Jump to content


Page semi-protected
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from NBC Universal)

NBCUniversal Media, LLC
FormerlyNBC Universal, Inc. (2004–2011)
Company typeSubsidiary
FoundedMay 11, 2004; 20 years ago (May 11, 2004)
HeadquartersComcast Building, ,
Area served
Key people
RevenueIncrease US$39.2 billion (2022)
Number of employees
35,000 (2020)
SubsidiariesFandango Media (75%)
Websitenbcuniversal.com Edit this at Wikidata
Footnotes / references

NBCUniversal Media, LLC (abbreviated as NBCU and doing business as simply NBCUniversal or Comcast NBCUniversal since 2013) is an American multinational mass media and entertainment conglomerate that is a subsidiary of Comcast and is headquartered at 30 Rockefeller Plaza in Midtown Manhattan in New York City.[5]

NBCUniversal is primarily involved in the media and entertainment industry. The company is named for its two most significant divisions, the National Broadcasting Company (NBC) – one of the United States' Big Three television networks – and the major Hollywood film studio Universal Studios. It also has a significant presence in broadcasting through a portfolio of domestic and international properties, including USA, Syfy, Bravo, E!, Telemundo (Spanish), Universal Kids, the streaming service Peacock and ownership stakes in Snap and Vox Media. Via its Universal Destinations & Experiences division, NBCUniversal is also the third-largest operator of amusement parks in the world.[6] Since 2018, its sister company under Comcast's control, Sky Group Limited, holds its media and telecommunication assets.

NBCUniversal was formed on May 11, 2004, beginning on November 8, 2004 as NBC Universal, Inc., with the merger of General Electric (GE)'s NBC with Vivendi Universal's film and television subsidiary Vivendi Universal Entertainment, after GE had acquired 80% of the subsidiary, giving Vivendi a 20% share of the new company.[7][8] In 2011, Comcast attained 51% and thereby the control of newly reformed NBCUniversal, by purchasing shares from GE, while GE bought out Vivendi. Since 2013, the company has been a wholly owned subsidiary of Comcast, which bought GE's ownership stake.[9]


Early history

NBC and Universal Television had a partnership dating back to 1950, when Universal Television's earliest ancestor, Revue Studios, produced a number of shows for NBC, although Revue would have hits on other networks as well. This partnership continued throughout a number of name changes and changes of ownership.


NBC Universal Television has its modern roots in a series of expansions undertaken by NBC. In the late 1980s, NBC began pursuing a strategy of diversification, including the formation of two NBC-owned cable-television networks: CNBC and America's Talking. NBC also had partial ownership of several regional sports channels and other cable channels such as American Movie Classics and Court TV (until 2007).

In 1995, NBC began operating NBC Desktop Video, a financial news service that delivered live video to personal computers. The following year, NBC announced an agreement with Microsoft to create an all-news cable television channel, MSNBC (using its subscriber base from America's Talking network). A separate joint venture with Microsoft included establishing a news website, MSNBC.com (now NBCNews.com).[10]

In 1998, NBC partnered with Dow Jones & Co.[11] The two companies combined their financial news channels outside the United States. The new networks included NBC Europe, CNBC Europe, NBC Asia, CNBC Asia, NBC Africa, and CNBC Africa.

In 1999, NBC took a 32% stake in the Paxson group, operator of PAX TV. Five years later, NBC decided to sell its interest in PAX TV and end its relationship with PAX owner, Paxson Communications.[12]

In 2001, NBC acquired the US Spanish-language broadcaster Telemundo, that includes the bilingual Mun2 Television for $1.98 billion.[13] That same year NBC acquired the cable channel Bravo.

Combining with Universal

NBC Universal logo from 2004-2011

In 2004, amid a major financial crisis caused by over-expansion, Universal Studios' parent company, Vivendi Universal Entertainment (a division of the French company Vivendi Universal, now Vivendi), decided to sell an 80% stake to NBC's parent company, General Electric (GE). The sale and resulting merger formed NBC Universal. The new company was 80% owned by GE, and 20% owned by Vivendi.[7] The joint venture encompassed Vivendi's US film interests (such as Universal Studios), NBC Universal Television Studio, NBC Universal Television Distribution, production and distribution units, Universal Studios Home Video, Universal Studios Consumer Products Group, Back Lot Music (formerly NBC Records), as well as five theme parks, cable television channels including USA Network, Sci-Fi Channel, the defunct Trio, Cloo (formerly Sleuth) as well as 50% stakes in Canal+ and StudioCanal. Universal Music Group was not included in the deal and is not part of NBC Universal.[14]

On August 2, 2004, the television divisions of NBC and Universal Television were combined to form NBC Universal Television. NBC Studios series brought into the company include the NBC dramas Las Vegas (with DreamWorks Television), Crossing Jordan, and American Dreams. Universal Network Television brought the Law & Order franchise and The District—in fact, Universal Network Television had co-produced American Dreams with NBC before the merger. Universal Television Distribution shows also brought into company include Jerry Springer and Maury. Entertainment shows produced by the new group include The Tonight Show with Jay Leno, Late Night with Jimmy Fallon, Last Call with Carson Daly, and Saturday Night Live.

