Mycorrhizal network

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Nutrient exchanges and communication between a mycorrhizal fungus and plants.

A Mycorrhizal network (also known as a common mycorrhizal network or CMN) is an underground network found in forests and other plant communities, created by the hyphae of mycorrhizal fungi joining with plant roots. This network connects individual plants together and transfers water, carbon, nitrogen, and other nutrients and minerals between participants. Several studies have demonstrated that mycorrhizal networks can transport carbon,[1][2] phosphorus,[3] nitrogen,[4][5] water,[6][7] defense compounds,[8] and allelochemicals [9][10] from plant to plant. The flux of nutrients and water through hyphal networks has been proposed to be driven by a source–sink model,[6] where plants growing under conditions of relatively high resource availability (e.g., high-light or high-nitrogen environments) transfer carbon or nutrients to plants located in less favorable conditions. A common example is the transfer of carbon from plants with leaves located in high-light conditions in the forest canopy, to plants located in the shaded understory where light availability limits photosynthesis. In natural ecosystems, plants may be dependent on fungal symbionts for 90% of their phosphorus requirements and 80% of their nitrogen requirements.[11] Mycorrhizal relationships are most commonly mutualistic, with both partners benefiting, but can be commensal or parasitic.

The formation and nature of these networks is context-dependent, and can be influenced by factors such as soil fertility, resource availability, host or myco-symbiont genotype, disturbance and seasonal variation.[6] Some plant species, such as buckhorn plantain, a common lawn and agricultural weed, benefit from mycorrhizal relationships in conditions of low soil fertility, but are harmed in higher soil fertility. [12] Both plants and fungi associate with multiple symbiotic partners at once, and both plants and fungi are capable of preferentially allocating resources to one partner over another. [13]

Referencing an analogous function served by the World Wide Web in human communities, the many roles that mycorrhizal networks appear to play in woodland have earned them a colloquial nickname: the Wood Wide Web.[14][15]


There are two main types of mycorrhizal networks: arbuscular mycorrhizal networks and ectomycorrhizal networks.

  • Arbuscular mycorrhizal networks are formed between plants that associate with glomeromycetes. Arbuscular mycorrhizal associations (also called endomycorrhizas) predominate among land plants, and are formed with 150–200 known fungal species, although true fungal diversity may be much higher.[16] It has generally been assumed that this association has low host specificity. However, recent studies have demonstrated preferences of some host plants for some glomeromycete species [17][18]
  • Ectomycorrhizal networks are formed between plants that associate with ectomycorrhizal fungi and proliferate by way of ectomycorrhizal extramatrical mycelium. In contrast to glomeromycetes, ectomycorrhizal fungal are a highly diverse and polyphyletic group consisting of 10,000 fungal species.[19] These associations tend to be more specific, and predominate in temperate and boreal forests.[16]

Mycoheterotrophic and mixotrophic plants[edit]

Monotropastrum humile—an example of a myco-heterotrophic plant that gains all of its energy through mycorrhizal networks

Myco-heterotrophic plants are plants that are unable to photosynthesize and instead rely on carbon transfer from mycorrhizal networks as their main source of energy.[20] This group of plants includes about 400 species. Some families that include mycotrophic species are: Ericaceae, Orchidaceae and Gentianaceae. In addition, mixotrophic plants also benefit from energy transfer via hyphal networks. These plants have fully developed leaves but usually live in very nutrient and light limited environments that restrict their ability to photosynthesize.[21]

Plants and fungi communicate via mycorrhizal networks with other plants or fungi of the same or different species. Mycorrhizal networks allow for the transfers of signals and cues between plants which influence the behavior of the connected plants by inducing morphological or physiological changes. The chemical substances which act as these signals and cues are referred to as infochemicals. These can be allelochemicals, defensive chemicals or nutrients. Allelochemicals are used by plants to interfere with the growth or development of other plants or organisms, defensive chemicals can help plants in mycorrhizal networks defend themselves against attack by pathogens or herbivores, and transferred nutrients can affect growth and nutrition. Results of studies which demonstrate these modes of communication have led the authors to hypothesize mechanisms by which the transfer of these nutrients can affect the fitness of the connected plants.


Reports discuss the ongoing debate within the scientific community regarding what constitutes communication, but the extent of communication influences how a biologist perceives behaviors.[22] Communication is commonly defined as imparting or exchanging information. Biological communication, however, is often defined by how fitness in an organism is affected by the transfer of information in both the sender and the receiver.[22][23] Signals are the result of evolved behavior in the sender and effect a change in the receiver by imparting information about the sender's environment. Cues are similar in origin but only effect the fitness of the receiver.[23] Both signals and cues are important elements of communication, but workers maintain caution as to when it can be determined that transfer of information benefits both senders and receivers. Thus, the extent of biological communication can be in question without rigorous experimentation.[23] It has, therefore, been suggested that the term infochemical be used for chemical substances which can travel from one organism to another and elicit changes. This is important to understanding biological communication where it is not clearly delineated that communication involves a signal that can be adaptive to both sender and receiver.[24]

Behavior and information transfer[edit]

A morphological or physiological change in a plant due to a signal or cue from its environment constitutes behavior in plants, and plants connected by a mycorrhizal network have the ability to alter their behavior based on the signals or cues they receive from other plants.[25] These signals or cues can be biochemical, electrical, or can involve nutrient transfer.[25] Plants release chemicals both above- and below-ground to communicate with their neighbors to reduce damage from their environment.[26] Changes in plant behavior invoked by the transfer of infochemicals vary depending on environmental factors, the types of plants involved and the type of mycorrhizal network.[25][27] In a study of orange seedlings, mycorrhizal networks acted to transfer infochemicals, and the presence of a mycorrhizal network affected the growth of plants and enhanced production of signaling molecules.[28] One argument in support of the claim mycorrhizal can transfer various infochemicals is that they have been shown to transfer molecules such as lipids, carbohydrates and amino acids.[29] Thus, transfer of infochemicals via mycorrhizal networks can act to influence plant behavior.

