A charcoal grey Nintendo 64 console and grey controller.
|Also known as||Project Reality (code name), Nintendo Ultra 64 (planned product name)|
|Type||Home video game console|
|Units shipped||Worldwide: 32.93 million
Japan: 5.54 million
Americas: 20.63 million
Europe & Australia: 6.75 million
|Media||Nintendo 64 Game Pak
Magnetic disc (64DD)
|CPU||64-bit NEC VR4300 @ 93.75 MHz|
|Storage||64 MB Game Pak, 256 Kbit (32 KB) Controller Pak for game saves|
|Graphics||SGI RCP @ 62.5 MHz|
|Controller input||Nintendo 64 controller|
|Online services||Randnet (Japan only)
SharkWire Online (third-party)
|Best-selling game||Super Mario 64, 11.62 million (as of May 21, 2003)|
|Predecessor||Super Nintendo Entertainment System|
|Related articles||Nintendo 64 technical specifications, 64DD, Game Pak, Rumble Pak, games, accessories, color variants, programming characteristics|
The Nintendo 64 (Japanese: ニンテンドー64 Hepburn: Nintendō Rokujūyon?), stylized as NINTENDO64 and often referred to as the N64, is Nintendo's third home video game console for the international market. Named for its 64-bit central processing unit, it was released in June 1996 in Japan, September 1996 in North America, March 1997 in Europe and Australia, September 1997 in France and December 1997 in Brazil. It is the industry's last major home console to use the cartridge as its primary storage format, although current handheld systems (such as the PlayStation Vita and Nintendo 3DS) also use cartridges. While the N64 was succeeded by Nintendo's MiniDVD-based GameCube in November 2001, N64 consoles remained available until the system was retired in late 2003.
Code named Project Reality, the console's design was mostly finalized by mid-1995, though Nintendo 64's launch was delayed until 1996. As part of the fifth generation of gaming, the system competed primarily with the PlayStation and the Sega Saturn. The Nintendo 64 was launched with three games: Super Mario 64 and Pilotwings 64, released worldwide; and Saikyō Habu Shōgi, released only in Japan. The Nintendo 64's suggested retail price at launch was US$199.99 and it was later marketed with the slogan "Get N, or get Out!". With 32.93 million units worldwide, the console was ultimately released in a range of different colors and designs, and an assortment of limited-edition controllers were sold or used as contest prizes during the system's lifespan. IGN named it the 9th greatest video game console of all time; and in 1996, Time Magazine named it Machine of the Year.
- 1 History
- 2 Reception
- 3 Games
- 4 Accessories
- 5 Technical specifications
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
At the beginning of the 1990s, Nintendo led the video game industry with its Nintendo Entertainment System (NES). Although a follow-up console, the Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES), was successful, sales took a hit from the Japanese recession. Competition from long-time rival Sega, as well as relative newcomer Sony, emphasized Nintendo's need to develop a successor for the SNES, or risk losing market dominance to its rivals. Further complicating matters, Nintendo also faced a backlash from third-party developers unhappy with Nintendo's strict licensing policies.
Silicon Graphics, Inc. (SGI), a long-time leader in graphics visualization and supercomputing, was interested in expanding its business by adapting its technology into the higher volume realm of consumer products, starting with the video game market. Based upon its MIPS R4000 family of supercomputing and workstation CPUs, SGI developed a CPU requiring a fraction of the resources—consuming only 0.5 watts of power instead of 1.5 to 2 watts, with an estimated target price of US$40 instead of US$80–200. The company created a design proposal for a video game system, seeking an already well established partner in that market. James H. Clark, founder of SGI, initially offered the proposal to Tom Kalinske, who was the CEO of Sega of America. The next candidate was Nintendo.
The historical details of these preliminary negotiations were controversial between the two competing suitors. Tom Kalinske said that he and Joe Miller of Sega of America were "quite impressed" with SGI's prototype, inviting their hardware team to travel from Japan to meet with SGI. The engineers from Sega of Japan claimed that their evaluation of the early prototype had uncovered several unresolved hardware issues and deficiencies. Those were subsequently resolved, but Sega had already decided against SGI's design. Nintendo resisted that summary conclusion, arguing that the reason for SGI's ultimate choice of partner is due to Nintendo having been a more appealing business partner than Sega. While Sega demanded exclusive rights to the chip, Nintendo was willing to license the technology on a non-exclusive basis. Michael Slater, publisher of Microprocessor Report said, "The mere fact of a business relationship there is significant because of Nintendo's phenomenal ability to drive volume. If it works at all, it could bring MIPS to levels of volume [SGI] never dreamed of."