The formation of NBC Universal saw the establishment of NBC Universal Cable, which oversees the distribution, marketing, and advertisement sales for thirteen channels (Bravo, Bravo HD+ (eventually renamed Universal HD), Chiller, CNBC, CNBC World, MSNBC, NBC Universo, Syfy, ShopNBC (which became ShopHQ after NBCUniversal sold its stake in the network), Telemundo, Cloo, USA Network, and the Olympic Games on cable). NBC Universal Cable also manages the company's investments in The Weather Channel and TiVo. The cable division also used to operate NBC Weather Plus until 2008. It also owned a 50% stake in Canal+ and also owned a 15% stake in A+E Networks until 2012.[15]

Global expansion

NBC Universal Chicago headquarters (NBC Tower)

In the early 1990s, NBC began its expansion throughout Europe by creating CNBC Europe and its long-time successful NBC Europe Superstation by broadcasting NBC Giga throughout Germany and the rest of the European Union. NBC Europe helped to develop the Leipzig-based Games Convention, the largest European video game exposition with more than 100,000 visitors each year.

In 2005, NBC Universal joined HANA, the High-Definition Audio-Video Network Alliance to help establish standards in consumer electronics interoperability. Later that year, NBC Universal announced a partnership with Apple Computer to offer shows from all the NBC Universal TV networks on Apple's iTunes Store.[16]

In January 2006, NBC Universal launched a new cable channel, Sleuth. The channel's programming dedicated to mystery/crime genre. Sleuth Network's initial slogan was "Mystery. Crime. All The Time." In early 2008, the channel unveiled a new slogan, "Get Clued In." On August 15, 2011, Sleuth rebranded as Cloo, in order to be able to trademark and own the name, as NBCUniversal cannot so with the name Clue (as Hasbro owns the rights to it with their board game Clue). NBCUniversal also explained that another reason for the name change was the word "Sleuth" is too common for search engines (a Google search brings up over 9,530,000 results).[17][18]

One year later after Sleuth's debut, NBC Universal announced that the company would launch a horror-themed cable channel, Chiller, on March 1, 2007. At launch Chiller would be available exclusively on DirecTV. The network would feature films like Psycho and The Shining and TV series that include Twin Peaks, Alfred Hitchcock Presents, Freddy's Nightmares, Friday the 13th: The Series, War of the Worlds and Tales from the Crypt. NBC Universal also stated that, aside from the content in their own vaults, Chiller will feature content from other studios as well. In 2009, Chiller unveiled a new slogan, "scary good". This replaced the channel's previous slogan "Dare To Watch".

On June 14, 2007, NBC Universal Television Studio was renamed Universal Media Studios. The company explained that the reason for the name change was because "the new name fully describes the company's mission to be the premier content provider for television and digital platforms, spanning all television dayparts and creative genres."[19]

In August 2007, NBC Universal purchased Sparrowhawk Media Group and renamed it NBC Universal Global Networks.[20] This acquisition gave NBC Universal all Hallmark channels outside the United States, plus the English channels Diva TV, Movies 24, Hallmark Channel and KidsCo.[21] Later that fall, the company also acquired the Oxygen network in a separate $925 million deal.[22] The sale was completed one month later.

In the summer of 2008, NBC Universal, Blackstone Group and Bain Capital announced their intentions to buy The Weather Channel from Landmark Communications. The deal closed on September 12, 2008.[23] Shortly after the acquisition completed, NBC announced that their existing TV weather network, NBC Weather Plus, would be shut down by December 31, 2008.

In July 2008, Universal Cable Productions split off from Universal Media Studios and moved into NBCUniversal's NBCU Cable Entertainment division.[24]

The summer of 2008 marked NBC Universal's first venture into the United Kingdom by acquiring English television production company Carnival Films.[25]

On November 12, 2008, NBC Universal acquired 80.1% of Geneon Entertainment from Dentsu in Japan, merging it with Universal Pictures International Entertainment to form a new company,[26] Geneon Universal Entertainment Japan.[27]

On March 16, 2009, NBC Universal-owned cable channel Sci Fi announced that it would be changing its name to Syfy, replacing a generic term with a proprietary brand name that was able to be trademarked.[28] The re-branding and name change took place on July 7, 2009.[28][29]

On August 27, 2009, A&E Television Networks (A&E) merged with Lifetime Entertainment Services (Lifetime),[30][31] giving NBC Universal an equal share of both Lifetime and A&E with The Walt Disney Company and Hearst.

On October 20, 2010, NBC Universal-owned horror/suspense-themed cable channel Chiller announced a major rebranding campaign incorporating a new logo and on-air look that launched on Wednesday, October 27, 2010.[32][33] Syfy and Chiller President Dave Howe said, "We have very ambitious plans to grow this network as a brand."[32][33]

Comcast era (2011–present)

10 Universal City Plaza (in Los Angeles County) in 2015 after Comcast acquired GE's remaining stake in NBCUniversal. Notice the wording on the top of the building changed. The Comcast headquarters can be seen at Universal Studios Hollywood.
Alternate logo used from 2013 to 2024 to promote Comcast's ownership of NBCU.