There are three main types of infochemicals shown to act as response inducing signals or cues by plants in mycorrhizal networks, as evidenced by increased effects on plant behavior: allelochemicals, defensive chemicals and nutrients.

Allelopathic communication[edit]

Allelopathy is the process by which plants produce secondary metabolites known as allelochemicals, which can interfere with the development of other plants or organisms.[27] Allelochemicals can affect nutrient uptake, photosynthesis and growth; furthermore, they can down regulate defense genes, affect mitochondrial function, and disrupt membrane permeability leading to issues with respiration.[27]

Plants produce many types of allelochemicals, such as thiopenes and juglone, which can be volatilized or exuded by the roots into the rhizosphere.[30] Plants release allelochemicals due to biotic and abiotic stresses in their environment and often release them in conjunction with defensive compounds.[27] In order for allelochemicals to have a detrimental effect on a target plant, they must exist in high enough concentrations to be toxic, but, much like animal pheromones, allelochemicals are released in very small amounts and rely on the reaction of the target plant to amplify their effects.[30][27] Due to their lower concentrations and the ease in which they are degraded in the environment, the toxicity of allelochemicals is limited by soil moisture, soil structure, and organic matter types and microbes present in soils.[30] The effectiveness of allelopathic interactions has been called into question in native habitats due to the effects of them passing through soils, but studies have shown that mycorrhizal networks make their transfer more efficient.[24] These infochemicals are hypothesized to be able to travel faster via mycorrhizal networks, because the networks protect them from some hazards of being transmitted through the soil, such as leaching and degradation.[24][31] This increased transfer speed is hypothesized to occur if the allelochemicals move via water on hyphal surfaces or by cytoplasmic streaming.[24][30] Studies have reported concentrations of allelochemicals two to four times higher in plants connected by mycorrhizal networks.[24][31] Thus, mycorrhizal networks can facilitate the transfer of these infochemicals.

Studies have demonstrated correlations between increased levels of allelochemicals in target plants and the presence of mycorrhizal networks. These studies strongly suggest that mycorrhizal networks increase the transfer of allelopathic chemicals and expand the range, called the bio-active zone, in which they can disperse and maintain their function.[24] Furthermore, studies indicate increased bio-active zones aid in the effectiveness of the allelochemicals because these infochemicals cannot travel very far without a mycorrhizal network.[31] There was greater accumulation of allelochemicals, such as thiopenes and the herbicide imazamox, in target plants connected to a supplier plant via a mycorrhizal network than without that connection, supporting the conclusion that the mycorrhizal network increased the bio-active zone of the allelochemical.[24] Allelopathic chemicals have also been demonstrated to inhibit target plant growth when target and supplier are connected via AM networks.[24] The black walnut is one of the earliest studied examples of allelopathy and produces juglone, which inhibits growth and water uptake in neighboring plants.[30] In studies of juglone in black walnuts and their target species, the presence of mycorrhizal networks caused target plants to exhibit reduced growth by increasing the transfer of the infochemical.[30] Spotted knapweed, an allelopathic invasive species, provides further evidence of the ability of mycorrhizal networks to contribute to the transfer of allelochemicals. Spotted knapweed can alter which plant species a certain AM fungus prefers to connect to, changing the structure of the network so that the invasive plant shares a network with its target.[32] These and other studies provide evidence that mycorrhizal networks can facilitate the effects on plant behavior caused by allelochemicals.

Defensive communication[edit]

Mycorrhizal networks can connect many different plants and provide shared pathways by which plants can transfer infochemicals related to attacks by pathogens or herbivores, allowing receiving plants to react in the same way as the infected or infested plants.[31] A variety of plant derived substances act as these infochemicals.

When plants are attacked they can manifest physical changes, such as strengthening their cell walls, depositing callose, or forming cork.[33] They can also manifest biochemical changes, including the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) or the up-regulation of genes producing other defensive enzymes, many of which are toxic to pathogens or herbivores.[34][33][35][36] Salicylic acid (SA) and its derivatives, like methyl salicylate, are VOCs which help plants to recognize infection or attack and to organize other plant defenses, and exposure to them in animals can cause pathological processes.[35][37] Terpenoids are produced constituently in many plants or are produced as a response to stress and act much like methyl salicylate.[37] Jasmonates are a class of VOCs produced by the jasmonic acid (JA) pathway. Jasmonates are used in plant defense against insects and pathogens and can cause the expression of proteases, which defend against insect attack.[36] Plants have many ways to react to attack, including the production of VOCs, which studies report can coordinate defenses among plants connected by mycorrhizal networks.

Many studies report that mycorrhizal networks facilitate the coordination of defenses between connected plants using volatile organic compounds and other plant defensive enzymes acting as infochemicals.

Priming occurs when a plant's defenses are activated before an attack. Studies have shown that priming of plant defenses among plants in mycorrhizal networks may be activated by the networks, as they make it easier for these infochemicals to propagate among the connected plants. The defenses of uninfected plants are primed by their response via the network to the terpenoids produced by the infected plants.[38] AM networks can prime plant defensive reactions by causing them to increase the production of terpinoids.[38]

In a study of tomato plants connected via an AM mycorrhizal network, a plant not infected by a fungal pathogen showed evidence of defensive priming when another plant in the network was infected, causing the uninfected plant to up-regulate genes for the SA and JA pathways.[34] Similarly, aphid-free plants were shown to only be able to express the SA pathways when a mycorrhizal network connected them to infested plants. Furthermore, only then did they display resistance to the herbivore, showing that the plants were able to transfer defensive infochemicals via the mycorrhizal network.[39]

Many insect herbivores are drawn to their food by VOCs. When the plant is consumed, however, the composition of the VOCs change, which can then cause them to repel the herbivores and attract insect predators, such as parasitoid wasps.[37] Methyl salicylate was shown to be the primary VOC produced by beans in a study which demonstrated this effect. It was found to be in high concentrations in infested and uninfested plants, which were only connected via a mycorrhizal network.[39] A plant sharing a mycorrhizal network with another that is attacked will display similar defensive strategies, and its defenses will be primed to increase the production of toxins or chemicals which repel attackers or attract defensive species.[34]

In another study, introduction of budworm to Douglas fir trees led to increased production of defensive enzymes in uninfested ponderosa pines connected to the damaged tree by an ECM network. This effect demonstrates that defensive infochemicals transferred through such a network can cause rapid increases in resistance and defense in uninfested plants of a different species.[26]

The results of these studies support the conclusion that both ECM and AM networks provide pathways for defensive infochemicals from infected or infested hosts to induce defensive changes in uninfected or uninfested conspecific and heterospecific plants, and that some recipient species generally receive less damage from infestation or infection.[25][34][29][26]


Experimental set-up to detect "language" of fungi derived from their electrical spiking activity
Examples of electrical activity of fungi

A study decoded electrical communication between fungi into word-like components via spiking characteristics.