James Clark met with Nintendo CEO Hiroshi Yamauchi in early 1993, thus initiating Project Reality. On August 23, 1993, the two companies announced a global joint partnership and licensing agreement surrounding Project Reality, projecting that the yet unnamed eventual product would be "developed specifically for Nintendo, will be unveiled in arcades in 1994, and will be available for home use by late 1995 ... below $250." This announcement coincided with Nintendo's August 1993 Shoshinkai trade show.
As with most of the computing industry, Nintendo had limited experience with 3D graphics, and worked with several outside companies to develop the technology comprising the console. Some chip technology was provided by NEC, Toshiba, and Sharp. SGI had recently acquired MIPS Computer Systems, and the two worked together toward a low-cost realtime 3D graphics hardware system. SGI and its subsidiary MIPS Technologies were responsible for the R4300i microprocessor and the 3D graphics hardware used in the N64.
The initial Project Reality software development platform was developed by SGI in the form of its Onyx supercomputer loaded with the namesake RealityEngine2 graphics boards, and with early Project Reality application and emulation APIs. Upon this early platform, Nintendo's select game developer partners could fully prototype their games according to SGI's estimated console performance, prior to the finalization of the console hardware specifications. That software-based console prototype platform was later supplanted by a workstation-hosted console simulation board, representing the finalized console hardware. SGI's performance estimates based upon the supercomputing platform were ultimately reported to be fairly accurate to the consumer console product.
The console's design was publicly revealed for the first time in late Q2 1994. Images of the console displayed the Nintendo Ultra 64 logo, a ROM cartridge, but no controller. This prototype console's form factor would be retained by the product eventually launched as Nintendo 64. Having initially indicated the possibility of utilizing the increasingly popular CD-ROM if the medium's endemic performance problems were solved,:77 the company now announced a much faster but space-limited cartridge-based system, which prompted open analysis by the gaming press. The system was frequently marketed as the world's first 64-bit gaming system. Atari had already claimed to have made the first 64-bit game console with their Atari Jaguar, but the Jaguar only uses a general 64-bit architecture in conjunction with two 32-bit RISC processors and a 16/32-bit Motorola 68000.
Later in Q2 1994, Nintendo signed a licensing agreement with Midway's parent company which enabled Midway to develop and market arcade games using the Project Reality hardware and formed a joint venture company called Williams/Nintendo to market Nintendo-exclusive home conversions of these games. The result is two arcade games, Killer Instinct and Cruis'n USA, which boasted their upcoming release on the arcade branch of the Nintendo Ultra 64 platform. Compared to the console branch of Nintendo Ultra 64, the arcade branch uses a different MIPS CPU, has no Reality Coprocessor, and uses a hard drive instead of a cartridge. Killer Instinct features pre-rendered character artwork, and CG movie backgrounds that are streamed off the hard drive and animated as the characters move horizontally.
The completed Nintendo 64 was fully unveiled to the public in a playable form on November 24, 1995, at the 7th Annual Shoshinkai Software Exhibition in Japan. Nintendo's next-generation console was introduced as the "Nintendo 64" (a name given by Shigesato Itoi,), contrary to speculation that it would be called "Nintendo Ultra 64". Photos of the event were disseminated on the web by Game Zero magazine two days later. Official coverage by Nintendo followed later via the Nintendo Power website and print magazine.
In the lead up to the console's release, Nintendo had adopted a new global branding strategy, assigning the console the same name for all markets: Nintendo 64. Previously the plan had been to release the console as the Ultra Famicom in Japan and as the Nintendo Ultra 64 in other markets.
The console was originally slated for release by Christmas of 1995. In May 1995, Nintendo pushed back the release to April 1996. The prospect of a release the following year at a lower price than the competition lowered sales of competing Sega and Sony consoles during the important Christmas shopping season.:24
In its explanation of the delay, Nintendo claimed it needed more time for Nintendo 64 software to mature, and for third-party developers to produce games. Adrian Sfarti, a former engineer for SGI, attributed the delay to hardware problems; he claimed that the chips underperformed in testing and were being redesigned. In 1996, the Nintendo 64's software development kit was redesigned as the Partner-N64 system, by Kyoto Microcomputer, Co. Ltd. of Japan.
The console was first released in Japan on June 23rd, 1996. The Nintendo 64 was first sold in North America on September 26th, 1996, despite having been advertised for the 29th. It was launched with just two games in the United States, Pilotwings 64 and Super Mario 64. In 1994, prior to the launch, Nintendo of America chairman Howard Lincoln emphasized the quality of first-party games, saying "... we're convinced that a few great games at launch are more important than great games mixed in with a lot of dogs.":77 The PAL version of the console was released in Europe on March 1st, 1997.