On December 3, 2009, after months of rumors, a deal was formally announced in which Comcast would buy a stake in NBC Universal from GE for $6.5 billion after the spin-off of certain businesses, pending regulatory approval.[34] Under the agreement, NBC Universal would be controlled with a 51% stake by Comcast and GE would retain the remaining 49%. The deal includes a provision under which Comcast must contribute $7.5 billion in programming including regional sports networks and cable channels such as Golf Channel, Versus, PBS Kids Sprout and E! Entertainment Television. GE used some of the funds, $5.8 billion, to buy out Vivendi's 20% minority stake in NBC Universal.[34] Under the terms of the deal, Comcast reserves the right to buy out GE's share at certain times, and GE reserves the right to force the sale of their stake within the first seven years.[34][35] Vivendi completed the initial transaction on September 27, 2010, selling a $2 billion stake to GE (approximately 7.66%).[36]

U.S. regulators approved the proposed sale on January 18, 2011, with conditions. Comcast would have to give up NBC control over online video site Hulu and ensure NBC Universal programming is available to competing cable operators.[37] The company unveiled a new logo designed by Wolff Olins, which replaced a logo featuring the NBC peacock and an invocation of the Universal Pictures globe, with a wordmark. The company also began to stylize its name in CamelCase as "NBCUniversal" rather than "NBC Universal", to reflect the unity of its two main divisions.[38][39]

On January 26, 2011, Vivendi sold the remaining 20% of NBC Universal to GE, giving GE complete control of the company ahead of the completion of the sale of 51% of the company to Comcast on January 28, 2011.[40] Comcast and GE formed the joint venture holding company NBCUniversal, LLC. NBC Universal, Inc. became a wholly owned subsidiary of the holding company and adopted the name, NBCUniversal Media, LLC, on January 29, 2011.[41]

Comcast had planned to buy out GE's 49% stake over the following seven years, but ownership of NBCUniversal remained split at 51–49% for two years, until the February 12, 2013 announcement that Comcast intended to complete the $16.7 billion purchase early, all at once. The sale was completed on March 19, 2013.[39][42][43]

The corporation on July 19, 2012, formed the NBCUniversal News Group with the NBC News, CNBC, and MSNBC divisions.[44]

In February 2013, NBCUniversal merged its two cable divisions, NBCUniversal Cable Entertainment & Cable Studios and NBCUniversal Entertainment & Digital Networks and Integrated Media, into one unit while moving out Telemundo and Mun2 to a new division, NBCUniversal Hispanic Enterprises and Content. The move also created the corporate-level position of executive vice president in charge of digital ventures.[45] In July, the company placed NBC TV Stations and Telemundo's O&Os stations into a new division, NBCUniversal Owned Television Stations, with New England Cable News being transferred into NBC TV Stations.[46]

On April 28, 2016, NBCUniversal officially announced its intent to acquire DreamWorks Animation for $3.8 billion.[47] Universal Pictures took over the distribution for DreamWorks Animation films after their deal with 20th Century Fox expired. The sale was approved by board members, but was subject to regulatory approval.[48][49] On June 21, 2016, the acquisition was approved by the United States Department of Justice.[50][51] On August 22, 2016, the deal was completed, and DreamWorks Animation is now a wholly owned subsidiary of NBCUniversal.[52] This gave Universal Pictures distribution to both DreamWorks Animation and Illumination films beginning in 2019.

On February 15, 2017, Universal Studios acquired a minority stake in Amblin Partners, strengthening the relationship between Universal and Amblin.[53]

On February 28, 2017, NBCUniversal announced that it would acquire the remaining 49% stake in the Universal Studios Japan theme park that it did not own.[54]

On May 1, 2017, NBCUniversal announced that Sprout would be relaunched as Universal Kids on September 9, 2017. Universal Pictures' acquisition of DreamWorks Animation in 2016 would also be leveraged by Universal Kids to bolster its programming. Industry observers felt that the integration of DreamWorks IP with Universal Kids would help NBCUniversal establish a viable multi-platform competitor to other major children's networks (such as Paramount's Nickelodeon, Warner Bros. Discovery's Cartoon Network, and Disney Channel).[55][56][57][58][59]

On May 10, 2017, NBCUniversal announced that it had acquired Denver-based online platform Craftsy for its Cable Entertainment Group division.[60]

Attempted takeover of 21st Century Fox assets and Comcast's subsequent acquisition of Sky

