Cysteine desulfurase, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the NFS1gene.
Iron-sulfur clusters are required for the function of many cellular enzymes. The protein encoded by this gene supplies inorganic sulfur to these clusters by removing the sulfur from cysteine, creating alanine in the process. This gene uses alternate in-frame translation initiation sites to generate mitochondrial forms and cytoplasmic/nuclear forms. Selection of the alternative initiation sites is determined by the cytosolic pH. The encoded protein belongs to the class-V family of pyridoxal phosphate-dependent aminotransferases.
^Land T, Rouault TA (Jan 1999). "Targeting of a human iron-sulfur cluster assembly enzyme, nifs, to different subcellular compartments is regulated through alternative AUG utilization". Mol Cell. 2 (6): 807–15. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(00)80295-6. PMID9885568.
Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, et al. (1997). "Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5'-end-enriched cDNA library.". Gene. 200 (1–2): 149–56. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(97)00411-3. PMID9373149.
Li K, Tong WH, Hughes RM, Rouault TA (2006). "Roles of the mammalian cytosolic cysteine desulfurase, ISCS, and scaffold protein, ISCU, in iron-sulfur cluster assembly.". J. Biol. Chem. 281 (18): 12344–51. doi:10.1074/jbc.M600582200. PMID16527810.