NAMC YS-11

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
YS-11
航空自衛隊 飛行点検隊 YS-11 52-1151号機.jpg
A Japan Air Self-Defense Force YS-11 (2011)
Role Turboprop Airliner
Manufacturer Nihon Aircraft Manufacturing Corporation
First flight August 30, 1962
Introduction March 30, 1965, for All Nippon Airways (first passenger flight with Japan Air Commuter in 1965)
Status In limited service
Produced 1962–1974
Number built 182

The NAMC YS-11 is a turboprop airliner built by a Japanese consortium, the Nihon Aircraft Manufacturing Corporation. The program was initiated by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry in 1954, the aircraft was rolled out in 1962, and production ceased in 1974.

Development and design[edit]

Wind tunnel model of YS-11.

In the mid-to-late 1950s, the Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry identified a requirement for a short-haul airliner to replace Douglas DC-3s flying on Japan's domestic routes, and encouraged companies in Japan's aircraft industry to collaborate to develop and produce the new airliner. A joint venture between Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Fuji Heavy Industries (now better known as the parent company of automobile manufacturer Subaru), Shin Meiwa, Showa Aircraft Industry Company and Japan Aircraft Industry Company was set up in 1957, being formalised as the Nihon Aeroplane Manufacturing Company (NAMC) in 1959.[1][2]

NAMC designed a low-winged twin-turboprop monoplane seating 60 passengers. Jiro Horikoshi, the designer of the Mitsubishi A6M Zero fighter was involved in designing it.[3][4] Although the aircraft was mainly designed and manufactured in Japan, the engines were built by Rolls-Royce, with the 2,275 kW (3,050 ehp) Rolls-Royce Dart RDa.10/1 being selected for the new aircraft.[5] Electronic equipment, avionics, mechanical and fuselage components were supplied either by Japanese companies or foreign suppliers during the YS-11's production lifetime. The twin-engined YS-11 delivered similar operational performance to the four-engined Vickers Viscount, and had 50% more capacity than the similarly configured Fokker F27 Friendship.

The first prototype made its maiden flight from Nagoya Airport on August 30, 1962, with the second prototype flying on December 28, 1962. It received its Japanese Type certificate on August 25, 1964, with American Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certification following on September 9, 1965.[5]

182 were produced in total, of which 82 were exported to 15 countries.[6]

The last examples off the production line, mostly delivered to the Japan Air Self-Defense Force (i.e. YS-11A-402 EA/EB), were fitted with license-built General Electric T64-IHI-10J engines.

Operational history[edit]

The first production YS-11 flew on October 23, 1964 and was delivered on March 30, 1965, with initial airline operations by Toa Airways beginning in April 1965.[5] At first, deliveries were mainly to Japanese airlines, and NAMC developed the YS-11A, with higher gross weight, to make the aircraft more attractive to the North American market, and in particular to meet the requirements of Piedmont Airlines, which ordered ten YS-11A-200s, with an option for an additional ten aircraft.[7] Orders slowed after the needs of the Japanese commuter airlines for which it had been designed were met. This, together with losses growing to $600 million,[8] resulted in production being stopped after completion of 182 aircraft, with the last YS-11 being delivered to the Japanese Maritime Self-Defence Force on May 11, 1973.[9]

The YS-11 was slowly phased out by airlines in Japan due to new directives issued by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism requiring all commercial aircraft in Japan to be fitted with a Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS). Aircraft without TCAS were forced to cease operations at the end of 2006. Since equipping a YS-11 with TCAS would have cost ¥100 million (about US$1 million), a refit was deemed economically unsound. Aircraft still in flying condition were sold to foreign companies. On September 30, 2006, Japan Air Commuter Flight 3806 marked the final flight for a YS-11 in Japan's commercial aviation industry.[10] In 2007, the YS-11 was added to the Mechanical Engineering Heritage of Japan as item number 13. As of 2014, 15 are operated by the Japanese military, and two in Mexico.[11]

Variants[edit]

YS-11
YS-11-100
Initial production variant. 23,500 kg (51,810 lb) gross weight. 48 built.[7]
YS-11A-200
Increased gross weight (24,500 kg (54,010 lb) passenger airliner.[7]
YS-11A-300
Combi version of YS-11-200, fitted with large cargo door and capable of carrying both passengers and freight.[7]
YS-11A-400
Pure cargo version of -200, used only by Japanese defence forces.[7]
YS-11A-500
Passenger airliner with further increased (25,000 kg (55,110 lb)) gross weight produced from 1970.[12]
YS-11A-600
Combi version of -500.[13]
YS-11E
JASDF "Super YS" powered by T64-IHI-10E.