On November 16, 2017, NBCUniversal's parent company Comcast made a bid to acquire 21st Century Fox's filmed entertainment, cable entertainment, and international assets, ten days after The Walt Disney Company (at the time, owners of rival network ABC, cable sports channel ESPN and theme parks Disneyland and Walt Disney World) was reported to be negotiating with Fox for the same assets. The deal contained key assets such as the 20th Century Fox film and television studios, 30% stake in Hulu, television assets FX Networks, National Geographic Channel, and international television operations such as Star India, while excluding the Fox Broadcasting Company, the Fox News Channel, Fox Television Stations, Fox Business Network, Fox Sports 1 and 2, Fox Deportes, and the Big Ten Network, all of which were spun off into the "New Fox" company (later known as the Fox Corporation) run by the Murdoch family.[61][62]

However, on December 11, 2017, Comcast officially dropped the bid, saying that "We never got the level of engagement needed to make a definitive offer."[63] On December 14, 2017, Disney officially confirmed its acquisition of the most 21st Century Fox assets, which was granted approval from the United States Department of Justice Antitrust Division on June 27, 2018, and approved by stockholders from both companies one month later.[64]

On April 25, 2018, Comcast launched its takeover offer for Sky plc at £12.50 per-share, or approximately £22.1 billion.[65][66] 21st Century Fox owned a significant stake in Sky and was trying to take full control of it itself, ahead of its own acquisition by The Walt Disney Company. NBCUniversal CEO Steve Burke stated that purchasing Sky would roughly double its presence in English-speaking markets, and allow for synergies between the respective networks and studios of NBCUniversal and Sky.[67] On June 5, 2018, Culture Secretary Matt Hancock cleared both 21st Century Fox and Comcast's respective offers to acquire Sky plc. Fox's offer was contingent on the divestiture of Sky News.[68][69] On June 15, 2018, the European Commission gave antitrust clearance to Comcast's offer to purchase Sky, citing that in terms of their current assets in Europe, there would be limited impact on competition. Comcast included a 10-year commitment to the operations and funding of Sky News.[70][71][72] On July 11, 2018, Fox increased its bid for Sky to £14.00 per-share, valuing it at £24.5 billion. Comcast subsequently counterbid just hours later with an offer at £14.75 per-share, valued at £26 billion.[73][74]

On September 20, 2018, the Panel on Takeovers and Mergers ordered that a blind auction be held "in order to provide an orderly framework for the resolution of this competitive situation". In this process, Fox, followed by Comcast, made new cash-only bids for Sky. After these first two rounds of bidding, there would be a third round where both companies could make new offers. However, the third round of bidding would only be binding if both companies make a bid.[75] Comcast won the auction with a bid of £17.28 per-share, beating Fox's bid of £15.67.[76][77] Sky plc had until October 11, 2018, to formally accept this offer.[78]

Following its auction victory, Comcast began to acquire Sky shares from the open market. On September 26, 2018, Fox subsequently announced its intent to sell all of its shares in Sky plc to Comcast for £12 billion.[78][79] On October 4, 2018, Fox completed the sale of their shares, giving Comcast a 76.8% controlling stake at the time.[80] On October 12, 2018, Comcast announced it will compulsorily acquire the rest of Sky after its bid gained acceptances from 95.3% of the broadcaster's shareholders with the company being delisted by early 2019.[81] Sky was delisted on November 7, 2018, after Comcast acquired all remaining shares.[82]

While NBCUniversal and Sky still operate mainly as separate entities within Comcast, following the Sky takeover Comcast has begun the process of integrating some of NBCUniversal's international operations with parts of Sky. Among other moves, NBCUniversal's pay television channels in the United Kingdom will be folded with Sky's, and Sky Deutschland will become the parent company of NBCU's German networks.[83]

Preparation of Peacock streaming service

On January 14, 2019, NBCUniversal announced that it will launch an over-the-top streaming service to compete with Netflix, CBS All Access, Amazon Prime Video, Hulu, Apple TV+, HBO Max, and Disney+.[84] A reorganization of the major direct reporting division was made. Bonnie Hammer was appointed chairman of NBCUniversal Direct-to-Consumer and Digital Enterprises via the streaming services and the Digital Enterprises unit. Her former unit, NBCUniversal Cable Entertainment Group, was given to Mark Lazarus as chairman, NBCUniversal Broadcast, Cable, Sports and News. Universal Filmed Entertainment Group chairman Jeff Shell added NBC Entertainment, Telemundo and international channels as chairman of NBCUniversal Film and Entertainment.[85] On September 17, 2019, NBCUniversal announced the service would be called Peacock and is expected to launch in July 2020.[86]

NBCUniversal Content Studios was formed in October 2019 with Hammer as chairman and George Cheeks as vice chairman, who was co-chairman of NBC Entertainment. This new unit consists of Universal Television and Universal Content Productions. Hammer was replaced as chairman of the Direct-to-Consumer and Digital Enterprises unit by Comcast executive Matt Strauss, while Paul Telegdy would become sole chairman of NBC Entertainment and continue reporting to Shell.[87]

