NFL International Series

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The NFL International Series logo used for 2016; the year is updated annually, with the new NFL Shield being used for the first time in 2009. In 2015 an alternative black and gold version of the logo was also used.
Opening ceremony at Wembley before the Denver vs. San Francisco 2010 game

Since the 2007 season, the National Football League (NFL) has hosted regular season American football games outside of the United States every year in a series known as the NFL International Series.

Initially, all of the games in the International Series were held in London, England. Wembley Stadium was the exclusive home stadium for International Series games from 2007 to 2015 and will continue to host NFL games through at least 2020; beginning in 2016, the series began expanding to more stadia, first to Twickenham Stadium, London (2016–18) and to Estadio Azteca, Mexico City, Mexico (2016–) and will eventually expand to the still under construction new stadium at Northumberland Park also in London (2018–27).[1][2]

Background[edit]

Prior to 2005, the NFL's primary method of promoting its game abroad was through the American Bowl, a series of preseason games played around the world, and NFL Europe, a developmental league based in Europe. The American Bowls ended in 2005 (though a similar China Bowl was planned for 2007 before being cancelled), while NFL Europa (as it was known for its final season) folded in 2007. On October 2, 2005, the Arizona Cardinals defeated the San Francisco 49ers by a score of 31–14 at Estadio Azteca in Mexico City, Mexico under the name NFL Fútbol Americano. It was the first regular season NFL game held outside of the United States.[3] The game drew the NFL's highest game attendance at the time with 103,467 spectators.[3][4]

Roger Goodell, the commissioner of the National Football League, has considered expanding the league's appeal overseas ever since the end of NFL Europa. Goodell has openly discussed the idea of holding a future Super Bowl game in London.[3] The NFL also investigated the possibility of adding a 17th regular season game to all teams, taking the place of the fourth pre-season game.[5] Waller notes that there will not be 16 different venues for the 17th games. More likely would be a "mini-season ticket" of perhaps four games in one city or country.[5] There was discussion that this "17th game" could take effect as early as the 2009 NFL season; however, 2010 would be the earliest this could be implemented because of concerns about playing on Labor Day or over the 2010 Winter Olympics, the league's rigid scheduling formula, and the league's collective bargaining agreement (CBA).[5] League officials were pondering moving a second existing game abroad for the 2010 season, but eventually abandoned it due to the ongoing CBA negotiations.[6] The league eventually abandoned their desire to expand the NFL season in the CBA negotiations, and the new CBA enacted in 2011 keeps the NFL schedule at 16 games.

Games in the United Kingdom are broadcast by the BBC and Sky Sports either live on BBC2 or online via the BBC Sports website and interactive TV and on Sky Sports 3. On radio, the games are broadcast by BBC Radio 5 Live Sports Extra, with Arlo White commentating.

The games have been popular, with tickets for the two games per season selling out in two days, nine months in advance. According to the NFL, only 3% of those attending the London games are Americans or American expatriates, while 22% are from London and 60% from elsewhere in Britain. Ticket prices are from £35 for end zone seats to £100 for lower sideline seats.[7] A team that plays a home game in London sells a cheaper season ticket package for its own stadium with seven regular season games rather than the usual eight. Each designated home team receives US$1 million for giving up the home game.[8]

On October 11, 2011, the NFL owners approved playing NFL games in Great Britain through the year 2016. This stated that a home team could visit every year for up to five years but visitors could only visit once every five years.[9] This would mean that under the current agreement, San Francisco, New England, Pittsburgh, Dallas, Miami and Detroit would not be able to return as visitors but may return as the home team. However, in 2015 the Detroit Lions will return to London as visitors in an apparent disregard for this rule.

The Buffalo Bills received a unanimous vote of approval to play a series of regular and preseason games at Rogers Centre in Toronto from 2008 to 2017,[10][11] This was separate from the regular International Series as arrangements are made by the team as opposed to the league as with the International Series. The Bills' Toronto Series was mutually terminated after the 2013 contest.

