Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate
3D model (JSmol)
|Molar mass||g·mol−1 744.416|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ?)(|
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, abbreviated NADP+ or, in older notation, TPN (triphosphopyridine nucleotide), is a cofactor used in anabolic reactions, such as the Calvin cycle and lipid and nucleic acid syntheses, which require NADPH as a reducing agent.
In photosynthetic organisms, NADPH is produced by ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase in the last step of the electron chain of the light reactions of photosynthesis. It is used as reducing power for the biosynthetic reactions in the Calvin cycle to assimilate carbon dioxide and help turn the carbon dioxide into glucose. It is also needed in the reduction of nitrate into ammonia for plant assimilation in nitrogen cycle. It is also needed in the production of oils.
The major source of NADPH in animals and other non-photosynthetic organisms is the pentose phosphate pathway.
However, there are several other lesser-known mechanisms of generating NADPH, all of which depend on the presence of mitochondria. The key enzymes in these processes are: NADP-linked malic enzyme, NADP-linked isocitrate dehydrogenase, NADP-linked glutamate dehydrogenase and nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase. The isocitrate dehydrogenase mechanism appears to be the major source of NADPH in fat and possibly also liver cells. Also, in mitochondria, NADH kinase produces NADPH and ADP, using NADH and ATP as substrates.
NADPH provides the reducing equivalents for biosynthetic reactions and the oxidation-reduction involved in protecting against the toxicity of reactive oxygen species (ROS), allowing the regeneration of glutathione (GSH). NADPH is also used for anabolic pathways, such as cholesterol synthesis and fatty acid chain elongation.
The NADPH system is also responsible for generating free radicals in immune cells. These radicals are used to destroy pathogens in a process termed the respiratory burst. It is the source of reducing equivalents for cytochrome P450 hydroxylation of aromatic compounds, steroids, alcohols, and drugs.
Enzymes that use NADP(H) as a coenzyme
- Adrenodoxin reductase: This enzyme is present ubiquitously in most organisms. It transfers two electrons from NADPH to FAD. In vertebrates, it serves as the first enzyme in the chain of mitochondrial P450 systems that synthesize steroid hormones.
Enzymes that use NADP(H) as a substrate
In 2018 and 2019, the first two reports of enzymes that catalyze the removal of the 2' phosphate of NADP(H) in eukaryotes emerged. First, the cytoplasmic protein MESH1, then the mitochondrial protein Nocturnin where reported.
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- Ding CKC, Rose J, Wu J, Sun T, Chen KY, Chen PH, Xu E, Tian S, Akinwuntan J, Guan Z, Zhou P, Chi JTA (2018). "Mammalian stringent-like response mediated by the cytosolic NADPH phosphatase MESH1". bioRxiv. doi:10.1101/325266.
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