On February 25, 2020, Comcast announced it would purchase Xumo from the Panasonic/Viant joint venture for an undisclosed sum. The acquisition of the service—which will continue to operate as an independent business, albeit within Comcast's cable television division—stems mainly from Xumo's partnerships with smart TV manufacturers (including LG, Panasonic, and Vizio), which would allow Comcast to use Xumo's placement to market or showcase Xfinity and other Comcast services as well as use its technology to develop additional streaming platforms. The company plans to add content from the NBCUniversal programming library and the company's various television networks as well as use it to upsell its free/subscription hybrid service Peacock, akin to ViacomCBS's utilization of Pluto TV to offer content from its cable networks following the former Viacom's purchase of the rival streamer in the Spring of 2019.[88][89][90]

Vudu acquisition

In February 2020, it was reported that Comcast (via NBCUniversal) had entered talks into acquiring Vudu from Walmart.[91] On April 20, 2020, Fandango (owned by NBCUniversal and Warner Bros. Discovery) announced that they would be acquiring Vudu.[92][93] The acquisition was completed on July 6, 2020.[94]


Following Jeff Shell's exit in 2023, NBCUniversal announced that corporate management will be led by a leadership team while Michael J. Cavanagh continues to oversee Comcast as a whole.[95]

See also


  1. ^ "Comcast and GE Complete Transaction to Form NBCUniversal, LLC" (Press release). Comcast Corporation and General Electric Company. January 29, 2011. Archived from the original on February 9, 2011. Retrieved January 29, 2011.
  2. ^ "4Q17 Earnings Release with Tables". Archived from the original on June 24, 2018. Retrieved June 24, 2018.
  3. ^ "Quarterly report for the period ended March 31, 2017". Archived from the original on July 25, 2018. Retrieved July 25, 2018.
  4. ^ James, Meg (April 27, 2017). "NBCUniversal earnings soar, boosted by hit movies and Universal Studios crowds". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on August 26, 2018. Retrieved August 15, 2018.
  5. ^ "NBC Universal to sell Burbank, Calif, studio". MarketWatch. October 11, 2007. Archived from the original on June 8, 2011. Retrieved August 28, 2009.
  6. ^ "TEA/AECOM 2017 Global Attractions Attendance Report" (PDF). May 17, 2018. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 19, 2018. Retrieved April 22, 2019.
  7. ^ a b Levy, Jean-Bernard (May 13, 2004). "Overview of NBC Universal Merger" (PDF). Vivendi Universal. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 18, 2008. Retrieved December 24, 2009.
  8. ^ Keating, Gina (December 3, 2009). "TIMELINE: NBC, Universal through the 20th century and beyond". Reuters. Archived from the original on December 8, 2009. Retrieved December 24, 2009.
  9. ^ Lieberman, David (March 19, 2013). "Comcast Completes Acquisition Of GE's 49% Stake In NBCUniversal". Deadline. Archived from the original on March 27, 2019. Retrieved February 25, 2019.
  10. ^ "Microsoft and NBC Join Forces Again To Deliver Personal Finance Powerhouse on the Web". Stories. April 23, 2001. Archived from the original on April 10, 2021. Retrieved August 28, 2020.
  11. ^ "NBC, Dow jones reveal merger details". Archived from the original on April 24, 2022. Retrieved May 30, 2018.
  12. ^ Carter, Bill (August 23, 2004). "MEDIA; NBC Universal And Paxson: An Odd Dance To a Divorce". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on April 10, 2021. Retrieved February 25, 2019.
  13. ^ James, Meg (October 12, 2001). "NBC to Acquire Telemundo Network for $1.98 Billion". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Archived from the original on November 29, 2016. Retrieved February 25, 2019.
  14. ^ "Company Overview". NBC Universal. Archived from the original on December 27, 2010. Retrieved December 2, 2009.
  15. ^ de la Merced, Michael J. (July 10, 2012). "Comcast to Sell Back Its Stake in A&E for $3 Billion". DealBook. Archived from the original on March 9, 2013. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
  16. ^ Noguchi, Yuki (December 7, 2005). "NBC Universal, iTunes Team On Downloads of TV Shows". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on January 7, 2016. Retrieved April 24, 2013.
  17. ^ Exclusive: Sleuth Gets A New Name: Meet Cloo Archived October 21, 2014, at the Wayback Machine, TV Guide, April 7, 2011
  18. ^ Exclusive: Newly Rebranded Cloo TV Picks Up First Original Series Archived October 21, 2014, at the Wayback Machine TV Guide July 15, 2011
  19. ^ "NBC Universal Re-Names NBC Universal Television Studio as Universal Media Studios" (Press release). NBC Universal. June 14, 2007. Retrieved December 2, 2009.