The spiking characteristics were specific to the fungi species and were often clustered into sentence-like series. The study found that size of fungal lexicon can be up to 50 words in the four investigated species while the most frequently used ones do not exceed 15–20 words. However, the meaning or informational content, if there is any, remains unknown.[40][41][42][43]

Nutrient transfer[edit]

Numerous studies have reported that carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus are transferred between conspecific and heterospecific plants via AM and ECM networks.[34][26][44][45] Other nutrients may also be transferred, as strontium and rubidium, which are calcium and potassium analogs respectively, have also been reported to move via an AM network between conspecific plants.[46] Scientists believe that transfer of nutrients by way of mycorrhizal networks could act to alter the behavior of receiving plants by inducing physiological or biochemical changes, and there is evidence that these changes have improved nutrition, growth and survival of receiving plants.[26]


Several mechanisms have been observed and proposed by which nutrients can move between plants connected by a mycorrhizal network, including source-sink relationships, preferential transfer and kin related mechanisms.

Transfer of nutrients can follow a source-sink relationship where nutrients move from areas of higher concentration to areas of lower concentration.[25] An experiment with grasses and forbs from a California oak woodland showed that nutrients were transferred between plant species via an AM mycorrhizal network, with different species acting as sources and sinks for different elements.[46] Nitrogen has also been shown to flow from nitrogen-fixing plants to non-nitrogen fixing plants through a mycorrhizal network following a source-sink relationship.[45]

It has been demonstrated that mechanisms exist by which mycorrhizal fungi can preferentially allocate nutrients to certain plants without a source-sink relationship.[47][48] Studies have also detailed bi-directional transfer of nutrients between plants connected by a network, and evidence indicates that carbon can be shared between plants unequally, sometimes to the benefit of one species over another.[49][45]

Kinship can act as another transfer mechanism. More carbon has been found to be exchanged between the roots of more closely related Douglas firs sharing a network than more distantly related roots.[50] Evidence is also mounting that micronutrients transferred via mycorrhizal networks can communicate relatedness between plants. Carbon transfer between Douglas fir seedlings led workers to hypothesize that micronutrient transfer via the network may have increased carbon transfer between related plants.[50][26]

These transfer mechanisms can facilitate movement of nutrients via mycorrhizal networks and result in behavioral modifications in connected plants, as indicated by morphological or physiological changes, due to the infochemicals being transmitted. One study reported a three-fold increase in photosynthesis in a paper birch transferring carbon to a Douglas fir, indicating a physiological change in the tree which produced the signal.[51] Photosynthesis was also shown to be increased in Douglas fir seedlings by the transport of carbon, nitrogen and water from an older tree connected by a mycorrhizal network.[52] Furthermore, nutrient transfer from older to younger trees on a network can dramatically increase growth rates of the younger receivers.[53] Physiological changes due to environmental stress have also initiated nutrient transfer by causing the movement of carbon from the roots of the stressed plant to the roots of a conspecific plant over a mycorrhizal network.[26] Thus, nutrients transferred through mychorrhizal networks act as signals and cues to change the behavior of the connected plants.

Evolutionary and adaptational perspectives[edit]

It is hypothesized that fitness is improved by the transfer of infochemicals through common mycorrhizal networks, as these signals and cues can induce responses which can help the receiver survive in its environment.[26] Plants and fungus have evolved heritable genetic traits which influence their interactions with each other, and experiments, such as one which revealed the heritability of mycorrhizal colonization in cowpeas, provide evidence.[25][54][55] Furthermore, changes in behavior of one partner in a mycorrhizal network can affect others in the network; thus, the mycorrhizal network can provide selective pressure to increase the fitness of its members.[25]

Adaptive mechanisms[edit]

Although they remain to be vigorously demonstrated, workers have suggested mechanisms which might explain how transfer of infochemicals via mycorrhizal networks may influence the fitness of the connected plants and fungi.

A fungus may preferentially allocate carbon and defensive infochemicals to plants that supply it more carbon, as this would help to maximize its carbon uptake.[26] This may happen in ecosystems where environmental stresses, such as climate change, cause fluctuations in the types of plants in the mycorrhizal network.[26] A fungus might also benefit its own survival by taking carbon from one host with a surplus and giving it to another in need, thus it would insure the survival of more potential hosts and leave itself with more carbon sources should a particular host species suffer.[25] Thus, preferential transfer could improve fungal fitness.

Plant fitness may also be increased in several ways. Relatedness may be a factor, as plants in a network are more likely to be related; therefore, kin selection might improve inclusive fitness and explain why a plant might support a fungus that helps other plants to acquire nutrients.[25][56] Receipt of defensive signals or cues from an infested plant would be adaptive, as the receiving plant would be able to prime its own defenses in advance of an attack by herbivores.[37] Allelopathic chemicals transferred via CMNs could also affect which plants are selected for survival by limiting the growth of competitors through a reduction of their access to nutrients and light.[24] Therefore, transfer of the different classes of infochemicals might prove adaptive for plants.