Due to significant time zone differences, from 2007–2015 teams playing in London would have their bye week in the following week after their game in London. For 2016, the Indianapolis Colts volunteered to play immediately after their London game, preferring to have their bye week later in the season. The Colts playing the week after London was also done by the NFL as a test to see team fatigue for evaluation of an eventual London franchise.[12] As Mexico City is within the Central Time Zone—eight NFL teams play home games in Central Time and the rest are within two hours of it—no bye week would be needed for those teams, though they may still by chance be scheduled their regular bye week anyway.

Due to NFL rules, teams that are playing in temporary homes are required to play a home game in London. The Los Angeles Rams, upon relocating from St. Louis, agreed to host an international game from 2016–2019, while their new stadium is being built. The Los Angeles Chargers, who are also sharing the stadium with the Rams, will also be required to host an International Series game in 2018 and 2019, only getting out of the 2017 game because the team had executed its out clause to move from San Diego after the 2017 International Series games had been announced.[13] The rule wasn't in affect when the Minnesota Vikings were playing at TCF Bank Stadium while U.S. Bank Stadium was being built, although the team did give up a home game while they were still playing in the Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome. The rule also leads to the possibility that the Oakland Raiders will host a game in 2019 due to their pending move to Las Vegas in 2020 if the team is unable to play a lame duck season at the Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum.

Early years: 2007–2011[edit]

2007 NFL International Series.svg

The Miami Dolphins hosted the New York Giants at Wembley Stadium in London, England on October 28, 2007. The Giants defeated the Dolphins 13–10 in the first regular season NFL game held outside of North America. The first 40,000 tickets sold out for the game in the first 90 minutes of sales.[3][14] The game was aired regionally on Fox.

A single game was held in London each year through 2011. Like the 2007 game, each was televised nationally in England, but only regionally in the United States.

Multi-year deals: 2012–2015[edit]

On January 20, 2012, NFL commissioner Roger Goodell confirmed that from 2012 to 2014, the St. Louis Rams would play one of their eight home games each year at Wembley Stadium.[15] However, on August 13, 2012, the team announced that they would not play the proposed games in London in 2013 and 2014, only the 2012 game against the New England Patriots that had already been scheduled.[16] Goodell had previously proposed the use of certain regular teams in the International Series in an effort to build a fan base for those teams, raising the prospect of a permanent NFL team on the British Isles.

An NFL bid to become anchor tenants of London's Olympic Stadium failed.[17]

The Jacksonville Jaguars took the Rams' place and agreed to play a home game in London for four seasons from 2013 through 2016. With this announcement also came news that the NFL were working to schedule a second UK game from 2013 onwards.[18] (The Jaguars later extended their agreement with Wembley Stadium through 2020 in an agreement announced in October 2015.)[2] In October 2012, it was announced that the Jaguars would host the San Francisco 49ers and the Minnesota Vikings would host the Pittsburgh Steelers, marking the first season with multiple games in London.

NFL International Series Game Dallas Cowboys vs Jacksonville Jaguars (November 9, 2014). Wembley Stadium, London, UK

The NFL played three international games for the 2014 season, including one game with an earlier 9:30 am ET start, which allowed for an afternoon game, rather than an evening game, in London. This timeslot proved to be successful as all London games in 2015 and 2016 were also scheduled at 9:30 am ET. Three games were again scheduled in 2015 - including the series' first division game between the New York Jets and the Miami Dolphins.