  20. ^ "NBCUniversal | History, Acquisitions, & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved August 11, 2017.
  21. ^ Eric Pfanner (August 28, 2007). "NBC Universal buys 19 Hallmark channels outside the U.S." International Herald Tribune. Archived from the original on August 31, 2007. Retrieved December 2, 2009.
  22. ^ Michael Learmonth (October 10, 2007). "NBC U Sucks in Oxygen". Daily Variety. p. 1.
  23. ^ Seth sutel (July 7, 2008). "NBC Universal to buy The Weather Channel for $3.5B". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on August 3, 2008. Retrieved December 2, 2009.
  24. ^ Lafayette, Jon (July 20, 2008). "NBC Taps Cable-Studio Bosses". TV Week.com. Archived from the original on March 23, 2012. Retrieved August 15, 2012.
  25. ^ Conlan, Tara (August 20, 2008). "NBC Universal buy Carnival". The Guardian. London: Guardian News and Media. Archived from the original on September 2, 2013. Retrieved August 20, 2008.
  26. ^ "Geneon to Merge with Universal Pictures Japan". Anime News Network. November 12, 2008. Archived from the original on June 5, 2019. Retrieved November 13, 2008.
  27. ^ "Geneon Universal Entertainment Japan Official Website" (in Japanese). Archived from the original on May 21, 2013. Retrieved February 22, 2009.
  28. ^ a b Elliott, Stuart (March 15, 2009). "Sci Fi Channel Has a New Name: Now, It's Syfy". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on February 15, 2017. Retrieved February 25, 2019.
  29. ^ Syfy: Not Your Father's Sci-Fi Archived March 1, 2014, at the Wayback Machine, Fortune, July 7, 2009
  30. ^ A&E Acquires Lifetime Archived November 2, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, Variety.com, August 27, 2009
  31. ^ A&E Networks, Lifetime Merger Completed Archived July 29, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, Broadcasting & Cable, August 27, 2009
  32. ^ a b Marc Graser. "Chiller takes a chill pill". Variety. Archived from the original on October 23, 2010. Retrieved April 17, 2020.
  33. ^ a b Chiller Announces Major Redesign Archived October 23, 2010, at the Wayback Machine, TV By the Numbers, October 20, 2010
  34. ^ a b c Wilkerson, David B.; Steven Goldstein (December 3, 2009). "Comcast scores controlling stake in NBC Universal". MarketWatch. Archived from the original on April 6, 2015. Retrieved December 3, 2009.
  35. ^ "Vivendi to Sell 20% Stake in NBCU to GE for $5.8 Bln". The Wall Street Journal. December 3, 2009. [dead link]
  36. ^ "Vivendi Sells $2 billion NBC Universal Stake to GE". CNBC. September 27, 2010. Archived from the original on November 6, 2015.
  37. ^ Thomasch, Paul (January 18, 2011). "UPDATE 2-U.S. regulators approve Comcast-NBCU deal". Reuters. Archived from the original on September 24, 2020. Retrieved May 8, 2016.
  38. ^ Stelter, Brian (January 27, 2011). "Lost in the Comcast Takeover? A Logo's Peacock". Media Decoder Blog. The New York Times Company. Archived from the original on March 16, 2021. Retrieved February 25, 2019.
  39. ^ a b Nakashima, Ryan (February 12, 2013). "Comcast to buy GE's 49 pct stake in NBCUniversal". MSN. Associated Press. Archived from the original on February 16, 2013. Retrieved February 12, 2013.
  40. ^ Colchester, Max (January 27, 2011). "Vivendi Wraps Up Sale of NBC Universal Stake". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Archived from the original on April 10, 2021. Retrieved February 25, 2019.
  41. ^ 8-K filed on 01/31/2011 General Electric Company
  42. ^ Chozick, Amy; Stelter, Brian (February 12, 2013). "Comcast Buys Rest of NBC in Early Sale". Media Decoder Blog. The New York Times Company. Archived from the original on April 26, 2021. Retrieved February 25, 2019.
  43. ^ (2013-03-19) [1] Archived July 7, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. Deadline, "Comcast Completes Acquisition Of GE's 49% Stake In NBCUniversal". Retrieved on March 19, 2013.
  44. ^ "New York Deadline" Pat Fili-Krushel To Oversee NBCUniversal News Group Archived April 19, 2014, at the Wayback Machine deadline.com, Retrieved on July 23, 2012
  45. ^ James, Meg (February 4, 2013). "Bonnie Hammer to lead NBCUniversal cable entertainment channels". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Archived from the original on March 6, 2016. Retrieved February 25, 2019.
  46. ^ "NBC's Owned Stations Reorganize". Broadcasting & Cable. NewBay Media LLC. Retrieved August 5, 2013.
  47. ^ James, Meg (April 28, 2016). "Comcast's NBCUniversal buys DreamWorks Animation in $3.8-billion deal". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on November 29, 2019. Retrieved April 28, 2016.
  48. ^ Fung, Brian (April 28, 2016). "Comcast is buying Dreamworks in a $3.8 billion acquisition". Washington Post. Archived from the original on April 29, 2016. Retrieved May 1, 2016.