Originally intended to be priced at US$250, the console was ultimately launched at US$199.99 to make it competitive with Sony and Sega offerings (Both the Saturn and Playstation had been lowered to $199.99 earlier that summer). Nintendo priced the console as an impulse purchase, a strategy from the toy industry. The price of the console in the United States was further reduced in August 1998.
To boost sales during the slow post-Christmas season, Nintendo and General Mills worked together on a promotional campaign that appeared in early 1999. A television advertising campaign cost $5 million. The advertisement by Saatchi and Saatchi, New York began on January 25 and encouraged children to buy Fruit by the Foot snacks for tips to help them with their Nintendo 64 games. Ninety different tips were available, with three variations of thirty tips each.
Nintendo advertised its Funtastic Series of peripherals with a $10 million print and television campaign from February 28 to April 30, 2000. Leo Burnett, Chicago, was in charge.
The Nintendo 64 received generally positive reviews from critics. Reviewers generally praised the console's advanced 3D graphics and gameplay, while criticizing the lack of games.
In February 1996, Next Generation magazine called the Nintendo Ultra 64 the "best kept secret in videogames" and the "world's most powerful game machine". It called the system's November 24, 1995 unveiling at Shoshinkai "the most anticipated videogaming event of the 1990s, possibly of all time." Previewing the Nintendo 64 shortly prior to its launch, Time Magazine praised the realistic movement and gameplay provided by the combination of fast graphics processing, pressure-sensitive controller, and the Super Mario 64 game. The review praised the "fastest, smoothest game action yet attainable via joystick at the service of equally virtuoso motion", where "[f]or once, the movement on the screen feels real".:61
At launch, the Los Angeles Times called the system "quite simply, the fastest, most graceful game machine on the market". Its form factor was described as small, light, and "built for heavy play by kids" unlike the "relatively fragile Sega Saturn". Showing concern for a major console product launch during a sharp, several-year long, decline in the game console market, the review said that the long-delayed Nintendo 64 was "worth the wait" in the company's pursuit of quality. Nintendo's "penchant for perfection" in game quality control was praised, though with concerns about having only two launch titles at retail and twelve expected by Christmas. Describing the quality control incentives associated with cartridge-based development, the Times cited Nintendo's position that cartridge game developers tend to "place a premium on substance over flash", and noted that the launch titles lack the "poorly acted live-action sequences or half-baked musical overtures" which it says tend to be found on CD-ROM games. Praising Nintendo's controversial choice of the cartridge medium with its "nonexistent" load times and "continuous, fast-paced action CD-ROMs simply cannot deliver", the review concluded that "the cartridge-based Nintendo 64 delivers blistering speed and tack-sharp graphics that are unheard of on personal computers and make competing 32-bit, disc-based consoles from Sega and Sony seem downright sluggish".
Time Magazine named it their 1996 Machine of the Year, saying the machine had "done to video-gaming what the 707 did to air travel." The magazine said the console achieved "the most realistic and compelling three-dimensional experience ever presented by a computer." Time credited the Nintendo 64 with revitalizing the video game market, "rescuing this industry from the dustbin of entertainment history." The magazine suggested that the Nintendo 64 would play a major role in introducing children to digital technology in the final years of the 20th century. The article concluded by saying the console had already provided "the first glimpse of a future where immensely powerful computing will be as common and easy to use as our televisions.":73
Popular Electronics complimented the system's hardware, calling its specifications "quite impressive." It found the controller "comfortable to hold, and the controls to be accurate and responsive."
Developer Factor 5, who created some of the system's most technologically advanced games along with the audio development tools for Nintendo, said, "[T]he N64 is really sexy because it combines the performance of an SGI machine with a cartridge. We're big arcade fans, and cartridges are still the best for arcade games or perhaps a really fast CD-ROM. But there's no such thing for consoles yet [as of 1998]."
The Nintendo 64 was in heavy demand upon its release. David Cole, industry analyst, said "You have people fighting to get it from stores." Time Magazine called the purchasing interest "that rare and glorious middle-class Cabbage Patch-doll frenzy." The magazine said celebrities Matthew Perry, Steven Spielberg's office, and some Chicago Bulls players called Nintendo to ask for special treatment to get their hands on the console.
Retailers sold 350,000 of 500,000 available units during its first three days on sale. Longer term, the console sold 500,000 units in North America during its first four months. Nintendo successfully outsold Sony and Sega early on in the US, and by the end of its first full year, 3.6 million units were sold in the United States. Despite a strong launch year, the decision to use cartridge format led to less software releases and software being sold at a higher price than their competitors, and thus Nintendo was unable to maintain their lead in America. The company would continue to outsell the Sega Saturn throughout the generation, but would trail behind the PlayStation.