Long-term deals and new stadiums: 2016–present[edit]

Between 2018 and 2027, at least two games each year will be played at Tottenham Hotspur's new stadium in Northumberland Park as part of an agreement between the NFL and Tottenham Hotspur. On October 7, 2015, the league announced that a resolution had been passed to schedule international games at additional locations to London until 2025.[19] On October 22, 2015 it was confirmed that at least two games per year will remain at Wembley until through least 2020 and that the Jacksonville Jaguars will continue to play a home game there annually throughout the agreement.[20] Subsequent to this, on November 3, 2015, the NFL announced that it had reached an agreement with England's Rugby Football Union to host regular season games at Twickenham Stadium from 2016 onwards, with a minimum of three, and as many as five games to be held over the initial agreement period of three years.[21]

In 2016, the Oakland Raiders hosted the Houston Texans on November 21 at Estadio Azteca in Mexico City, at the first International Series game played in Mexico. Previously, the Houston Texans and Pittsburgh Steelers had expressed interest in playing a game at Estadio Azteca (or possibly Estadio Olímpico Universitario) in Mexico City although Houston was not prepared to give up a home fixture.[22][23] It was televised as part of ESPN's Monday Night Football, marking the first MNF game broadcast from outside of the United States, and ESPN's second broadcast from Mexico City since the 2005 Fútbol Americano game (which was televised as part of ESPN's former incarnation of Sunday Night Football).[24][25]

The 2016 game between the Redskins and the Bengals was the first International Series game to go into overtime, the first to end as a tie and had the highest attendance of all International Series games to date.

In 2017, four games will be played in London, along with another game in Mexico City.

Game history[edit]

Year Date Designated Visitors Score Designated Home Score Stadium City Attendance Pre-game show Television
2007 October 28 New York Giants 13 Miami Dolphins 10 Wembley Stadium United Kingdom London 81,176 The Feeling[26] Fox
2008 October 26 San Diego Chargers 32 New Orleans Saints 37 Wembley Stadium United Kingdom London 83,226 Stereophonics[26] CBS
2009 October 25 New England Patriots 35 Tampa Bay Buccaneers 7 Wembley Stadium United Kingdom London 84,254 Calvin Harris[26] CBS
2010 October 31 Denver Broncos 16 San Francisco 49ers 24 Wembley Stadium United Kingdom London 83,941 My Chemical Romance[26] CBS
2011 October 23 Chicago Bears 24 Tampa Bay Buccaneers 18 Wembley Stadium United Kingdom London 76,981 Goo Goo Dolls[26] Fox
2012 October 28 New England Patriots 45 St. Louis Rams 7 Wembley Stadium United Kingdom London 84,004 Train[27] CBS
2013 September 29 Pittsburgh Steelers 27 Minnesota Vikings 34 Wembley Stadium United Kingdom London 83,518 Tinie Tempah[28] CBS
October 27 San Francisco 49ers 42 Jacksonville Jaguars 10 Wembley Stadium United Kingdom London 83,559 Ne-Yo[29] Fox
2014 September 28[30] Miami Dolphins 38 Oakland Raiders 14 Wembley Stadium United Kingdom London 83,436 Def Leppard[31] CBS
October 26[30] Detroit Lions 22 Atlanta Falcons 21 Wembley Stadium United Kingdom London 83,532 Little Mix[32] Fox
November 9[30] Dallas Cowboys 31 Jacksonville Jaguars 17 Wembley Stadium United Kingdom London 83,603 Joss Stone[33] Fox
2015 October 4 New York Jets 27 Miami Dolphins 14 Wembley Stadium United Kingdom London 83,986 None CBS
October 25 Buffalo Bills 31 Jacksonville Jaguars 34 Wembley Stadium United Kingdom London 84,021 The Ohio State University Marching Band[34] Yahoo![35][36][A]
November 1 Detroit Lions 10 Kansas City Chiefs 45 Wembley Stadium United Kingdom London 83,624 Madness[37] Fox[38]
2016 October 2 Indianapolis Colts 27 Jacksonville Jaguars 30 Wembley Stadium United Kingdom London 83,798 Robin Thicke CBS
October 23 New York Giants 17 Los Angeles Rams 10 Twickenham Stadium United Kingdom London 74,121 Craig David[39] NFLN[B]
October 30 Washington Redskins 27 Cincinnati Bengals 27 Wembley Stadium United Kingdom London 84,448 Wessex Male Choir & US Army Europe band Fox
November 21 Houston Texans 20 Oakland Raiders 27 Estadio Azteca Mexico Mexico City 76,473 None ESPN[C]
2017 September 24 Baltimore Ravens Jacksonville Jaguars Wembley Stadium United Kingdom London Verizon
October 1 New Orleans Saints Miami Dolphins Wembley Stadium United Kingdom London Fox
October 22 Arizona Cardinals Los Angeles Rams Twickenham Stadium United Kingdom London Fox
October 29 Minnesota Vikings Cleveland Browns Twickenham Stadium United Kingdom London NFLN
November 19 New England Patriots Oakland Raiders Estadio Azteca Mexico Mexico City CBS

