NATO Enhanced Forward Presence

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Enhanced Forward Presence (EFP) is a NATO-allied forward-deployed defense and deterrence military force in Central and Northern Europe. This posture in Central Europe through Poland and Northern Europe through Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, is in place in order to protect and reassure the security of NATO's Central and Northern European member states on NATO's eastern flank. Following Russia's invasion of Crimea and its War in Donbas, NATO's member states agreed at the 2016 Warsaw summit to forward deploy four multinational battalion battle groups to areas most likely to get attacked.


The four multinational battalion battle groups are based in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland, and led by the United Kingdom, Canada, Germany, and the United States:[1]

Country Location Lead nation Current participants
 Estonia Tapa  United Kingdom Denmark, Iceland
 Latvia Ādaži  Canada Albania, Czech Republic, Iceland, Italy, Montenegro, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain
 Lithuania Rukla  Germany Belgium, Czech Republic, France, Iceland, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway
 Poland Orzysz  United States Croatia, Romania, United Kingdom

The troops serving in the multinational battalion battle groups will rotate every six months and train and operate with their host nations' militaries.

Estonian multinational battalion battle group[edit]


The Belgian Army contributes a 269-soldier strong Belgian Land Component armoured infantry company from the Chasseurs Ardennais with support elements and HQ staff officers.[2]

Denmark & Iceland[edit]

Additionally the Danish Army will deploy a mechanized force by 2018 at the latest.[3] Three brigade HQ support personnel from the Royal Danish Army and 1 strategic communications civilian from the Icelandic defence forces have also been stationed in Estonia.[4]


The British unit will be supported by a mixed battle group from the French Army's 9th Light Armoured Marine Brigade consisting of an mechanized infantry company from the 2nd Marine Infantry Regiment equipped with VBCI infantry fighting vehicles, artillery from the 11th Marine Artillery Regiment equipped with CAESAR self-propelled howitzers, and combat engineers from the 6th Engineer Regiment, with a company of Leclerc main battle tanks from the 7th Armoured Brigade's 1st Chasseurs Regiment attached for the deployment.

United Kingdom[edit]

The United Kingdom will deploy 800 personnel from the British Army's 20th Armoured Infantry Brigade:

The British Army's 5th Battalion, The Rifles battlegroup, will rotate back to the United Kingdom in November 2017 and be replaced by a battlegroup formed around the 1st Battalion, Royal Welsh.[7]

Latvian multinational battalion battle group[edit]

Structure of Latvian eFP Battle Group

The Latvian multinational battalion battle group is based at Camp Adazi, near the Latvian capital of Riga, and contains approximately 1,500 personnel.[8]


Albania will send a small detachment of 21 EOD engineers from the Albanian Land Force.


Canada provides the core of the NATO battle group in Latvia with approximately 540 mechanized infantry and supporting troops. This contingent is provided by Canada's high readiness brigade, a task which rotates annually amongst the three Regular Force brigades of the country. Reservists from more than 100 units across Canada have provided several augmentees to each rotation.


In 2017, the contingent was provided by the 1st Canadian Mechanized Brigade Group in Western Canada, which handed over to the 2nd Mechanized Brigade Group in Eastern Canada in 2018. The 2nd Battalion, Royal Canadian Regiment, based in CFB Gagetown, rotated in to relieve the 1st Battalion, PPCLI.[9]


In June 2018, the 2nd Battalion, The Royal Canadian Regiment, was replaced by the 1st Battalion, The Royal Canadian Regiment, based out of Petawawa, Ontario.


In January 2019, Canada's French-speaking mechanized brigade from Quebec, (the 5 Canadian Mechanized Brigade Group), took on the task. The commanding officer, LCol Sauvé, and most of the soldiers were from the 2nd battalion of the Royal 22e Régiment (2R22eR) or the armoured 12e Régiment Blindé du Canada (12e RBC).[10] In accordance with this rotation cycle, they were replaced in July 2019 by the 2nd Battalion Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry from the 1st Canadian Mechanized Brigade Group.


In January 2020, a battle group led by the Lord Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians), of the 1st Canadian Mechanized Brigade Group, rotated in to Latvia, and was replaced by a battle group led by the 2nd Battalion, Royal Canadian Regiment.


In January 2021, a battle group led by the Royal Canadian Dragoons, of the 2nd Canadian Mechanized Brigade Group, relieved the 2nd Battalion, Royal Canadian Regiment.

Czech Republic[edit]

The Czech Republic provides a mortar platoon of 55 soldiers.[11]


Italy will provide an Italian Army mechanized Infantry company with Freccia and Dardo infantry fighting vehicles. Recently the Italian Army has reinforced its presence with 8 Ariete main battle tanks.


Montenegro provides a reconnaissance squad.[4]


Poland an armored company with PT-91 Twardy main battle tanks.