  49. ^ D'Alessandro, Anthony (April 29, 2016). "How A DreamWorks-Illumination Combo Beats Disney At The B.O." Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on May 2, 2016. Retrieved May 2, 2016.
  50. ^ Lieberman, David (June 21, 2016). "Antitrust Officials Clear Comcast's $3.8B DreamWorks Animation Acquisition". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on June 22, 2016. Retrieved June 23, 2016.
  51. ^ Boorstin, Julia (July 7, 2016). "NBCUniversal's Ron Meyer: Here's why we bought Dreamworks Animation". CNBC. NBCUniversal. Archived from the original on August 4, 2017. Retrieved September 10, 2017.
  52. ^ McNary, Dave (August 22, 2016). "Comcast Completes $3.8 Billion Purchase of DreamWorks Animation". Variety. Archived from the original on October 24, 2016. Retrieved December 11, 2017.
  53. ^ Perry, Spencer (February 15, 2017). "Universal Studios Buys a Minority Stake in Amblin Partners". Comingsoon.net. Archived from the original on February 20, 2017. Retrieved February 20, 2017.
  54. ^ Jamerson, Joshua (February 28, 2017). "Comcast to Buy Remaining Stake in Universal Studios Japan for $2.3 Billion". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Archived from the original on April 10, 2021. Retrieved February 25, 2019.
  55. ^ Steinberg, Brian (May 1, 2017). "NBCU's Sprout Grows Up: Universal Kids to Debut in September". Variety. Archived from the original on December 11, 2017. Retrieved May 8, 2017.
  56. ^ Getzler, Wendy (May 1, 2017). "A new age: Sprout to become Universal Kids". Kidscreen. Archived from the original on May 1, 2017. Retrieved May 1, 2017.
  57. ^ Barnes, Brooks (April 30, 2017). "NBCUniversal Is Building Its Own Children's Channel". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on April 10, 2021. Retrieved February 25, 2019.
  58. ^ "NBCU EVP Duccio Donati Takes on DreamWorks Channel". Animation Magazine. August 3, 2017. Archived from the original on August 4, 2017. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
  59. ^ "Duccio Donati tapped for new kids role at NBCUniversal". Kidscreen. August 4, 2017. Archived from the original on August 4, 2017. Retrieved September 3, 2017.
  60. ^ Littleton, Cynthia (May 10, 2017). "NBCUniversal Acquires Majority Stake in Craftsy Digital Network". Variety. Archived from the original on July 4, 2017. Retrieved May 23, 2017.
  61. ^ Chmielewski, Dawn C.; Hayes, Dade (November 16, 2017). "Comcast-Fox Deal Talks Latest Entry Into Media Merger Mania". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on June 28, 2018. Retrieved November 28, 2017.
  62. ^ Bond, James (November 17, 2017). "Sony Also Inquiring About 21st Century Fox Assets". The Hollywood Reporter. Eldridge Industries. Archived from the original on November 18, 2017. Retrieved November 17, 2017.
  63. ^ Reuter Staff, Reuter Staff (December 11, 2017). "Comcast drops bid for Fox assets, leaving Disney in pole position". Reuters. Archived from the original on November 9, 2020. Retrieved December 11, 2017.
  64. ^ Riley, Charles and Hadas Gold. "Disney is buying most of 21st Century Fox for $52.4 billion". CNNMoney. Archived from the original on January 21, 2018. Retrieved December 14, 2017.
  65. ^ "Murdoch bid for Sky challenged by US giant". BBC News. February 27, 2018. Archived from the original on February 27, 2018. Retrieved February 27, 2018.
  66. ^ Wilson, Bill (April 25, 2018). "Comcast starts £22bn bidding war for Sky". BBC News. Archived from the original on April 25, 2018. Retrieved April 25, 2018.
  67. ^ White, Peter (February 27, 2018). "NBCU's Steve Burke Claims Comcast's $31B Sky Deal Will Boost Scripted TV & Film Fortunes, Fox Notes No "Firm Offer" Was Made; 21st Century Fox Reacts – Update". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on February 27, 2018. Retrieved February 27, 2018.
  68. ^ "Sky bid battle looms after government nod". BBC News. June 5, 2018. Archived from the original on June 6, 2018. Retrieved June 5, 2018.
  69. ^ Szalai, Georg. "U.K. Approves Fox's Sky Bid, Subject to Sale of Sky News, and Clears Comcast Offer". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on June 6, 2018. Retrieved June 5, 2018.
  70. ^ Woo, Stu (June 15, 2018). "Comcast Clears EU Hurdle in $29 Billion Bid for Sky". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Archived from the original on June 18, 2018. Retrieved June 18, 2018.(subscription required)
  71. ^ "Comcast Clears EU Antitrust Hurdle for Sky Ahead of Disney Fight". Bloomberg.com. June 15, 2018. Archived from the original on June 18, 2018. Retrieved June 18, 2018.(subscription required)
  72. ^ "EU Clears Comcast's Bid for Sky". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on June 16, 2018. Retrieved June 18, 2018.