Seedling establishment[edit]

Mature Pseudotsuga Menziesii

Seedling establishment research often is focused on forest level communities with similar fungal species. However mycorrhizal networks may shift intra- and interspecific interactions that may alter pre-established plants physiology. Shifting competition can alter the evenness and dominance of the plant community. Discovery of seedling establishment showed seedling preference is near existing plants of con-or heterospecific species and seedling amount is abundant.[57] Many believe the process of new seedlings becoming infected with existing mycorrhizae expedite their establishment within the community. The seedling inherit tremendous benefits from their new formed symbiotic relation with the fungi.[58] The new influx of nutrients and water availability, help the seedling with growth but more importantly help ensure survival when in a stressed state.[59] Mycorrhizal networks aid in regeneration of seedlings when secondary succession occurs, seen in temperate and boreal forests.[57]

Seedling benefits from infecting mycorrhizae
Increased infectivity range of diverse mycorrhizal fungi
Increased carbon inputs from mycorrhizal networks with other plants
Increased area means greater access to nutrients and water
Increased exchange rates of nutrients and water from other plants.

Several studies have focused on relationships between mycorrhizal networks and plants, specifically their performance and establishment rate. Douglas fir seedlings' growth expanded when planted with hardwood trees compared to unamended soils in the Oregon Mountains. Douglas firs had higher rates of ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity, richness, and photosynthetic rates when planted alongside root systems of mature Douglas firs and Betula papyrifera than compared to those seedlings who exhibited no or little growth when isolated from mature trees.[60] The Douglas fir was the focus of another study to understand its preference for establishing in an ecosystem. Two shrub species, Arctostaphylos and Adenostoma both had the opportunity to colonize the seedlings with their ectomycorrhizae fungi. Arctostaphylos shrubs colonized Douglas fir seedlings who also had higher survival rates. The mycorrhizae joining the pair had greater net carbon transfer toward the seedling.[61] The researchers were able to minimize environmental factors they encountered in order to avoid swaying readers in opposite directions.

In burned and salvaged forest, Quercus rubrum L. establishment was facilitated when acorns were planted near Q. montana but did not grow when near arbuscular mycorrhizae Acer rubrum L. Seedlings deposited near Q. montana had a greater diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi, and a more significant net transfer of nitrogen and phosphorus contents demonstrating ectomycorrhizal fungi formation with the seedling helped with their establishment. Results demonstrated with increasing density; mycorrhizal benefits decrease due to an abundance of resources that overwhelmed their system resulting in little growth as seen in Q. rubrum.[62]

Mycorrhizae networks decline with increasing distance from parents, but rate of survival was unaffected. This indicated that seedling survival has a positive relation with decreasing competition as networks move out farther.[63]

One study displayed the effects of ectomycorrhizal networks in plants who face primary succession. In his experiment, Nara transplanted Salix reinii seedlings inoculated with different ectomycorrhizal species. He found that mycorrhizal networks are the connection of ectomycorrhizal fungi colonization and plant establishment. Results showed increased biomass and survival of germinates near the inoculated seedlings compared to inoculated seedlings.[64]

Studies have found that association with mature plant equates with higher survival of the plant and greater diversity and species richness of the mycorrhizal fungi.

Carbon transfer[edit]

Carbon transfer has been demonstrated by experiments using isotopic 14C and following the pathway from ectomycorrhizal conifer seedlings to another using mycorrhizal networks.[65] The experiment showed a bidirectional movement of the 14C within ectomycorrhizae species. Further investigation of bidirectional movement and the net transfer was analyzed using pulse labeling technique with isotopes 13C and 14C in ectomycorrhizal species Douglas fir and Betula payrifera seedlings.[66] Results displayed an overall net balance of carbon transfer between the two until the second year where the Douglas fir received carbon from B. payrifera.[67][68] Detection of the isotopes was found in receiver plant shorts, expressing carbon transfer from fungus to plant tissues.

When ectomycorrhizal fungi receiver end of the plant has limited sunlight availability, there was an increase in carbon transfer, indicating a source-sink gradient of carbon among plants and shade surface area regulates carbon transfer.[69]

Water transfer[edit]

In arid regions, many plant species have been shown to survive drought using mycorrhizal networks. Plant species have been found with ectomycorrhizae penetrating deep into bedrock, extracting water from the bedrock itself as the fungi decompose the stone.[70] Isotopic tracers and fluorescent dyes have been used to establish the water transfer between conspecific or heterospecific plants. The hydraulic lift aids in water transfer from deep-rooted trees to seedlings, which means some participants in the mycorrhizal network could experience a detrimental effect.[71]


Several positive effects of mycorrhizal networks on plants have been reported.[20] These include increased establishment success, higher growth rate and survivorship of seedlings;[72] improved inoculum availability for mycorrhizal infection;[73] transfer of water, carbon, nitrogen and other limiting resources increasing the probability for colonization in less favorable conditions.[74] In fact, a <1% increase in carbon has been shown to create up to 4x increase in new seedlings. These benefits have also been identified as the primary drivers of positive interactions and feedbacks between plants and mycorrhizal fungi that influence plant species abundance.[75]