Slovenia will deploy Infantry reconnaissance platoon, Tactical Air Control Party (TACP) team, Contribution to battlegroup headquarters, Support elements of the Slovenian Armed Forces.


Slovakia will deploy an armored infantry company consisting of 150 troops from 11th Mechanized Battalion starting in second half of 2018. The Slovak force contribution consists of:

  • a Mechanised Company on BMP2,
  • Command and Control Element,
  • Military Police team,
  • Repairs and Operation Platoon as a support element
  • and a team of medics.


Spain will dispatch a reinforced armored infantry company consisting of around 350 troops from the 11th Mechanized Infantry Brigade "Extremadura". The Spanish contingent will include 6 Leopard 2E main battle tanks from the I/16th Tank Battalion "Mérida" of the 16th Armored Regiment "Castilla" and 15 Pizarro infantry fighting vehicles from the I/6th Mechanized Infantry Battalion "Cantabria" of the 6th Infantry Regiment "Saboya".[12]

Battle Group Lithuania[edit]

The Lithuania multinational battalion battle group is under the command of the Mechanised Infantry Brigade Iron Wolf of the Lithuanian Army and based in Rukla.[13] The battalion has a headquarters company, three to four combat companies and various support units.[13] The Battle Group is led by Germany.[14] Each rotation lasts six months.[15]

Date November 2017[16] Parent unit(s) March 2019[17] Parent unit(s) October 2020[18] Parent unit(s)
Country\Number of troops
Belgium 60 Support elements 1 Staff officer for battlegroup headquarters 1 Public affairs officer
Czechia n/a - 230[11] Mechanized Inf. Coy.

Support elements

35 Electronic warfare element

Support elements

Croatia 178 Mechanized infantry company

(15x Patria MV armoured vehicles,

1x M-ATV mine-resistant vehicles)

1st Mechanized Battalion "Tigers"

of Mechanized Guard Brigade[19]

n/a - n/a -
France n/a - n/a - 275 Mechanised Inf. Coy.

Armoured Plt with MBT

Germany 450 Armoured Inf. Bn. with AFVs

complemented with MBTs and self-propelled artillery

Mobility engineers,

Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance

(incl. tactical UAVs) and support elements

540 Armoured Inf. Coy.

Combat service

Combat service support

527 Armoured Coy.

Mechanised Inf. Plt.

Combat service

Combat service support

Iceland 1 1 Coast guard officer

for Explosive Ordnance Disposal

1 Public Affairs Civilian 1 Public Affairs Civilian
Luxembourg 22 Integrated into Belgian

Support elements

n/a - 4 Transportation team
Netherlands 250-270 Armoured Inf. Coy.

with AFV

250-270 Mechanised Inf. Coy.

with AFV

270 Mechanised Inf. Coy.

Logistics support element

Norway 200 Combined arms Coy. - armoured Drawn from Telemark Battalion

and other Brigade Nord units

[equipped with CV9030 IFVs

and Leopard 2A4NO MBTs]

13 Joint fires section Artillery Battalion 120 Armoured Inf. Coy.

with AFV

Total 1181 1055 1233

Belgium & Luxembourg[edit]


The Belgian Army sent a logistic support company, which arrived in Lithuania on 24 January 2017. The 100 men from the 18th Logistics Battalion and 29th Logistics Battalion of the Belgian Land Component with medical and military police units attached arrived by ferry in Klaipėda and contain a small detachment of troops from the Luxembourg Army,[20] which brought with them around ten transport trucks with them.[21]

Czech Republic[edit]

In July 2018, Czechia provided EFP Lithuania the 1st Company Task Force consisting of a mechanized company with Pandur armored vehicles reinforced by an engineer platoon, a logistics unit and a medical element reaching a total of 230 people.[22] After six months, they were replaced by the 2nd Task Force for the next half-year.[22] Both task forces consisted of the 41st Mechanized Battalion [cs]'s soldiers.[22] After deployment, the company task force returned to the Czech Republic in July 2019.[22] From then on until 2021, Czech Army sent four electronic warfare task forces.[22] Since July 2021, an anti-aircraft missile battery from the 252nd Anti-Aircraft Missile Section (sub-unit of the 25th Anti-Aircraft Missile Regiment [cs]) armed with RBS 70 has been operating in Lithuania.[22]


Some 200 soldiers from 5th Dragoon Regiment of the French Army have arrived to Rukla on 3 July 2020, staying there for 6 months until the end of December, with a hundred more administration and logistics personnel. The troops form a mechanised infantry company and are reinforced with 5 Leclerc tanks and 14 VBCI IFVs.[23]


The first German Army unit to deploy to Lithuania is the 122nd Mechanized Battalion of the 12th Armoured Brigade [de] of the 10th Panzer Division. Equipped with Marder infantry fighting vehicles the battalion will be augmented with Leopard 2A6 main battle tanks from the 104th Tank Battalion, PzH 2000 self-propelled artillery from the 131st Artillery Battalion engineers from the 4th Armored Engineer Battalion and troops from the 4th Supply Battalion.