  73. ^ "Murdoch's Fox increases Sky bid". BBC News. July 11, 2018. Archived from the original on July 11, 2018. Retrieved July 11, 2018.
  74. ^ Clarke, Stewart (July 13, 2018). "U.K. Takeover Body Hikes Price Disney Would Need to Offer for Sky". Variety. Archived from the original on July 13, 2018. Retrieved July 13, 2018.
  75. ^ Waterson, Jim (September 20, 2018). "Sky takeover battle must go to auction, orders regulator". the Guardian. Archived from the original on September 20, 2018. Retrieved September 20, 2018.
  76. ^ Clark, Kate (September 22, 2018). "Comcast outbids Fox in $40B battle for Sky". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on September 22, 2018. Retrieved September 22, 2018.
  77. ^ "Sky: Comcast outbids Fox with £30bn bid for broadcaster". BBC News. September 22, 2018. Archived from the original on September 22, 2018. Retrieved September 22, 2018.
  78. ^ a b Clarke, Stewart (September 25, 2018). "Comcast Buys Over 30% of Sky on Open Market, Seeks More Before Takeover Deadline". Variety. Archived from the original on September 27, 2018. Retrieved September 27, 2018.
  79. ^ Waterson, Jim (September 26, 2018). "Rupert Murdoch's Sky reign to end as Fox sells all shares to Comcast". The Guardian. Archived from the original on November 17, 2020. Retrieved September 27, 2018.
  80. ^ Clarke, Stewart (October 9, 2018). "Comcast Closes Deal for Fox's Sky Stake, Owns Over 75% of European Pay-TV Giant". Variety. Archived from the original on October 11, 2018. Retrieved October 11, 2018.
  81. ^ "Comcast to buy remaining Sky shares after bid gets 95% acceptance". Stock Market Wire. October 12, 2018. Archived from the original on October 14, 2018. Retrieved October 15, 2018.
  82. ^ "Recommended mandatory superior cash offer for Sky: Compulsory acquisition of Sky shares". Comcast. October 12, 2018. Archived from the original on April 1, 2022. Retrieved August 27, 2019.
  83. ^ Keslassy, Elsa; Clarke, Stewart (April 5, 2019). "Merger of Sky, NBCU Operations Begins Post-Comcast Takeover". Variety. Archived from the original on April 10, 2021. Retrieved August 27, 2019.
  84. ^ Steinberg, Brian; Littleton, Cynthia (January 15, 2019). "What We Know About NBCUniversal's Future Streaming Service". Variety. Archived from the original on January 15, 2019. Retrieved January 15, 2019.
  85. ^ Steinberg, Brian (January 14, 2019). "NBCUniversal Shakeup: Mark Lazarus, Jeff Shell and Bonnie Hammer Promoted, Streaming Service to Launch in 2020 (EXCLUSIVE)". Variety. Archived from the original on January 14, 2019. Retrieved January 15, 2019.
  86. ^ Andreeva, Nellie (September 17, 2019). "NBCU Streamer Gets Name, Sets Slate Of Reboots, 'Dr. Death', Ed Helms & Amber Ruffin Series, 'Parks & Rec'". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on September 17, 2019. Retrieved September 17, 2019.
  87. ^ Littleton, Cynthia; Low, Elaine (October 7, 2019). "NBCUniversal Shakeup: Bonnie Hammer to Head Studios, Paul Telegdy Goes Solo at NBC". Variety. Archived from the original on October 7, 2019. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
  88. ^ Jon Lafayette (February 25, 2020). "Comcast Buys Ad-Supported Streaming Service Xumo". Broadcasting & Cable. Future US. Archived from the original on February 29, 2020. Retrieved April 21, 2020.
  89. ^ Alex Sherman (February 25, 2020). "Why Comcast agreed to buy Xumo, an ad-supported free streaming service". CNBC. NBCUniversal News Group. Archived from the original on February 24, 2021. Retrieved April 21, 2020.
  90. ^ Todd Spangler (February 25, 2020). "Comcast Acquires Xumo Free-Streaming Video Service". Variety. Penske Media Corporation. Archived from the original on April 10, 2021. Retrieved April 21, 2020.
  91. ^ Goldsmith, Jill (February 21, 2020). "Comcast In Talks To Buy Walmart's Streaming Service Vudu". Deadline. Archived from the original on February 23, 2020. Retrieved February 27, 2020.
  92. ^ Alexander, Julia (April 20, 2020). "Fandango just purchased Vudu from Walmart to better compete against Amazon, iTunes". The Verge. Archived from the original on April 21, 2020. Retrieved April 20, 2020.
  93. ^ "NBCU's Fandango Ticketing Service Buys Walmart-Owned Vudu". www.adweek.com. April 20, 2020. Archived from the original on December 13, 2020. Retrieved April 21, 2020.
  94. ^ Lipman, Ashley (July 6, 2020). "Vudu is Now Officially Part of the Fandango Family". Xanjero. Archived from the original on July 8, 2020. Retrieved August 28, 2020.
  95. ^ Weprin, Alex (July 6, 2023). "NBCUniversal Shake-Up: Donna Langley, Mark Lazarus, Cesar Conde Upped; Susan Rovner Out". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved July 9, 2023.

External links