Standings[edit]

Team Appearances W–L–T Pct Most recent appearance
New England Patriots 2 2–0–0 1.000 2012
New York Giants 2 2–0–0 1.000 2016
San Francisco 49ers 2 2–0–0 1.000 2013
Chicago Bears 1 1–0–0 1.000 2011
Dallas Cowboys 1 1–0–0 1.000 2014
Kansas City Chiefs 1 1–0–0 1.000 2015
Minnesota Vikings 1 1–0–0 1.000 2013
New Orleans Saints 1 1–0–0 1.000 2008
New York Jets 1 1–0–0 1.000 2015
Jacksonville Jaguars 4 2–2–0 .500 2016
Detroit Lions 2 1–1–0 .500 2015
Oakland Raiders 2 1–1–0 .500 2016
Cincinnati Bengals 1 0–0–1 .500 2016
Washington Redskins 1 0–0–1 .500 2016
Miami Dolphins 3 1–2–0 .333 2015
Atlanta Falcons 1 0–1–0 .000 2014
Buffalo Bills 1 0–1–0 .000 2015
Denver Broncos 1 0–1–0 .000 2010
Houston Texans 1 0–1–0 .000 2016
Indianapolis Colts 1 0–1–0 .000 2016
Pittsburgh Steelers 1 0–1–0 .000 2013
San Diego/Los Angeles Chargers 1 0–1–0 .000 2008
St. Louis/Los Angeles Rams 2 0–2–0 .000 2016
Tampa Bay Buccaneers 2 0–2–0 .000 2011

Teams with no International Series appearances[edit]

As of the 2016 season, eight of the 32 teams have not played in the International Series: The Arizona Cardinals, Baltimore Ravens, Carolina Panthers, Cleveland Browns, Green Bay Packers, Philadelphia Eagles, Seattle Seahawks and Tennessee Titans. Arizona, Baltimore, and Cleveland will be making their first appearance in 2017. Arizona (in 2005) and Seattle (in 2012) have both played games outside of the United States, but neither were a part of the International Series. The Houston Texans have never played in London, but played an International Series game in Mexico City.

Future[edit]

Possible teams[edit]

Before the Chargers and Saints were announced to be the two teams headed to London in 2008, the Kansas City Chiefs, Tampa Bay Buccaneers and Seattle Seahawks were identified as teams interested in playing a future game in Europe.[40] In particular, Seattle, which had been slated to play the China Bowl before that game was cancelled, had shown a continued interest in playing a game abroad. Tampa Bay eventually got the 2009 and 2011 games, while Kansas City got one of the games in 2015. Both the New York Giants and Miami Dolphins have similarly expressed interest in returning to the UK in a rematch of 2007's international series.[citation needed] There have also been negotiations between the Pittsburgh Steelers (whose owner, Dan Rooney, was the United States Ambassador to Ireland) and Croke Park in Dublin, Republic of Ireland for a potential International Series game there.[41]

