Mycoplasma mycoides

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Mycoplasma mycoides
Scientific classification edit
Domain: Bacteria
Phylum: Tenericutes
Class: Mollicutes
Order: Mycoplasmatales
Family: Mycoplasmataceae
Genus: Mycoplasma
Species group: Mycoplasma mycoides group
M. mycoides
Binomial name
Mycoplasma mycoides
(Borrel et al., 1910) Freundt, 1955

Mycoplasma mycoides is a bacterial species of the genus Mycoplasma in the class Mollicutes. This microorganism is a parasite that lives in ruminants. Mycoplasma mycoides comprises two subspecies, mycoides and capri, which infect cattle and small ruminants such as goats respectively.

Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides[edit]

The subspecies "Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm)", previously named "Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides Small Colony (SC) type (MmmSC)", is known as the agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), a contagious lung disease of cattle. It was first isolated in 1898 by Edmond Nocard et al. and the first mycoplasma to be isolated at all.[1][2]

Formerly, M. mycoides subsp. mycoides was known as Asterococcus mycoides.[3]

The Mycoplasma mycoides cluster[edit]

Mycoplasma mycoides belongs to the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster, or Mycoplasma mycoides group, a group of closely related infectious mycoplasmas, first named by Weisburg et al.[4]

The cluster sensu stricto contains the genera Mycoplasma mycoides and Mycoplasma capricolum and comprises six species and subspecies:

The last one is disputed with respect to the question of being a separate species.[5][6]

In 2009, L. Manso-Silván et al. proposed to consider M. mycoides subsp. mycoides biotype Large Colony as equal with M. mycoides subsp. capri. Furthermore, they proposed the name Mycoplasma leachii sp. nov. for Mycoplasma sp. 'bovine group 7' as a separate species.[5]

Minimal genome project[edit]

In 2010, as part of the Minimal Genome Project, a team of the J. Craig Venter Institute synthesized a modified version (JCVI-syn1.0) of the 1,000,000 base pair M. mycoides genome and implanted it into a DNA-free bacterial shell of Mycoplasma capricolum;[7] the resulting organism was shown to be self-replicating.[8][9]

In 2016, the Venter Institute used genes from the JCVI-syn1.0 to synthesize an even smaller genome they call JCVI-syn3.0, that contains 531,560 base pairs and 473 genes.[10] A comparison of these two genomes revealed a common set of 256 genes which the team thinks could represent a minimal set of genes needed for viability.[10]


  1. ^ Nocard, E.I.E. & Roux, E.; Le microbe de la péripneumonie; Ann Inst Pasteur 12, 240-262. (Translated as ‘The microbe of pleuropneumonia' in Rev Infect Dis 12, 354-358 (1990))
  2. ^ Cheng X; Nicolet J; Poumarat F; Regalla J; et al. (December 1995). "Insertion element IS1296 in Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony identifies a European clonal line distinct from African and Australian strains". Microbiology. 141 (Pt 12): 3221–3228. doi:10.1099/13500872-141-12-3221. PMID 8574413.
  3. ^ Plackett P; Buttery SH (November 1958). "A galactan from Mycoplasma mycoides". Nature. 182 (4644): 1236–1237. Bibcode:1958Natur.182.1236P. doi:10.1038/1821236a0. PMID 13590288.
  4. ^ Weisburg WG, Tully JG, Rose DL, et al. (December 1989). "A phylogenetic analysis of the mycoplasmas: basis for their classification". J. Bacteriol. 171 (12): 6455–67. PMC 210534. PMID 2592342.
  5. ^ a b Manso-Silván L; Vilei EM; Sachse K; Djordjevic SP; et al. (June 2009). "Mycoplasma leachii sp. nov. as a new species designation for Mycoplasma sp. bovine group 7 of Leach, and reclassification of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides LC as a serovar of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri". Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 59 (Pt 6): 1353–1358. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.005546-0. PMID 19502315.
  6. ^ Thiaucourt F; Lorenzon S, David A; Breard A (March 2000). "Phylogeny of the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster as shown by sequencing of a putative membrane protein gene". Vet. Microbiol. 72 (3–4): 251–268. doi:10.1016/S0378-1135(99)00204-7. PMID 10727835.
  7. ^ Bujor, Mara (2009-05-13). "World's first genome transplant – a step forward towards creating synthetic life forms". ZME Science.
  8. ^ "Sizing up the 'synthetic cell'". Nature. May 2010. doi:10.1038/news.2010.255.
  9. ^ Henderson, Mark (May 21, 2010). "Scientists create artificial life in laboratory". The Times. London.
  10. ^ a b Hutchison, Clyde A.; Chuang, Ray-Yuan; Noskov, Vladimir N.; Assad-Garcia, Nacyra; Deerinck, Thomas J.; Ellisman, Mark H.; Gill, John; Kannan, Krishna; Karas, Bogumil J. (2016-03-25). "Design and synthesis of a minimal bacterial genome". Science. 351 (6280): aad6253. Bibcode:2016Sci...351.....H. doi:10.1126/science.aad6253. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 27013737.