Customer variants[edit]

  • YS-11-101: TOA Domestic Airlines
  • YS-11-102: All Nippon Airways
  • YS-11-103: Japan Air Self Defense Force
  • YS-11-104: Japan Civil Aviation Bureau
  • YS-11-105: Japan Air Self Defense Force
  • YS-11-106: Japan Domestic Airlines
  • YS-11-107: Filipinas Orient Airways
  • YS-11-108: Japan Domestic Airlines
  • YS-11-109: Japan Domestic Airlines
  • YS-11-110: Japan Civil Aviation Bureau
  • YS-11-111: All Nippon Airways
  • YS-11-113: Japan Maritime Self Defense Force
  • YS-11-114: TOA Airways
  • YS-11-115: Aeronautic College
  • YS-11-116: Filipinas Orient Airways
  • YS-11-117: Hawaiian Airlines
  • YS-11-118: Japan Civil Aviation Bureau
  • YS-11-120: LANSA
  • YS-11-121: Filipinas Orient Airways
  • YS-11-124: Japan Domestic Airlines
  • YS-11-125: Cruzeiro do Sul
  • YS-11-128: Austral (later Austral Líneas Aéreas)
  • YS-11-129: TOA Airways
  • YS-11A-201: NAMC
  • YS-11A-202: Cruzeiro do Sul
  • YS-11A-205: Piedmont Airlines
  • YS-11A-206: Japan Maritime Self Defense Force
  • YS-11A-207: Japan Maritime Safety Agency
  • YS-11A-208: All Nippon Airways
  • YS-11A-209: Southwest Air Lines
  • YS-11A-211: VASP
  • YS-11A-212: VASP
  • YS-11A-213: All Nippon Airways
  • YS-11A-214: Southwest Air Lines
  • YS-11A-217: Japan Domestic Airlines
  • YS-11A-218: Japan Air Self Defense Force
  • YS-11A-219: China Airlines
  • YS-11A-220: Olympic Airways
  • YS-11A-222: TOA Airways
  • YS-11A-223: All Nippon Airways
  • YS-11A-227: Japan Domestic Airlines / TOA Airways
  • YS-11A-301: Korean Air Lines
  • YS-11A-305: Japan Air Self Defense Force
  • YS-11A-306: Transair
  • YS-11A-307: Japan Domestic Airlines
  • YS-11A-309: Aerotransportes Litoral Argentino (later Austral Líneas Aéreas)
  • YS-11A-310: Korean Air Lines
  • YS-11A-313: TOA Airways
  • YS-11A-314: Air Afrique
  • YS-11A-321: Air Gabon
  • YS-11A-402: Japan Air Self Defense Force
  • YS-11A-404: Japan Maritime Self Defense Force
  • YS-11A-500: Piedmont Airlines
  • YS-11A-523: Philippine Civil Aeronautics Administration
  • YS-11A-621: Trans Gabon
  • YS-11A-623: Pelita Air Service
  • YS-11A-624: Japan Maritime Self Defense Force
  • YS-11A-626: Reeve Aleutian Airways

Operators[edit]

An Asian Spirit YS-11 from the Philippines.

As of July 2011, Transair Cargo, Air Link International Airways, Aero JBR, Aerodan and ALCON Servicios Aereos each operate one YS-11 for a total of five aircraft in commercial service.[14]

All Nippon Airways
YS-11 at Baguio City, Philippines

Civil Operators[edit]

Former and present operators of the NAMC YS-11 include

Military Operators[edit]

YS-11EA
YS-11EB
 Colombia
 Greece
 Japan

JSDF delivery breakdown:

JASDF
2 YS-11EA for Electronic Warfare
4 YS-11EB for ELINT
3 YS-11FC for Flight Checker
1 YS-11NT for Navigation Trainer
3 YS-11P for Passenger/VIP Transport

JMSDF
2 YS-11M for Freighter
2 YS-11M-A for Freighter
6 YS-11T-A for MPA trainer
[16]

Incidents[edit]

There have been over twenty hull loss accidents involving YS-11 aircraft.