Connection to mycorrhizal networks creates positive feedbacks between adult trees and seedlings of the same species and can disproportionally increase the abundance of a single species, potentially resulting in monodominance.[2][72] Monodominance occurs when a single tree species accounts for the majority of individuals in a forest stand.[76] McGuire (2007), working with the monodominant tree Dicymbe corymbosa in Guyana demonstrated that seedlings with access to mycorrhizal networks had higher survival, number of leaves, and height than seedlings isolated from the ectomycorrhizal networks.[72]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Selosse, Marc-André; Richard, Franck; He, Xinhua; Simard, Suzanne W. (2006). "Mycorrhizal networks: Des liaisons dangereuses?". Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 21 (11): 621–628. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2006.07.003. PMID 16843567.
  2. ^ a b Hynson, Nicole A.; Mambelli, Stefania; Amend, Anthony S.; Dawson, Todd E. (2012). "Measuring carbon gains from fungal networks in understory plants from the tribe Pyroleae (Ericaceae): A field manipulation and stable isotope approach". Oecologia. 169 (2): 307–17. Bibcode:2012Oecol.169..307H. doi:10.1007/s00442-011-2198-3. PMID 22108855. S2CID 15300251.
  3. ^ Eason, W. R.; Newman, E. I.; Chuba, P. N. (1991). "Specificity of interplant cycling of phosphorus: The role of mycorrhizas". Plant and Soil. 137 (2): 267–274. doi:10.1007/BF00011205. S2CID 24873154.
  4. ^ He, Xinhua; Critchley, Christa; Ng, Hock; Bledsoe, Caroline (2004). "Reciprocal N (15NH4+ or 15NO3-) transfer between nonN2-fixing Eucalyptus maculata and N2-fixing Casuarina cunninghamiana linked by the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus sp". New Phytologist. 163 (3): 629–640. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.2004.01137.x. PMID 33873747.
  5. ^ He, X.; Xu, M.; Qiu, G. Y.; Zhou, J. (2009). "Use of 15N stable isotope to quantify nitrogen transfer between mycorrhizal plants". Journal of Plant Ecology. 2 (3): 107–118. doi:10.1093/jpe/rtp015.
  6. ^ a b c Simard, S.W. (2012). "Mycorrhizal networks: Mechanisms, ecology and modeling". Fungal Biology Reviews. 26: 39–60. doi:10.1016/j.fbr.2012.01.001.
  7. ^ Bingham, Marcus A.; Simard, Suzanne W. (2011). "Do mycorrhizal network benefits to survival and growth of interior Douglas-fir seedlings increase with soil moisture stress?". Ecology and Evolution. 1 (3): 306–316. doi:10.1002/ece3.24. PMC 3287316. PMID 22393502.
  8. ^ Song, Yuan Yuan; Zeng, Ren Sen; Xu, Jian Feng; Li, Jun; Shen, Xiang; Yihdego, Woldemariam Gebrehiwot (2010). "Interplant Communication of Tomato Plants through Underground Common Mycorrhizal Networks". PLOS ONE. 5 (10): e13324. Bibcode:2010PLoSO...513324S. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0013324. PMC 2954164. PMID 20967206.
  9. ^ Barto, E. Kathryn; Hilker, Monika; Müller, Frank; Mohney, Brian K.; Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D.; Rillig, Matthias C. (2011). "The Fungal Fast Lane: Common Mycorrhizal Networks Extend Bioactive Zones of Allelochemicals in Soils". PLOS ONE. 6 (11): e27195. Bibcode:2011PLoSO...627195B. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0027195. PMC 3215695. PMID 22110615.
  10. ^ Barto, E. Kathryn; Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D.; Cipollini, Don; Rillig, Matthias C. (2012). "Fungal superhighways: Do common mycorrhizal networks enhance below ground communication?". Trends in Plant Science. 17 (11): 633–637. doi:10.1016/j.tplants.2012.06.007. PMID 22818769.
  11. ^ Van der Heijden, Marcel G. A.; Horton, Thomas R. (2009). "Socialism in Soil? the Importance of Mycorrhizal Fungal Networks for Facilitation in Natural Ecosystems". Journal of Ecology. 97 (6).
  12. ^ Van der Heijden, Marcel G. A.; Horton, Thomas R. (2009). "Socialism in Soil? the Importance of Mycorrhizal Fungal Networks for Facilitation in Natural Ecosystems". Journal of Ecology. 97 (6).
  13. ^ Werner, Gijsbert; Kiers, E. Toby (2015). "Partner selection in the mycorrhizal mutualism". The New Phytologist. 205 (4): 1437–1442. doi:10.1111/nph.13113. PMID 25421912.
  14. ^ Giovannetti, Manuela; Avio, Luciano; Fortuna, Paola; Pellegrino, Elisa; Sbrana, Cristiana; Strani, Patrizia (2006). "At the Root of the Wood Wide Web". Plant Signaling & Behavior. 1 (1): 1–5. doi:10.4161/psb.1.1.2277. PMC 2633692. PMID 19521468.
  15. ^ Macfarlane, Robert (August 7, 2016). "The Secrets of the Wood Wide Web". The New Yorker. USA. Retrieved November 21, 2018.
  16. ^ a b Finlay, R. D. (2008). "Ecological aspects of mycorrhizal symbiosis: With special emphasis on the functional diversity of interactions involving the extraradical mycelium". Journal of Experimental Botany. 59 (5): 1115–1126. doi:10.1093/jxb/ern059. PMID 18349054.
  17. ^ Vandenkoornhuyse, P.; Ridgway, K. P.; Watson, I. J.; Fitter, A. H.; Young, J. P. W. (2003). "Co-existing grass species have distinctive arbuscular mycorrhizal communities" (PDF). Molecular Ecology. 12 (11): 3085–3095. doi:10.1046/j.1365-294X.2003.01967.x. PMID 14629388. S2CID 45327540.
  18. ^ Schechter, Shannon P.; Bruns, Thomas D. (2013). "A Common Garden Test of Host-Symbiont Specificity Supports a Dominant Role for Soil Type in Determining AMF Assemblage Structure in Collinsia sparsiflora". PLOS ONE. 8 (2): e55507. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...855507S. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055507. PMC 3564749. PMID 23393588.