In Japan, the console was not as successful, failing to outsell the PlayStation and even the Sega Saturn. Benimaru Itō, a developer for EarthBound 64 and friend of Shigeru Miyamoto, speculated in 1997 that the N64's lower popularity in Japan was due to the lack of role-playing video games.
The Nintendo 64 remains one of the most recognized video game systems in the world. On G4techTV's (now G4's) Filter, the Nintendo 64 was voted up to No. 1 by registered users. Its games still have impact on the gaming industry such as Super Mario 64 and The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time. It has the one of the most influential shooter games for the shooter genre, Goldeneye 007.
BusinessWire reported that the Nintendo 64 was responsible for Nintendo's sales having increased by 156% by 1997.
A total of 388 games were released for the console, though few were exclusively sold in Japan. For comparison, rival's PlayStation and the Sega Saturn received around 1,100 games and 600 games respectively, while previous Nintendo consoles such as the NES and SNES had 768 and 725 games released in the USA. However, the Nintendo 64 game library included a high number of critically acclaimed and widely sold games. Super Mario 64 is the best selling game of the generation, with 11 million units sold and beating the PlayStation's Gran Turismo (at 10.85 million) and Final Fantasy VII (at 9.72 million) in sales. The game also received much praise from critics and helping to pioneer three-dimensional control schemes. GoldenEye 007 was important in the evolution of the first-person shooter, and has been named one of the greatest in the genre. The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time set the standard for future 3D action-adventure games and is considered by some to be one of the greatest games ever made.
The most graphically demanding N64 games that arrived on larger 32 or 64 MB cartridges are the most advanced and detailed of the 32-bit/64-bit generation. In order to maximize use of the Nintendo 64 hardware developers had to create their own alternate bespoke custom microcode. N64 games running on custom microcode benefited from much higher polygon counts in tandem with more advanced lighting, animation, physics and AI routines than its 32-bit competition. Conker's Bad Fur Day is arguably the pinnacle of its generation combining multicolored real-time lighting that illuminates each area to real-time shadowing and detailed texturing replete with a full in game facial animation system. The Nintendo 64's graphics chip is capable of executing many more advanced and complex rendering techniques than its competitors. It is the first home console to feature trilinear filtering, which allowed textures to look very smooth. This contrasted with the Saturn and PlayStation, which used nearest-neighbor interpolation and produced more pixelated textures. Overall however the results of the Nintendo cartridge system were mixed and this was tied primarily to its storage medium.
The smaller storage size of ROM cartridges limited the number of available textures. As a result, many games which utilized much smaller 8 or 12 MB cartridges are forced to stretch textures over larger surfaces. Compounded by a limit of 4,096-bytes allocated for texture storage, the end-result is often a distorted, out-of-proportion appearance. Many titles that feature larger 32 or 64 MB cartridges avoided this issue entirely, notable games include Resident Evil 2, Sin and Punishment: Successor of the Earth, and Conker's Bad Fur Day as they feature more ROM space, allowing for more detailed graphics by utilizing multiple, multi-layered textures across all surfaces.
||This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. The specific problem is: excessive duplication of Nintendo 64 Game Pak, negative editorialization, unencyclopedic tone. (December 2014)|
Nintendo 64 games are ROM cartridge based. Cartridge size varies from 4 to 64 MB. ROM cartridges are expensive and time-consuming to manufacture. Many cartridges include the ability to save games internally.
Nintendo cited several advantages for making the N64 cartridge-based. Primarily cited was the ROM cartridges' very fast load times in comparison to disc-based games. While loading screens appear in many PlayStation games, they are rare on the N64. Although vulnerable to long-term environmental damage the cartridges are far more resistant to physical damage than compact discs. Nintendo also cited the fact that cartridges are more difficult to pirate than CDs.
On the downside, cartridges took longer to manufacture than CDs, with each production run (from order to delivery) taking two weeks or more. This meant that publishers of N64 games had to attempt to predict demand for a game ahead of its release. They risked being left with a surplus of expensive cartridges for a failed game or a weeks-long shortage of product if they underestimated a game's popularity. The cost of producing an N64 cartridge was also far higher than for a CD. Publishers passed these expenses onto the consumer. N64 games cost an average of $10 more when compared to games produced for rival consoles.
As fifth generation games became more complex in content, sound and graphics, games began to exceed the limits of cartridge storage capacity. N64 cartridges had a maximum of 64 MB of data, whereas CDs held over 650 MB. Software ported from other platforms was often heavily compressed or redesigned with the storage limits of a cartridge in mind. Due to the cartridge's space limitations, full motion video was not usually feasible for use in cutscenes. When it was present, it was compressed to fit on the cartridge, extremely pixelated, and usually of very brief length.
