Wang, Bo; Liang, Huiqing; Zheng, Huisong; Xie, Yinlong; Tap, Julien; Lepage, Patricia; Bertalan, Marcelo; Batto, Jean-Michel; Hansen, Torben; Le Paslier, Denis; Linneberg, Allan; Nielsen, H. Bjørn; Pelletier, Eric; et al. (2010). "A human gut microbial gene catalogue established by metagenomic sequencing". Nature. 464 (7285): 59–65. Bibcode:2010Natur.464...59.. doi:10.1038/nature08821. PMC 3779803Freely accessible. PMID 20203603. 
  6. ^ Oh, J; Byrd AL; Park M; NISC Comparative Sequencing Program; Kong HH; Segre JA (2016). "Temporal Stability of the Human Skin Microbiome". Cell. 165 (4): 854–66. PMID 27153496. 
  7. ^ Seed, P. C (2014). "The Human Mycobiome". Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine. 5 (5): a019810. doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a019810. PMC 4448585Freely accessible. PMID 25384764. 
  8. ^ Pflughoeft, Kathryn J; Versalovic, James (2012). "Human Microbiome in Health and Disease". Annual Review of Pathology: Mechanisms of Disease. 7: 99–122. doi:10.1146/annurev-pathol-011811-132421. PMID 21910623. 
  9. ^ Mar Rodríguez, M; Pérez, Daniel; Javier Chaves, Felipe; Esteve, Eduardo; Marin-Garcia, Pablo; Xifra, Gemma; Vendrell, Joan; Jové, Mariona; Pamplona, Reinald; Ricart, Wifredo; Portero-Otin, Manuel; Chacón, Matilde R; Fernández Real, José Manuel (2015). "Obesity changes the human gut mycobiome". Scientific Reports. 5: 14600. Bibcode:2015NatSR...514600M. doi:10.1038/srep14600. PMC 4600977Freely accessible. PMID 26455903. 
  10. ^ Ackerman, A. Lenore; Underhill, David M (2017). "The mycobiome of the human urinary tract: Potential roles for fungi in urology". Annals of Translational Medicine. 5 (2): 31. doi:10.21037/atm.2016.12.69. PMC 5300854Freely accessible. PMID 28217696. 
  11. ^ Nash, AK; Auchtung TA; Wong MC; Smith DP; Gesell JR; Ross MC; Stewart CJ; Metcalf GA; Muzny DM; Gibbs RA; Ajami NJ; Petrosino JF (2017). "The gut mycobiome of the Human Microbiome Project healthy cohort". Microbiome. 5 (1): 153. PMID 29178920. 
  12. ^ Latuga, Mariam Susan; Ellis, Joseph Christopher; Cotton, Charles Michael; Goldberg, Ronald N; Wynn, James L; Jackson, Robert B; Seed, Patrick C (2011). "Beyond Bacteria: A Study of the Enteric Microbial Consortium in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants". PLoS ONE. 6 (12): e27858. Bibcode:2011PLoSO...627858L. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0027858. PMC 3234235Freely accessible. PMID 22174751. 
  13. ^ Williams, DW; Lewis, MAO (2008). "Oral Microbiology: Isolation and identification of candida from the oral cavity". Oral Diseases. 6 (1): 3–11. doi:10.1111/j.1601-0825.2000.tb00314.x. PMID 10673781. 
  14. ^ Schuster, G. S (1999). "Oral flora and pathogenic organisms". Infectious disease clinics of North America. 13 (4): 757–74, v. doi:10.1016/s0891-5520(05)70107-0. PMID 10579107. 
  15. ^ Salonen, J.H; Richardson, M.D; Gallacher, K; Issakainen, J; Helenius, H; Lehtonen, O.-P; Nikoskelainen, J (2000). "Fungal colonization of haematological patients receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy: Emergence of azole-resistant Saccharomyces cerevisiae". Journal of Hospital Infection. 45 (4): 293–301. doi:10.1053/jhin.1999.0718. PMID 10973747. 
  16. ^ Jabra-Rizk, M. A; Ferreira, S. M. S; Sabet, M; Falkler, W. A; Merz, W. G; Meiller, T. F (2001). "Recovery of Candida dubliniensis and Other Yeasts from Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Periodontal Lesions". Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 39 (12): 4520–2. doi:10.1128/JCM.39.12.4520-4522.2001. PMC 88577Freely accessible. PMID 11724873. 
  17. ^ Iatta, Roberta; Napoli, Christian; Borghi, Elisa; Montagna, Maria Teresa (2009). "Rare mycoses of the oral cavity: A literature epidemiologic review". Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontology. 108 (5): 647–55. doi:10.1016/j.tripleo.2009.07.010. PMID 19836721. 
  18. ^ a b Ghannoum, Mahmoud A; Jurevic, Richard J; Mukherjee, Pranab K; Cui, Fan; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Naqvi, Ammar; Gillevet, Patrick M (2010). "Characterization of the Oral Fungal Microbiome (Mycobiome) in Healthy Individuals". PLoS Pathogens. 6 (1): e1000713. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1000713. PMC 2795202Freely accessible. PMID 20072605. 
  19. ^ Dupuy, Amanda K; David, Marika S; Li, Lu; Heider, Thomas N; Peterson, Jason D; Montano, Elizabeth A; Dongari-Bagtzoglou, Anna; Diaz, Patricia I; Strausbaugh, Linda D (2014). "Redefining the Human Oral Mycobiome with Improved Practices in Amplicon-based Taxonomy: Discovery of Malassezia as a Prominent Commensal". PLoS ONE. 9 (3): e90899. Bibcode:2014PLoSO...990899D. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0090899. PMC 3948697Freely accessible. PMID 24614173. 
  20. ^ Charlson, Emily S; Diamond, Joshua M; Bittinger, Kyle; Fitzgerald, Ayannah S; Yadav, Anjana; Haas, Andrew R; Bushman, Frederic D; Collman, Ronald G (2012). "Lung-enriched Organisms and Aberrant Bacterial and Fungal Respiratory Microbiota after Lung Transplant". American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 186 (6): 536–45. doi:10.1164/rccm.201204-0693OC. PMC 3480531Freely accessible. PMID 22798321.