  19. ^ Taylor, Andy F.S.; Alexander, IAN (2005). "The ectomycorrhizal symbiosis: Life in the real world". Mycologist. 19 (3): 102–112. doi:10.1017/S0269-915X(05)00303-4.
  20. ^ a b Sheldrake, Merlin (2020). Entangled Life: How Fungi Make Our Worlds, Change Our Minds and Shape Our Futures. Bodley Head. p. 172. ISBN 978-1847925206.
  21. ^ Selosse, M.A., Roy, M. 2009. Green plants that feed on fungi: facts and questions about mixotrophy. Trends Plant Sci. 14: 64-70.
  22. ^ a b SCOTT-PHILLIPS, T. C. (2008-01-18). "Defining biological communication". Journal of Evolutionary Biology. 21 (2): 387–395. doi:10.1111/j.1420-9101.2007.01497.x. ISSN 1010-061X. PMID 18205776.
  23. ^ a b c Padje, Anouk van’t; Whiteside, Matthew D; Kiers, E Toby (2016-08-01). "Signals and cues in the evolution of plant–microbe communication". Current Opinion in Plant Biology. 32: 47–52. doi:10.1016/j.pbi.2016.06.006. hdl:1871.1/c745b0c0-7789-4fc5-8d93-3edfa94ec108. ISSN 1369-5266. PMID 27348594.
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i Barto, E. Kathryn; Hilker, Monika; Müller, Frank; Mohney, Brian K.; Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D.; Rillig, Matthias C. (2011-11-14). "The Fungal Fast Lane: Common Mycorrhizal Networks Extend Bioactive Zones of Allelochemicals in Soils". PLOS ONE. 6 (11): e27195. Bibcode:2011PLoSO...627195B. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0027195. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 3215695. PMID 22110615.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i Gorzelak, Monika A.; Asay, Amanda K.; Pickles, Brian J.; Simard, Suzanne W. (2015). "Inter-plant communication through mycorrhizal networks mediates complex adaptive behaviour in plant communities". AoB Plants. 7: plv050. doi:10.1093/aobpla/plv050. ISSN 2041-2851. PMC 4497361. PMID 25979966.
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Song, Yuan Yuan; Simard, Suzanne W.; Carroll, Allan; Mohn, William W.; Zeng, Ren Sen (2015-02-16). "Defoliation of interior Douglas-fir elicits carbon transfer and stress signalling to ponderosa pine neighbors through ectomycorrhizal networks". Scientific Reports. 5 (1): 8495. Bibcode:2015NatSR...5E8495S. doi:10.1038/srep08495. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 4329569. PMID 25683155.
  27. ^ a b c d e Latif, S.; Chiapusio, G.; Weston, L.A. (2017), "Allelopathy and the Role of Allelochemicals in Plant Defence", Advances in Botanical Research, Elsevier, pp. 19–54, doi:10.1016/bs.abr.2016.12.001, ISBN 9780128014318
  28. ^ ZHANG, Yi-Can; LIU, Chun-Yan; WU, Qiang-Sheng (2017-05-12). "Mycorrhiza and Common Mycorrhizal Network Regulate the Production of Signal Substances in Trifoliate Orange (Poncirus trifoliata)". Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca. 45 (1): 43. doi:10.15835/nbha45110731. ISSN 1842-4309.
  29. ^ a b Gilbert, L.; Johnson, D. (2017), "Plant–Plant Communication Through Common Mycorrhizal Networks", Advances in Botanical Research, Elsevier, pp. 83–97, doi:10.1016/bs.abr.2016.09.001, ISBN 9780128014318
  30. ^ a b c d e f Achatz, Michaela; Morris, E. Kathryn; Müller, Frank; Hilker, Monika; Rillig, Matthias C. (2014-01-13). "Soil hypha-mediated movement of allelochemicals: arbuscular mycorrhizae extend the bioactive zone of juglone". Functional Ecology. 28 (4): 1020–1029. doi:10.1111/1365-2435.12208. ISSN 0269-8463.
  31. ^ a b c d Barto, E. Kathryn; Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D.; Cipollini, Don; Rillig, Matthias C. (2012-11-01). "Fungal superhighways: do common mycorrhizal networks enhance below ground communication?". Trends in Plant Science. 17 (11): 633–637. doi:10.1016/j.tplants.2012.06.007. ISSN 1360-1385. PMID 22818769.
  32. ^ Mummey, Daniel L.; Rillig, Matthias C. (2006-08-30). "The invasive plant species Centaurea maculosa alters arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities in the field". Plant and Soil. 288 (1–2): 81–90. doi:10.1007/s11104-006-9091-6. ISSN 0032-079X. S2CID 9476741.
  33. ^ a b Prasannath, K. (2017-11-22). "Plant defense-related enzymes against pathogens: a review". AGRIEAST: Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 11 (1): 38. doi:10.4038/agrieast.v11i1.33. ISSN 1391-5886.
  34. ^ a b c d e Song, Yuan Yuan; Zeng, Ren Sen; Xu, Jian Feng; Li, Jun; Shen, Xiang; Yihdego, Woldemariam Gebrehiwot (2010-10-13). "Interplant Communication of Tomato Plants through Underground Common Mycorrhizal Networks". PLOS ONE. 5 (10): e13324. Bibcode:2010PLoSO...513324S. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0013324. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 2954164. PMID 20967206.
  35. ^ a b Lu, Hua (2009-08-01). "Dissection of salicylic acid-mediated defense signaling networks". Plant Signaling & Behavior. 4 (8): 713–717. doi:10.4161/psb.4.8.9173. ISSN 1559-2324. PMC 2801381. PMID 19820324.
  36. ^ a b Turner, John G.; Ellis, Christine; Devoto, Alessandra (2002-05-01). "The Jasmonate Signal Pathway". The Plant Cell. 14 (suppl 1): S153–S164. doi:10.1105/tpc.000679. ISSN 1040-4651. PMC 151253. PMID 12045275.
  37. ^ a b c d Dempsey, D’Maris Amick; Klessig, Daniel F. (2017-03-23). "How does the multifaceted plant hormone salicylic acid combat disease in plants and are similar mechanisms utilized in humans?". BMC Biology. 15 (1): 23. doi:10.1186/s12915-017-0364-8. ISSN 1741-7007. PMC 5364617. PMID 28335774.