The era's competing systems from Sony and Sega (the PlayStation and Saturn, respectively) used CD-ROM discs to store their games. As a result, game developers who had traditionally supported Nintendo game consoles were now developing games for the competition. Some third-party developers, such as Square and Enix, whose Final Fantasy VII and Dragon Warrior VII were initially pre-planned for the N64, switched to the PlayStation. Some who remained released fewer games to the Nintendo 64; Konami released fifty PlayStation games, but only thirteen for the N64. New Nintendo 64 game releases were infrequent while new games were coming out rapidly for the PlayStation.
Despite the difficulties with third parties, the N64 still managed to support popular games such as GoldenEye 007, giving it a long shelf-life. Additionally, Nintendo's strong first-party franchises such as Mario had strong name brand appeal. Second-parties of Nintendo, such as Rare, helped.
Nintendo's controversial selection of the cartridge medium for the Nintendo 64 has been cited as a key factor in Nintendo losing its dominant position in the gaming market. Some of the cartridge's advantages are difficult for developers to manifest prominently, requiring innovative solutions which only came late in the console's life cycle.
One of its technical drawbacks is a limited texture cache, which can hold textures of limited dimensions and reduced color depth, which must be stretched to cover larger in-game surfaces. Its vintage ROM cartridges are constrained by small capacity and high production expenses, compared to the compact disc format used by its chief competitors. Some third-party publishers that supported Nintendo's previous consoles reduced their output or stopped publishing for the console; the N64's most successful games came from first-party or second-party studios.
Several Nintendo 64 games have been released for the Wii's and Wii U's Virtual Console service and are playable with either the Classic Controller, Nintendo GameCube controller, or Wii U GamePad. There are some differences between these versions and the original cartridge versions. For example, the games run in a higher resolution and at a more consistent framerate than their N64 counterparts. However, some features, such as Rumble Pak functionality, are not available in the Wii versions. Some features are also altered for the Virtual Console releases. For example, the VC version of Pokémon Snap allows players to send photos through the Wii's message service, while Wave Race 64's in-game content was altered due to the expiration of the Kawasaki license. Several games from Rare have seen release on Microsoft's Xbox Live Arcade service, including Banjo-Kazooie, Banjo-Tooie and Perfect Dark, the reason being that Rareware was purchased by Microsoft in 2002. However one exception was Donkey Kong 64, which was released in April 2015 on the Wii U Virtual Console since Nintendo owns the rights to that game.
A number of accessories were produced for the Nintendo 64, including the Rumble Pak and the Transfer Pak.
The controller was shaped like an "M", employing a joystick in the center. Popular Electronics called its shape "evocative of some alien space ship." While noting that the three handles could be confusing, the magazine said "the separate grips allow different hand positions for various game types."
Nintendo released a peripheral platform called 64DD, where "DD" stands for "Disk Drive". Connecting to the expansion slot at the bottom of the system, the 64DD turns the Nintendo 64 console into an Internet appliance, a multimedia workstation, and an expanded gaming platform. This large peripheral allows players to play Nintendo 64 disk-based games, capture images from an external video source, and it allowed players to connect to the now-defunct Japanese Randnet online service. Not long after its limited mail-order release, the peripheral was discontinued. Only nine games were released, including the four Mario Artist games (Paint Studio, Talent Studio, Communication Kit, and Polygon Studio). Many more planned games were eventually released in cartridge format or on other game consoles. The 64DD and the accompanying Randnet online service were released only in Japan.
To illustrate the fundamental significance of the 64DD to all game development at Nintendo, lead designer Shigesato Itoi said, "I came up with a lot of ideas because of the 64DD. All things start with the 64DD. There are so many ideas I wouldn’t have been allowed to come up with if we didn’t have the 64DD." Shigeru Miyamoto concluded, "Almost every new project for the N64 is based on the 64DD. ... we’ll make the game on a cartridge first, then add the technology we’ve cultivated to finish it up as a full-out 64DD game."
The Nintendo 64's central processing unit (CPU) is the NEC VR4300. This processor was the most powerful console CPU of its generation. Popular Electronics said it had power similar to the Pentium processors found in desktop computers. Except for its narrower 32-bit system bus, the VR4300 retained the computational abilities of the more powerful 64-bit MIPS R4300i, though software rarely took advantage of 64-bit data precision operations. N64 games generally used faster (and more compact) 32-bit data-operations, as these were sufficient to generate 3D-scene data for the console's RSP (Reality Signal Processor) unit. In addition, 32-bit code executed faster and required less storage space (which was at a premium on the N64's cartridges).
In terms of its random-access memory, or RAM, the Nintendo 64 was one of the first modern consoles to implement a unified memory subsystem, instead of having separate banks of memory for CPU, audio, and video, for example. The memory itself consists of 4 megabytes of RDRAM, made by Rambus. The RAM is expandable to 8 MB with the Expansion Pak. Rambus was quite new at the time and offered Nintendo a way to provide a large amount of bandwidth for a relatively low cost.