The Rams and the Buccaneers are both under co-ownership with teams in the Premier League, the top association football league in England; the Rams are under co-ownership with Arsenal Football Club of London, while the Buccaneers are co-owned with Manchester United. From 2006 until 2012, the Cleveland Browns were also under co-ownership with Aston Villa before Randy Lerner sold the Browns to Jimmy Haslam, and since 2013, Jacksonville Jaguars owner Shahid Khan also owns Fulham F.C., which were at the time in the Premier League, but have since been relegated to the Football League Championship.[42]

As part of their application to relocate to Los Angeles for the 2016 season, the Rams have volunteered to play in the International Series at least once a year while occupying the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum for three seasons until their new stadium in Inglewood, California, opens in 2020.[43]

In 2016, Steelers president Art Rooney II stated that the team may have to give up a home game to play in Mexico City in the future, with the team stating that they would require permission from the Sports & Exhibition Authority of Pittsburgh and Allegheny County to do so, as their lease at Heinz Field explicitly requires the team to play ten home games (8 in the regular season, 2 preseason) at that stadium per season.[44][45]

Future markets[edit]

Within the United Kingdom, aside from London, potential candidates for hosting NFL games include Millennium Stadium in Cardiff, Wales;[46] and Murrayfield in Edinburgh, Scotland.[47] Other prime locations to get games would be Croke Park in the Republic of Ireland (Ireland has already hosted the NCAA Emerald Isle Classic, a college football game similar to the International Series, and Steelers owner Dan Rooney was once an ambassador to the country), Germany (which hosted five teams in NFL Europa at the time of its dissolution in 2007), China[48]; and Canada (Canada hosted the Bills Toronto Series from 2008 to 2013). Mark Waller, NFL senior vice president, international, doubts Asia or Australia would be targeted because of the travel concerns, but he does not dismiss anything.[5] Until 2015 the Jacksonville Jaguars' agreement stipulated that all future International Series games in the current agreement would take place at Wembley, ruling out other locations.[49] The league had plans to have play a game in Germany in 2017. They also had plans to host a game in China in 2018 with the Los Angeles Rams as the home team against the San Francisco 49ers[50]. However, the game in Germany was scrapped in favor of adding a 4th game in London in 2017. The potential game in China was postponed to being aimed for the 2019 season to coincide with the league's 100th anniversary.[51][52]

Potential London team[edit]

The success of the International Series has led the NFL to focus its global expansion aims on the possibility of having a full franchise located in London. While no set timetable has been set, the league is working on a goal of establishing a franchise by around 2021, assuming they have all the necessary arrangements in place. It is believed this would be most likely achieved through relocation of an existing franchise, with the Jaguars most often linked due to their association with the International Series, even though their owners are said to be content with the current arrangement and other franchises have more reason to move (the most often cited being poor on-field performance, lack of fans and uncertainty over stadium leases). The NFL has used some of the specific arrangements for the International Series games as a test bed for predicting how a London franchise could be made effective from a logistical and competitiveness standpoint.[53][54]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Explanatory notes

  1. ^ The game was broadcast on the CBS affiliates in Buffalo (WIVB-TV) and Jacksonville (WJAX-TV). Everywhere else, the broadcast of the game was exclusively live-streamed globally on Yahoo!
  2. ^ The game was broadcast on the CBS owned-and-operated stations in New York City (WCBS-TV) and Los Angeles (KCBS-TV). Outside of those areas, the broadcast of the game aired in the United States on the NFL Network.
  3. ^ The game was simulcast on KGO-TV in the San Francisco Bay Area and KIAH in Houston. Elsewhere, the game was aired on ESPN.