  38. ^ a b Sharma, Esha; Anand, Garima; Kapoor, Rupam (2017-01-12). "Terpenoids in plant and arbuscular mycorrhiza-reinforced defence against herbivorous insects". Annals of Botany. 119 (5): 791–801. doi:10.1093/aob/mcw263. ISSN 0305-7364. PMC 5378189. PMID 28087662.
  39. ^ a b Babikova, Zdenka; Gilbert, Lucy; Bruce, Toby J. A.; Birkett, Michael; Caulfield, John C.; Woodcock, Christine; Pickett, John A.; Johnson, David (2013-05-09). "Underground signals carried through common mycelial networks warn neighbouring plants of aphid attack". Ecology Letters. 16 (7): 835–843. doi:10.1111/ele.12115. ISSN 1461-023X. PMID 23656527.
  40. ^ "Mushrooms communicate with each other using up to 50 'words', scientist claims". The Guardian. 5 April 2022. Retrieved 13 May 2022.
  41. ^ "Study suggests mushrooms may talk to each other". CBS News. Retrieved 13 May 2022.
  42. ^ Field, Katie. "Do mushrooms really use language to talk to each other? A fungi expert investigates". The Conversation. Retrieved 13 May 2022.
  43. ^ Adamatzky, Andrew (2022). "Language of fungi derived from their electrical spiking activity". Royal Society Open Science. 9 (4): 211926. arXiv:2112.09907. Bibcode:2022RSOS....911926A. doi:10.1098/rsos.211926. PMC 8984380. PMID 35425630.
  44. ^ Philip, Leanne; Simard, Suzanne; Jones, Melanie (2010-09-22). "Pathways for below-ground carbon transfer between paper birch and Douglas-fir seedlings". Plant Ecology & Diversity. 3 (3): 221–233. doi:10.1080/17550874.2010.502564. ISSN 1755-0874. S2CID 85188897.
  45. ^ a b c Selosse, Marc-André; Richard, Franck; He, Xinhua; Simard, Suzanne W. (2006-11-01). "Mycorrhizal networks: des liaisons dangereuses?". Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 21 (11): 621–628. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2006.07.003. ISSN 0169-5347. PMID 16843567.
  46. ^ a b Meding, S.M.; Zasoski, R.J. (2008-01-01). "Hyphal-mediated transfer of nitrate, arsenic, cesium, rubidium, and strontium between arbuscular mycorrhizal forbs and grasses from a California oak woodland". Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 40 (1): 126–134. doi:10.1016/j.soilbio.2007.07.019. ISSN 0038-0717.
  47. ^ Fellbaum, Carl R.; Mensah, Jerry A.; Cloos, Adam J.; Strahan, Gary E.; Pfeffer, Philip E.; Kiers, E. Toby; Bücking, Heike (2014-05-02). "Fungal nutrient allocation in common mycorrhizal networks is regulated by the carbon source strength of individual host plants". New Phytologist. 203 (2): 646–656. doi:10.1111/nph.12827. ISSN 0028-646X. PMID 24787049.
  48. ^ Kiers, E. T.; Duhamel, M.; Beesetty, Y.; Mensah, J. A.; Franken, O.; Verbruggen, E.; Fellbaum, C. R.; Kowalchuk, G. A.; Hart, M. M. (2011-08-11). "Reciprocal Rewards Stabilize Cooperation in the Mycorrhizal Symbiosis". Science. 333 (6044): 880–882. Bibcode:2011Sci...333..880K. doi:10.1126/science.1208473. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 21836016. S2CID 44812991.
  49. ^ Simard, Suzanne W.; Perry, David A.; Jones, Melanie D.; Myrold, David D.; Durall, Daniel M.; Molina, Randy (1997-08-07). "Net transfer of carbon between ectomycorrhizal tree species in the field". Nature. 388 (6642): 579–582. Bibcode:1997Natur.388..579S. doi:10.1038/41557. ISSN 0028-0836.
  50. ^ a b Simard, Suzanne W.; Beiler, Kevin J.; Bingham, Marcus A.; Deslippe, Julie R.; Philip, Leanne J.; Teste, François P. (2012-04-01). "Mycorrhizal networks: Mechanisms, ecology and modelling". Fungal Biology Reviews. 26 (1): 39–60. doi:10.1016/j.fbr.2012.01.001. ISSN 1749-4613.
  51. ^ SIMARD, SUZANNE W.; JONES, MELANIE D.; DURALL, DANIEL M.; PERRY, DAVID A.; MYROLD, DAVID D.; MOLINA, RANDY (2008-06-28). "Reciprocal transfer of carbon isotopes between ectomycorrhizal Betula papyrifera and Pseudotsuga menziesii". New Phytologist. 137 (3): 529–542. doi:10.1046/j.1469-8137.1997.00834.x. ISSN 0028-646X. PMID 33863069.
  52. ^ Teste, François P.; Simard, Suzanne W.; Durall, Daniel M.; Guy, Robert D.; Berch, Shannon M. (2010-01-25). "Net carbon transfer betweenPseudotsuga menziesiivar.glaucaseedlings in the field is influenced by soil disturbance". Journal of Ecology. 98 (2): 429–439. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2745.2009.01624.x. ISSN 0022-0477.
  53. ^ Teste, François P.; Simard, Suzanne W.; Durall, Daniel M.; Guy, Robert D.; Jones, Melanie D.; Schoonmaker, Amanda L. (2009-10-01). "Access to mycorrhizal networks and roots of trees: importance for seedling survival and resource transfer". Ecology. 90 (10): 2808–2822. doi:10.1890/08-1884.1. ISSN 0012-9658. PMID 19886489.
  54. ^ ROSADO, S. C. S.; KROPP, B. R.; PICHÉ, Y. (1994-01-01). "Genetics of ectomycorrhizal symbiosis". New Phytologist. 126 (1): 111–117. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.1994.tb07544.x. ISSN 0028-646X.
  55. ^ Mercy, M. A.; Shivashankar, G.; Bagyaraj, D. J. (1989-04-25). "Mycorrhizal colonization in cowpea is host dependent and heritable". Plant and Soil. 122 (2): 292–294. doi:10.1007/bf02444245. ISSN 0032-079X.
  56. ^ File, Amanda L.; Klironomos, John; Maherali, Hafiz; Dudley, Susan A. (2012-09-28). "Plant Kin Recognition Enhances Abundance of Symbiotic Microbial Partner". PLOS ONE. 7 (9): e45648. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...745648F. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0045648. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 3460938. PMID 23029158.