The Nintendo 64 supports 16.8 million colors. The system can display resolutions from 320 × 240 up to 640 × 480 pixels. Most games that made use of the systems higher resolution 640x480 mode required use of the Expansion Pak RAM upgrade; there were a number however which did not, such as Acclaim's NFL Quarterback Club series and EA Sports 2nd generation Madden, FIFA, Supercross, and NHL games which arrived on the system. The majority of games used the system's low resolution 320 × 240 mode. A number of games also support a video display ratio of up to 16:9 using either Anamorphic widescreen or Letterboxing.
The Nintendo 64 comes in several colors. The standard Nintendo 64 is dark gray, nearly black, and the controller is light gray (later releases in America included a bonus second controller in Atomic Purple). Various colorations and special editions were released.
Most Nintendo 64 game cartridges are gray in color, but some games have a colored cartridge. Fourteen games have black cartridges, and other colors (such as green, blue, red, yellow and gold) were each used for six or fewer games. Several games, such as The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time, were released both in standard gray and in colored, limited edition versions.
The programming characteristics of the Nintendo 64 present unique challenges, with distinct potential advantages. The Economist described effective programming for the Nintendo 64 as being "horrendously complex". As with many other game consoles and other types of embedded systems, the Nintendo 64's architectural optimizations are uniquely acute, due to a combination of oversight on the part of the hardware designers, limitations on 3D technology of the time, and manufacturing capabilities.
As the Nintendo 64 reached the end of its lifecycle, hardware development chief Genyo Takeda repeatedly referred to the programming challenges using the word hansei (Japanese: 反省 "reflective regret"). Looking back, Takeda said "When we made Nintendo 64, we thought it was logical that if you want to make advanced games, it becomes technically more difficult. We were wrong. We now understand it's the cruising speed that matters, not the momentary flash of peak power."
- "Nintendo 64 Roms: Games". Lycos. Retrieved March 27, 2008.
- McCall, Scott (September 28, 1996). "N64's U.S. Launch". Teleparc. Retrieved September 29, 2015.
- IGN Staff (September 27, 1996). "Nintendo 64 Breaks Loose". IGN. Retrieved November 12, 2015.
- "Consolidated Sales Transition by Region". Nintendo. January 27, 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 14, 2010. Retrieved February 14, 2010.
- "All Time Top 20 Best Selling Games". May 21, 2003. Archived from the original on February 21, 2006. Retrieved March 27, 2008.
- Fisher, Lawrence M (May 6, 1995). "Nintendo Delays Introduction of Ultra 64 Video-Game Player". The New York Times. Retrieved January 23, 2015.
- Hatfield, Daemon. "Nintendo 64 is number 9". IGN. Retrieved November 11, 2015.
- "Nintendo and Silicon Graphics join forces to create world's most advanced video entertainment technology" (Press release). Silicon Graphics, Inc. September 4, 1993. Archived from the original on July 7, 1997. Retrieved December 29, 2014.
- Brandt, Richard L. (October 1995). "Nintendo Battles for its Life". Upside 7 (10).
- Fisher, Lawrence M. (August 21, 1993). "COMPANY NEWS; Video Game Link Is Seen For Nintendo". International New York Times. Retrieved February 7, 2015.
- "Tom Kalinske Interview". Sega-16. Retrieved December 17, 2009.
- Greenstein, Jane (September 13, 1996). "For developers, Nintendo 64 may be too costly.". Retrieved March 27, 2008 – via HighBeam.
- Semrad, Ed (October 1993). "Nintendo Postpones Intro of New System... Again!". Electronic Gaming Monthly (51) (EGM Media, LLC). p. 6.
- "Reality Check". GamePro (56). March 1994. p. 184.
- Haigh-Hutchinson, Mark (January 1997). "Classic Postmortem: Star Wars: Shadows Of The Empire". Game Developer. Retrieved February 5, 2015.
- Gillen, Marilyn A. (June 25, 1994). "Billboard (June 25, 1994)". Billboard (Billboard). Retrieved September 2, 2014.
Right now, cartridges offer faster access time and more speed of movement and characters than CDs. So, we'll introduce our new hardware with cartridges. But eventually these problems with CDs will be overcome. When that happens, you'll see Nintendo using CD as the software storage medium for our 64-bit system. — Howard Lincoln, chairman of Nintendo of America, 1994
- "Nintendo Ultra 64". Retrieved January 14, 2009.
- "Atari Jaguar". Retrieved January 14, 2009.
- "Atari Jaguar". Retrieved January 14, 2009.