Aircraft on display[edit]

Brazil
Japan
Philippines
United States

Specifications (YS-11A-200)[edit]

A JAC NAMC YS-11

Data from [57]

General characteristics

Performance

See also[edit]

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Related lists

References[edit]

  1. ^ Endres 1996, p. 22.
  2. ^ Taylor 1966, p. 107.
  3. ^ JIRO HORIKOSHI, 78, DIES IN TOKYO; DESIGNER OF ZERO FIGHTER AIRCRAFT January 12, 1982 New York Times Retrieved September 8, 2016
  4. ^ Mercado, Stephen C. Japan Policy Research InstituteThe YS-11 Project and Japan's Aerospace Potential JPRI Occasional Paper No. 5 (September 1995) Retrieved September 8, 2016
  5. ^ a b c Endres 1996, p. 23.
  6. ^ Odagiri, Hiroyuki (1996). Technology and Industrial Development in Japan. Oxford: Clarendon Press. p. 225. ISBN 0-19-828802-6. 
  7. ^ a b c d e Endres 1996, p. 24.
  8. ^ Anselmo, Joe. "Milestone for the MRJ" Aviation Week & Space Technology, 24 October 2014. Accessed: 25 October 2014.
  9. ^ Endres 1996, pp. 26–27.
  10. ^ Farewell to the wings of YS-11 Yomiuri Online (Yomiuri Shimbun)
  11. ^ Hoyle, Craig (24 October 2014), "Big in Japan: Tokyo's Top 10 aircraft projects", Flightglobal, Reed Business Information 
  12. ^ Endres 1996, pp. 24, 26.
  13. ^ Endres 1996, p. 26.
  14. ^ Flight International 2011 World Airliner Census, p.22; retrieved 31 August 2011
  15. ^ Historical Aircraft - NAMC YS-11A Retrieved September 30, 2016
  16. ^ Kawasaki XP-1 As YS-11 Replacement Airliners.net, military aviation and space forum
  17. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  18. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  19. ^ "KAL기피랍사건", Doosan Encyclopedia, 2010, retrieved 2010-07-07 
  20. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  21. ^ Kim Tae Hong, "141 Days of Hell, What about 40 Years?" NK Daily (7 August 2009)[1]
  22. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  23. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  24. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  25. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  26. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  27. ^ Germano da Silva, Carlos Ari César (2008). "O Samurai desaparecido". O rastro da bruxa: história da aviação comercial brasileira no século XX através dos seus acidentes 1928–1996 (in Portuguese) (2 ed.). Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS. pp. 274–278. ISBN 978-85-7430-760-2. 
  28. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  29. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  30. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  31. ^ Germano da Silva, Carlos Ari César (2008). "Dia do aviador". O rastro da bruxa: história da aviação comercial brasileira no século XX através dos seus acidentes 1928–1996 (in Portuguese) (2 ed.). Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS. pp. 291–293. ISBN 978-85-7430-760-2. 
  32. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  33. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  34. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  35. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  36. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  37. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  38. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  39. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  40. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  41. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  42. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  43. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  44. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  45. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  46. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  47. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  48. ^ "RECENT ACCIDENTS / INCIDENTS WORLDWIDE September 2009". Jacdec. Retrieved 12 November 2009. 
  49. ^ "Airframe Dossier - Nihon Aeroplane Manufacturing Company (NAMC) YS-11A-200, c/n 2080, c/r PP-CTI". Aerial Visuals. AerialVisuals.ca. Retrieved 8 November 2016. 
  50. ^ "Outdoor Exhibition Hall". Museum of Aeronautical Sciences (in Japanese). MUSEUM OF AERONAUTICAL SCIENCES. Retrieved 8 November 2016. 
  51. ^ "Airframe Dossier - Nihon Aeroplane Manufacturing Company (NAMC) YS-11, c/n 1001/2001, c/r JA8611". Aerial Visuals. AerialVisuals.ca. Retrieved 8 November 2016. 
  52. ^ "Experience Exhibits". Tokorozawa Aviation Museum. Tokorozawa Aviation Museum. Retrieved 8 November 2016. 
  53. ^ "Airframe Dossier - Nihon Aeroplane Manufacturing Company (NAMC) YS-11A-200, c/n 2101, c/r JA8732". Aerial Visuals. AerialVisuals.ca. Retrieved 8 November 2016. 
  54. ^ "Airframe Dossier - Nihon Aeroplane Manufacturing Company (NAMC) YS-11A-500, c/n 2179, c/r RP-77". Aerial Visuals. AerialVisuals.ca. Retrieved 8 November 2016. 
  55. ^ "NAMC YS-11A". Grissom Air Museum. Retrieved 8 November 2016. 
  56. ^ "Airframe Dossier - Nihon Aeroplane Manufacturing Company (NAMC)YS-11, c/r P4-KFD". Aerial Visuals. AerialVisuals.ca. Retrieved 8 November 2016. 
  57. ^ Green, William, The Observers Book of Aircraft, Frederick Warne & Co. Ltd, 1970. ISBN 0-7232-0087-4

External links[edit]