From January to June 2018 about 30 soldiers deployed from the Intelligence Battalion's long-range reconnaissance patrol squadron.


From July 2019 troops from the Telemark Battalion and the Armoured Battalion are alternating on deploying an armoured infantry company with IFVs and MBTs consisting of 120-140 soldiers.[24][25][26]

Battle Group Poland[edit]

The Poland-based multinational battalion Battle Group, known as Battle Group Poland (BGPOL),[27] is currently led by the United States Army's 2nd ("Cougars") Squadron, 2nd Cavalry Regiment (United States) headquartered in Rose Barracks, Germany. The Battle Group consists of a US combined-arms battalion, a Sabre Squadron from the Royal Scots Dragoon Guards, a Croatian rocket artillery battery, and an ADA company from the Romanian Army.

The Battle Group is attached to the Polish Army's 15th Mechanized Brigade and based in Orzysz located south of Kaliningrad Oblast and 120 kilometers away from the Suwalki Gap.


June 16, 2021 – Some 30 German soldiers recalled from service in Lithuania after they were accused of making racist and anti-Semitic remarks and of sexual violence.[28]


  1. ^ NATO Enhanced Forward Presence Website
  2. ^ "Belgian troops joined the NATO enhanced forward presence battle group at Tapa - Kaitsevägi". Retrieved 2019-10-30.
  3. ^ "British troops to defend Baltics against Russia in new Nato mission". The Telegraph. Retrieved 22 August 2016.
  4. ^ a b "NATO's Enhanced Forward Presence" (PDF). 2019-02-13. Retrieved 2019-10-30.
  5. ^ Soldier Magazine. Aldershot Garrison, Hampshire, England: Ministry of Defence. August 2016. p. 14.
  6. ^ "Survival Kit and Outdoor Military Equipment - Survival Aids".
  7. ^ "Royal Welsh Regiment to be base unit of British contingent in Estonia from November". Latvian Information Agency. 19 July 2017. Retrieved 21 July 2017.
  8. ^ CBC News (January 5, 2021). "Canadian Forces members in Latvia test positive for COVID-19 virus". CBC News. Retrieved April 14, 2021.
  9. ^ Defence, National (13 January 2018). "Canadian Armed Forces Members deploy to continue deterrence mission in Latvia". gcnws.
  10. ^ "". External link in |title= (help) Date 3 jan 2019
  11. ^ a b "České jednotky zamíří do Pobaltí. S minomety a obrněnci Pandur". (in Czech). 11 June 2018. Retrieved 12 June 2018.
  12. ^ "España desplegará por primera vez los tanques Leopard en una misión exterior". ABC España. 12 February 2017. Retrieved 14 February 2017.
  13. ^ a b "NATO Enhanced Forward Presence".
  14. ^ Strickland, John (10 October 2017). "U.S. Army-led NATO Battle Group on deterrence mission in Poland". Retrieved 2021-09-27.
  15. ^ "Soldiers of the NATO enhanced Forward Presence Battalion Battle Group Lithuania nearing the end of rotation received decorations | Lithuanian army". Soldiers of the NATO enhanced Forward Presence Battalion Battle Group Lithuania nearing the end of rotation received decorations | Lithuanian army. Retrieved 2021-09-27.
  16. ^ NATO’s Enhanced Forward Presence (PDF). 2017.
  17. ^ NATO’s Enhanced Forward Presence (PDF). 2019.
  18. ^ NATO’s Enhanced Forward Presence (PDF). 2020.
  19. ^ "Croatian troops join international NATO battalion in Lithuania". Delfi. 4 December 2017. Retrieved 28 August 2020.
  20. ^!ut/p/z1/ German Army eFP site (and) Archived 2017-02-02 at the Wayback Machine Lithuaian Army Press Release
  21. ^ "Luxembourg's troops join NATO battalion in Lithuania". Delfi. 18 July 2017. Retrieved 28 August 2020.
  22. ^ a b c d e f "Lotyšsko a Litva". (in Czech).
  23. ^ Beniušis, Vaidotas. "Gynybos atašė: prancūzų karių kuopa Lietuvoje pilnai sukomplektuota". LRT (in Lithuanian).
  24. ^
  25. ^ "Enhanced Forward Presence". I tjeneste for Norge (in Norwegian). Retrieved 2021-09-28.
  26. ^ Arstad, Svein (2021-04-12). "Norske soldater til topps i Nato-konkurranse". (in Norwegian Bokmål). Retrieved 2021-09-28.
  27. ^ Dorschner, James (September 21, 2017). "Ramping up: U.S. Army Europe building forces and capability". Jane's Defence Weekly.
  28. ^ "German soldiers dismissed over Hitler birthday song". Reuters. 2021-06-16. Retrieved 2021-07-07.

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