- "Midway Takes Project Reality to the Arcades, Williams Buys Tradewest". GamePro (59). June 1994. p. 182.
- "Killer Instinct". Retrieved January 14, 2009.
- "Killer Instinct Hardware". Retrieved January 14, 2009.
- Lindsay (November 5, 2011). "The 64DREAM – November 1996". Yomuka!. Retrieved November 7, 2011.
- Liedholm, Marcus (January 1, 1998). "The N64's Long Way to completion". Nintendo Land. Archived from the original on March 4, 2008. Retrieved March 27, 2008.
- "Coverage of the Nintendo Ultra 64 Debut from Game Zero". Game Zero. Retrieved March 27, 2008.
- The word "Ultra" had already been trademarked by Konami, for its Ultra Games division, leading Nintendo to drop "Ultra" from the console's name. Despite the name change, the official prefix for the Nintendo 64's model numbering scheme is "NUS-", a reference to the console's original name, "Nintendo Ultra Sixty-Four"."Nintendo 64 Hardware Profile". Retrieved January 11, 2009.
- "Gaming Gossip". Electronic Gaming Monthly (Ziff Davis) (74): 44. September 1995.
- "(Will You Still Love Me) When I'm 64". Popular Electronics 14 (3). March 1997.
- "Ultra 64 "Delayed" Until April 1996?". Electronic Gaming Monthly (Ziff Davis) (72): 26. July 1995.
- "Kyoto Microcomputer Co., Ltd." (PDF). Kyoto Microcomputer Co., Ltd. Retrieved January 14, 2015.
- "Metrowerks Announces Partnership with Kyoto Microcomputer Co. Ltd." (Press release). November 4, 1998. Retrieved January 14, 2015.
[Kyoto Microcomputer Co. Ltd.] is the authorized tools vendor for Nintendo 64.
- Stone, BradCroal, N'Gai. "Nintendo's Hot Box." Newsweek 128.16 (1996): 12. Military & Government Collection. Web. July 24, 2013.
- Hill, Charles. Strategic Management Cases: An Integrated Approach, 10th ed. Retrieved December 13, 2013.
- Miller, Cyndee. "Sega Vs. Nintendo: This Fights almost as Rough as their Video Games." Marketing News 28.18 (1994): 1-. ABI/INFORM Global; ProQuest Research Library. Web. May 24, 2012.
- Editors, Business. "New Nintendo 64 Pricing Set at $129.95, $10 Software Coupons to Continue Sales Momentum." Business Wire: 1. August 25, 1998. ProQuest. Web. July 23, 2013.
- "Promotions: Mills Gets Foot Up with Nintendo Link-up." BRANDWEEK formerly Adweek Marketing Week. (January 18, 1999 ): 277 words. LexisNexis Academic. Web. Date. Retrieved 2013/07/24.
- Wasserman, Todd. "Nintendo: Pokemon, Peripherals Get $30M." Brandweek 41.7 (2000): 48. Business Source Complete. Web. July 24, 2013.
- "Ultra 64: Nintendo's shot at the title". Next Generation (14). February 1996. Retrieved February 5, 2015.
- Krantz, Michael; Jackson, David S. (May 20, 1996). "Super Mario's Dazzling Comeback". Time International (South Pacific ed.) (Time, Inc.) 147 (21). Retrieved January 23, 2015.
- Curtiss, Aaron (September 30, 1996). "New Nintendo 64 is a Technical Wonder; Leisure: The Cartridge-Based Game Machine Boasts Blistering Speed and Super-Sharp Graphics". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 21, 2015.
- Krantz, Michael (November 25, 1996). "64 Bits of Magic". Time Magazine 148 (24). (subscription required (. ))
- Eggebrecht, Julian (February 23, 1998). Factor 5 Interview (Part I). Interview with Peer Schneider. Retrieved January 13, 2015.
- Krantz, Michael. "Mario Plays Hard To Get." Time 148.26 (1996): 60. Military & Government Collection. Web. July 24, 2013.
- "Sega Dreamcast Sales Outstrip Expectations in N. America". Comline Computers. October 6, 1999. Retrieved March 27, 2008.
- "1997: So far, the year of Nintendo; company sales up 156 percent; driven by Nintendo 64 success.". Atlanta: Business Wire. June 18, 1997. Retrieved November 12, 2015.
- "Nintendo Delivers Early Holiday Cheer With New Software Prices. - Free Online Library". Thefreelibrary.com. Retrieved March 2, 2014.
- Kent, Steven L. (2002). The Ultimate History of Video Games: The Story Behind the Craze that Touched our Lives and Changed the World. New York: Random House International. ISBN 978-0-7615-3643-7. OCLC 59416169.
- Takao Imamura, Shigeru Miyamoto (August 1997). "Pak Watch E3 Report "The Game Masters"". Nintendo Power (Nintendo): 104–105.