Citations

  1. ^ Wilson, Ryan (July 8, 2015). "NFL, Tottenham Hotspur agree on 10-year partnership for NFL games". CBS Sports. Retrieved July 8, 2015. 
  2. ^ a b "NFL extends deal to play games at Wembley through 2020". Associated Press. October 22, 2015. Retrieved October 22, 2015. 
  3. ^ a b c d Associated Press. NFL commissioner says Super Bowl may someday be held in London ESPN.com, October 15, 2007.
  4. ^ Associated Press. 3 AFC, 3 NFC teams named possible 'hosts' in Europe ESPN.com, January 8, 2007.
  5. ^ a b c d Associated Press. NFL looking closely at expanding to 17 games with international flavor ESPN.com, May 10, 2007.
  6. ^ NFL opts not to hold second game in UK in 2010.
  7. ^ Zimmerman, Brandon (August 28, 2013). "NFL Banking On 'Passion' Of U.K. Fans To Make London Expansion A Success". Sports Business Daily. Retrieved August 28, 2013. 
  8. ^ Kelly, Omar (November 6, 2014). Dolphins will host New York Jets in London in 2015. South Florida Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved November 6, 2014.
  9. ^ "NFL owners OK games in Britain through 2016 - ESPN.com". Espn.go.com. October 11, 2011. Retrieved August 13, 2012. 
  10. ^ Breer, Albert (May 22, 2012). "Five-year extension of Buffalo Bills' Toronto series approved". NFL.com. Retrieved August 27, 2012. 
  11. ^ Associated Press. Bills to play annual regular-season game in Toronto starting next season ESPN.com, February 1, 2008.
  12. ^ http://www.colts.com/news/article-1/Colts-Are-First-NFL-Team-With-No-Bye-Week-Following-Game-In-London/8849e907-dfdd-46c8-bdf1-9584ce1b3479
  13. ^ http://profootballtalk.nbcsports.com/2017/05/19/chargers-rams-both-lose-over-stadium-delay/
  14. ^ Associated Press. Despite poor weather and a sluggish game, the stadium remained packed and in good cheer for the entire match. Dolphins will play Giants in London on Oct. 28 ESPN.com, February 2, 2007.
  15. ^ NFL UK. ST. LOUIS RAMS TO HOST REGULAR-SEASON GAME IN UNITED KINGDOM IN EACH OF NEXT THREE YEARS NFLUK.com, January 20, 2012.
  16. ^ "St. Louis Rams will not play in London 2013, 2014". NFL.com. Retrieved August 13, 2012. 
  17. ^ Ridge, Joe (November 14, 2012). "West Ham move into pole position for Olympic Stadium after NFL bid is thrown out". Daily Mail. London. Retrieved September 18, 2013. 
  18. ^ "Report: Jags to play games in London". espn.com. ESPN. Associated Press. August 21, 2012. Retrieved August 21, 2012. 
  19. ^ "NFL clubs expand commitment to playing international regular season games". NFL UK. National Football League. Retrieved 7 October 2015. 
  20. ^ "NFL extends agreement to play regular-season games at Wembley Stadium for an additional five years". NFLUK. National Football League. Retrieved 26 October 2015. 
  21. ^ "NFL action at Twickenham". England Rugby. Rugby Football Union. Retrieved 3 November 2015. 
  22. ^ http://www.foxsports.com/nfl/story/texans-hoping-to-play-international-regular-season-game-in-2016-101515
  23. ^ http://as.com/diarioas/2015/10/06/english/1444153977_802414.html
  24. ^ http://www.nfl.com/news/story/0ap3000000632878/article/back-to-mexico-texansraiders-to-play-nov-21-in-mexico-city?campaign=tw-nf-sf20452831-sf20452831
  25. ^ "History to be made in Mexico City". NFL.com. 2005-09-28. Archived from the original on 2006-06-25. Retrieved 2006-08-07. 
  26. ^ a b c d e "Goo Goo Dolls to perform at NFL Wembley game". NFL UK. October 12, 2011. Retrieved November 4, 2014. 
  27. ^ "NLF London 2012 Pre Game Show "Train" Wembley Stadium". Luke Dudley. October 29, 2012. Retrieved November 4, 2014. 