  57. ^ a b Perry, D.A; Bell (1992). "Mycorrhizal fungi in mixed-species forests and tales of positive feedback, redundancy, and stability". In M.G.R. Cannell; D.C. Malcolm; P.A. Robertson (eds.). The Ecology of Mixed-Species Stands of Trees. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 145–180.
  58. ^ Simard, Suzanne W.; Perry, David A.; Jones, Melanie D.; Myrold, David D.; Durall, Daniel M.; Molina, Randy (August 1997). "Net transfer of carbon between ectomycorrhizal tree species in the field". Nature. 388 (6642): 579–582. Bibcode:1997Natur.388..579S. doi:10.1038/41557. ISSN 0028-0836.
  59. ^ Perry, D. A.; Margolis, H.; Choquette, C.; Molina, R.; Trappe, J. M. (August 1989). "Ectomycorrhizal mediation of competition between coniferous tree species". New Phytologist. 112 (4): 501–511. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.1989.tb00344.x. ISSN 0028-646X. PMID 29265433.
  60. ^ Simard, Suzanne W.; Perry, David A.; Smith, Jane E.; Molina, Randy (June 1997). "Effects of soil trenching on occurrence of ectomycorrhizas on Pseudotsuga menziesii seedlings grown in mature forests of Betula papyrifera and Pseudotsuga menziesii". New Phytologist. 136 (2): 327–340. doi:10.1046/j.1469-8137.1997.00731.x. ISSN 0028-646X.
  61. ^ Horton, Thomas R; Bruns, Thomas D; Parker, V Thomas (June 1999). "Ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with Arctostaphylos contribute to Pseudotsuga menziesii establishment". Canadian Journal of Botany. 77 (1): 93–102. doi:10.1139/b98-208. ISSN 0008-4026.
  62. ^ Dickie, Ian A.; Koide, Roger T.; Steiner, Kim C. (November 2002). "Influences of Established Trees on Mycorrhizas, Nutrition, and Growth of Quercus rubra Seedlings". Ecological Monographs. 72 (4): 505. doi:10.2307/3100054. ISSN 0012-9615. JSTOR 3100054.
  63. ^ Onguene, N.; Kuyper, T. (February 2002). "Importance of the ectomycorrhizal network for seedling survival and ectomycorrhiza formation in rain forests of south Cameroon". Mycorrhiza. 12 (1): 13–17. doi:10.1007/s00572-001-0140-y. ISSN 0940-6360. PMID 11968942. S2CID 13003411.
  64. ^ Nara, Kazuhide (2006). "Ectomycorrhizal networks and seedling establishment during early primary succession". New Phytologist. 169 (1): 169–178. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.2005.01545.x. ISSN 1469-8137. PMID 16390428.
  65. ^ Reid, C. P. P.; Woods, Frank W. (March 1969). "Translocation of C^(14)-Labeled Compounds in Mycorrhizae and It Implications in Interplant Nutrient Cycling". Ecology. 50 (2): 179–187. doi:10.2307/1934844. ISSN 0012-9658. JSTOR 1934844.
  66. ^ READ, Larissa; LAWRENCE, Deborah (2006), Dryland Ecohydrology, Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 217–232, doi:10.1007/1-4020-4260-4_13, ISBN 978-1402042591
  67. ^ SIMARD, SUZANNE W.; JONES, MELANIE D.; DURALL, DANIEL M.; PERRY, DAVID A.; MYROLD, DAVID D.; MOLINA, RANDY (November 1997). "Reciprocal transfer of carbon isotopes between ectomycorrhizal Betula papyrifera and Pseudotsuga menziesii". New Phytologist. 137 (3): 529–542. doi:10.1046/j.1469-8137.1997.00834.x. ISSN 0028-646X. PMID 33863069.
  68. ^ Newman, E.I. (1988), "Mycorrhizal Links Between Plants: Their Functioning and Ecological Significance", Advances in Ecological Research Volume 18, Advances in Ecological Research, vol. 18, Elsevier, pp. 243–270, doi:10.1016/s0065-2504(08)60182-8, ISBN 9780120139187
  69. ^ Francis, R.; Read, D. J. (January 1984). "Direct transfer of carbon between plants connected by vesicular–arbuscular mycorrhizal mycelium". Nature. 307 (5946): 53–56. Bibcode:1984Natur.307...53F. doi:10.1038/307053a0. ISSN 0028-0836. S2CID 4310303.
  70. ^ Allen, Michael F. (2009). "Bidirectional Water Flows through the Soil-Fungal-Plant Mycorrhizal Continuum". The New Phytologist. 182 (2): 290–293. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.2009.02815.x. PMID 19338631.
  71. ^ "Common mycorrhizal networks provide a potential pathway for the transfer of hydraulically lifted water between plants". Journal of Experimental Botany. 58 (12): 3484. 2007-07-13. doi:10.1093/jxb/erm266. ISSN 0022-0957.
  72. ^ a b c McGuire, K. L. (2007). "Common ectomycorrhizal networks may maintain monodominance in a tropical rain forest". Ecology. 88 (3): 567–574. doi:10.1890/05-1173. hdl:2027.42/117206. PMID 17503583.
  73. ^ Dickie, I.A.; Reich, P.B. (2005). "Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities at forest edges". Journal of Ecology. 93 (2): 244–255. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2745.2005.00977.x.
  74. ^ van der Heijden, M.G.A; Horton, T.R. (2009). "Socialism in soil? The importance of mycorrhizal fungal networks for facilitation in natural ecosystems". Journal of Ecology. 97 (6): 1139–1150. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2745.2009.01570.x.
  75. ^ Bever, J.D.; Dickie, I.A.; Facelli, E.; Facelli, J.M.; Klironomos, J.; Moora, M.; Rillig, M.C.; Stock, W.D.; Tibbett, M.; Zobel, M. (2010). "Rooting Theories of Plant Community Ecology in Microbial Interactions". Trends Ecol Evol. 25 (8): 468–478. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2010.05.004. PMC 2921684. PMID 20557974.
  76. ^ Peh, K.S.H.; Lewis, S.L. and Lloyd, J. 2011. Mechanisms of monodominance in diverse tropical tree-dominated systems. Journal of Ecology: 891–898.

External links[edit]