- "Nintendo 64 Week: Day Two – Retro Feature at IGN". IGN. Retrieved March 4, 2013.
- "Filter Face Off: Top 10 Best Game Consoles". g4tv.com. Retrieved May 3, 2013.
- "IGN N64: Editors' Choice Games". IGN. Retrieved March 27, 2008.
- "Super Mario Sales Data: Historical Units Sold Numbers for Mario Bros on NES, SNES, N64...". Retrieved November 12, 2015.
- "Gran Turismo Series Shipments Hit 50 Million". PCWorld. May 9, 2008. Retrieved November 12, 2015.
- "Masterpiece: Final Fantasy VII". Ars Technica. Retrieved November 12, 2015.
- "ScrewAttack's Top 10 FPS Games Ever!". GameTrailers. Retrieved June 12, 2008.
- "Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time". Metacritic. Retrieved February 3, 2010. Metacritic here states that Ocarina of Time is "[c]onsidered by many to be the greatest single-player video game ever created in any genre..."
- "Ocarina of Time Hits Virtual Console". 1UP.com. Archived from the original on June 29, 2011. Retrieved February 2, 2010.
- "The Best Video Games in the History of Humanity". Filibustercartoons.com. Retrieved September 12, 2010.
- "Nintendo DS vs. Nintendo 64". Retrieved January 15, 2009.
- "Saturn Game Tutorial". Retrieved January 15, 2009.
- "Nintendo 64". Retrieved January 15, 2009.
- "The N64 Hardware". Retrieved January 15, 2009.
- Nintendo Power August, 1994 – Pak Watch. Nintendo. 1994. p. 108.
- "Nintendo Ultra 64: The Launch of the Decade?". Maximum: The Video Game Magazine (Emap International Limited) (2): 107–8. November 1995.
- "Bringing Indy to N64". IGN. November 9, 2000. Retrieved September 24, 2013.
- "The Video Game Critic's Console Reviews". Retrieved January 12, 2009.
- Ryan, Michael E. "'I Gotta Have This Game Machine!' (Cover Story)." Familypc 7.11 (2000): 112. MasterFILE Premier. Web. July 24, 2013.
- "The N64 Hardware". Retrieved January 16, 2009.
- "CD Capacity". Retrieved January 16, 2009.
- "Nintendo 64". Retrieved January 15, 2009.
- "Elusions: Final Fantasy 64". Retrieved January 11, 2009.
- "Nintendo 64". Retrieved January 11, 2009.
- "Most Popular Nintendo 64 Games". Retrieved January 11, 2009.
- "Indiana Jones and the Infernal Machine". IGN. December 12, 2000. Retrieved September 24, 2013.
- "Interview: Battling the N64 (Naboo)". IGN64. November 10, 2000. Retrieved March 27, 2008.
- Miyamoto, Shigeru; Itoi, Shigesato (December 1997). Translation. "A friendly discussion between the "Big 2"". The 64DREAM: 91.
- "Main specifications of VR4300TM-series". NEC. Retrieved May 20, 2006.
- "Gaming consoles". Retrieved January 11, 2009.
- "N64, God of all systems". Google Groups. July 26, 1997. Retrieved May 20, 2006.
- "Nintendo Support: Nintendo 64 AV to TV Hookup". Nintendo. Retrieved February 28, 2010.
- IGN Staff (15 December 1998). "Nintendo 64 Expansion Pak". IGN. Retrieved 7 August 2015.
- "Nintendo 64 ROMS". Retrieved January 14, 2009.
- "Nintendo 64". Archived from the original on November 6, 2007. Retrieved January 14, 2009.
- "Zelda Ocarina of Time Cartridge Trivia". Retrieved January 14, 2009.
- "Nintendo Wakes Up." The Economist August 3, 1996: 55-. ABI/INFORM Global; ProQuest Research Library. Web. May 24, 2012.
- Croal, N'Gai; Kawaguchi, Masato; Saltzman, Marc (September 3, 2000). "It's Hip to be Square". Newsweek 136 (10): 53. Retrieved February 7, 2015.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nintendo 64.|
- Billboard Magazine of May 18, 1996, p.58, covering the launch of Nintendo 64, including Yamauchi's explanation of cartridge strategy and negotiations about Netscape's online strategy for N64
- "Why Netscape Almost Didn't Exist", on Andreesson's choice to cofound Netscape instead of working on N64, and later proposing N64's first online strategy
- "Nintendo 64". Archived from the original on October 17, 2007.
- Index of all Nintendo 64 promotional videos
- Nintendo 64 at DMOZ
- US Patent for the N64
- The Most Complete N64 Game Releaselist by NESWORLD