  28. ^ "Tinie Tempah, Gene Simmons perform at NFL match". ITV News. September 29, 2013. Retrieved November 4, 2014. 
  29. ^ Garnier, Jesse (September 29, 2013). "NFL gameday splashes across the pond". SF Bay. Retrieved November 4, 2014. 
  30. ^ a b c "NFL announces 2014 London dates". Associated Press. ESPN. November 28, 2013. Retrieved November 28, 2013. 
  31. ^ "DEF LEPPARD – NFL Pre-Game – Official Performance Video". DEF LEPPARD. October 8, 2014. Retrieved November 4, 2014. 
  32. ^ "Little Mix perform before the NFL football game between the Atlanta Falcons and the Detroit Lions at Wembley Stadium, London, Sunday, Oct. 26, 2014". Yahoo! News. October 26, 2014. Retrieved November 4, 2014. 
  33. ^ "Joss Stone to perform pre-game at Wembley". NFL UK. National Football League. Retrieved November 6, 2014. 
  34. ^ "Ohio State University Marching Band to perform at Bills v Jags Wembley game". NFL UK. National Football League. Retrieved July 3, 2015. 
  35. ^ "NFL and Yahoo! partner to deliver first-ever global live stream" (Press release). National Football League. June 3, 2015. Retrieved July 24, 2015. 
  36. ^ Schwab, Frank (June 3, 2015). "Yahoo will broadcast first free global live stream of NFL game". Yahoo! Sports. Retrieved July 24, 2015. 
  37. ^ "Music legends Madness to perform at Lions-Chiefs NFL game at Wembley". NFL UK. October 29, 2015. Retrieved November 1, 2015. 
  38. ^ "Kansas City Chiefs to host Detroit Lions in London, UK". kcchiefs.com. Kansas City Chiefs. Retrieved November 6, 2014. 
  39. ^ . NFL UK. October 21, 2016 https://twitter.com/NFLUK/status/789178950979235846. Retrieved October 21, 2016.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  40. ^ Mortensen, Chris. Source: Bills likely to get OK to play game in Toronto ESPN.com, January 20, 2008.
  41. ^ Fahey, Cian (January 28, 2011). Croke Park Director addresses the NFL's visit to Ireland. Irish Central. Retrieved August 3, 2011.
  42. ^ Harris, Rob (July 12, 2013). "England's Fulham bought by owner of NFL's Jaguars". Yahoo! Sports. Retrieved July 13, 2013. 
  43. ^ "Rams, owner Stan Kroenke assert St. Louis better off as 2-sport city in Los Angeles relocation application". Retrieved 6 January 2016. 
  44. ^ Kaboly, Mark (18 March 2016). "Steelers could give up home game to play internationally". Triblive.com. Retrieved 13 Jun 2016. 
  45. ^ Labriola, Bob (26 March 2016). "Asked and Answered: March 26". Steelers.com. Retrieved 13 June 2016. 
  46. ^ "NFL ponders second UK game option". BBC News. May 13, 2009. 
  47. ^ "Murrayfield is game for NFL". Edinburgh Evening News. April 3, 2008. 
  48. ^ http://www.nfl.com/news/story/0ap3000000645937/article/nfl-could-play-in-germany-by-2017-china-by-2018
  49. ^ http://espn.go.com/nfl/story/_/id/8286397/report-jacksonville-jaguars-play-multiple-home-games-london-starting-2013
  50. ^ https://www.turfshowtimes.com/2016/7/12/12165394/los-angeles-rams-2018-china-san-francisco-49ers
  51. ^ http://www.nfl.com/news/story/0ap3000000818077/article/nfl-aiming-to-potentially-play-game-in-china-in-2019
  52. ^ http://www.espn.com/nfl/story/_/id/19773105/nfl-scraps-plans-hold-china-game-2018-eyes-2019
  53. ^ La Canfora, Jason (October 28, 2012). "NFL's move to London could come soon; Jags a target". CBS Sports. Retrieved February 20, 2013. 
  54. ^ Campbell, Dave and John Krawczynski (May 7, 2012). Vikings in limbo and expansion not on NFL's radar. Associated Press. Retrieved May 7, 2012.

External links[edit]