NGC 1316

Coordinates: Sky map 03h 22m 41.7s, −37° 12′ 30″
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Fornax A
A Hubble Space Telescope (HST) image of NGC 1316.
Observation data (J2000 epoch)
Right ascension03h 22m 41.7s[1]
Declination−37° 12′ 30″[1]
Redshift1760 ± 10 km/s[1]
Distance62.0 ± 2.9 Mly (19.0 ± 0.9 Mpc)[2][3][a]
Apparent magnitude (V)9.4[1]
Apparent size (V)12′.0 × 8′.5[1]
Notable featuresVery bright at radio 1.4 GHz
Other designations
Fornax A, 3FHL J0322.6-3712e, WMAP J0322-3711, AM 0320-372, GSC 07026-00055, WMAP J0322-3712, APG 154, IRAS 03208-3723, PKS 0320-374, [CAC2009] S0373 CTA 23, IRAS F03207-3723, PKS 0320-37, [CHM2007] HDC 234 J032241.78-3712295, DUGRS 357-001, 1Jy 0320-374, PMN J0321-3658, [CHM2007] LDC 249 J032241.78-3712295, 1E 0320.7-3722, 1Jy 0320-373, PSCz Q03208-3723, [FWB89] Galaxy 479, 2E 761, 1Jy 0320-37, RR95 75a, [KFM98] 5, 2E 0320.7-3723, LEDA 12651, RX J032242-37125, [LB2005] NGC 1316 X1, ESO 357-22, 2MASX J03224178-3712295, RX J0322.7-3712, [VDD93] 28, ESO-LV 357-0220, MCG-06-08-005, 1RXS J032241.8-371239, [WCO2009] J032152-370824, FCC 21, MOST 0320-373, SGC 032047-3723.2, 2FGL J0322.4-3717, MRC 0320-373, VSOP J0322-3712, 3FGL J0322.5-3721, MSH 03-3-01, WMAP 138[4]

NGC 1316 (also known as Fornax A) is a lenticular galaxy about 60 million light-years (18.4 million parsecs) away in the constellation Fornax. It is a radio galaxy and at 1400 MHz is the fourth-brightest radio source in the sky.[5]

Structure and formation[edit]

In the late seventies of the twentieth century, François Schweizer studied NGC 1316 extensively and found that the galaxy appeared to look like a small elliptical galaxy with some unusual dust lanes embedded within a much larger envelope of stars. The outer envelope contained many ripples, loops, and arcs. He also identified the presence of a compact disk of gas near the center that appeared inclined relative to the stars and that appeared to rotate faster than the stars (the mass-to-light ratio run in the center of NGC 1316 resembles that of many other giant ellipticals).[6] Based on these results, Schweizer considered that NGC 1316 was built up through the merger of several smaller galaxies. Such merger events may have fueled the central supermassive black hole, that has a mass estimated in 130–150 million of solar masses[7] with gas, causing the galaxy to become a radio galaxy. He also states that NGC 1316 is comparable to the giant elliptical galaxies found in the centers of other clusters of galaxies.[5] Using spectroscopy of its brightest globular clusters, the merger is estimated to have occurred ~3 billion years ago.[8] NGC 1316 spans about 50 000 light-years.[9]

It has been proposed too that NGC 1316 may be a galaxy in evolution that eventually will become a Sombrero-like system dominated by a large bulge.[10] Accuracy of such destinations and build of current and future galaxies and galactic formations and research methods are well established.

Companions and environment[edit]

The Fornax galaxy cluster with NGC 1316 (large, near middle)

NGC 1316 is located within the Fornax Cluster, a cluster of galaxies in the constellation Fornax. However, in contrast to Messier 87, which is a similar elliptical galaxy that is located in the center of the Virgo Cluster, NGC 1316 is located at the edge of the Fornax Cluster.[11]

NGC 1316 appears to be interacting with NGC 1317, a small spiral galaxy to the north. However, that small spiral galaxy does not appear to be sufficiently large enough to cause the distortions seen in the structure of this galaxy.[5]

NGC 1316 has hosted four supernovae (all type Ia): 1980N, 1981D, 2006dd and 2006mr.[3][12]

Distance estimates[edit]

At least two methods have been used to estimate the distance to NGC 1316: surface brightness fluctuation (SBF) in 2003[2] and planetary nebula luminosity function (PNLF) in 2006.[3] Being a lenticular galaxy, it is not suitable to apply the cepheid variable method[why?]. Using SBF, a distance estimate of 20.0 ± 1.6 Mpc[2] was computed. Using PNLF, 45 planetary nebula candidates were located and a distance estimate of 17.9 +0.8
Mpc was computed.[3] Averaged together, these two distance measurements give a combined distance estimate of 62.0 ± 2.9 Mly (19.0 ± 0.9 Mpc).[a]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ average(20.0 ± 1.6, 17.9 +0.8
    ) = ((20.0 + 17.9) / 2) ± ((1.62 + 0.82)0.5 / 2) = 19.0 ± 0.9


  1. ^ a b c d e f "NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database". Results for NGC 1316. Retrieved 2006-07-10.
  2. ^ a b c Jensen, Joseph B.; Tonry, John L.; Barris, Brian J.; Thompson, Rodger I.; et al. (February 2003). "Measuring Distances and Probing the Unresolved Stellar Populations of Galaxies Using Infrared Surface Brightness Fluctuations". Astrophysical Journal. 583 (2): 712–726. arXiv:astro-ph/0210129. Bibcode:2003ApJ...583..712J. doi:10.1086/345430. S2CID 551714.
  3. ^ a b c d Feldmeier, John J.; Jacoby, George H.; Phillips, Mark M. (2007). "Calibrating Type Ia Supernovae using the Planetary Nebula Luminosity Function I. Initial Results". The Astrophysical Journal. 657 (1): 76–94. arXiv:astro-ph/0611231. Bibcode:2007ApJ...657...76F. doi:10.1086/510897. S2CID 17109095.
  4. ^ "NGC 1316".
  5. ^ a b c F. Schweizer (1980). "An Optical Study of the Giant Radio Galaxy NGC 1316 (Fornax A)". Astrophysical Journal. 237: 303–318. Bibcode:1980ApJ...237..303S. doi:10.1086/157870.
  6. ^ Shaya, E. J.; Dowling, D. M.; Currie, D. G.; Faber, S. M.; Ajhar, E. A.; Lauer, T. R.; Groth, E. J.; Grillmair, C. J.; Lynd, R.; O'Neil, E. J. Jr. (1996-06-01). "Hubble Space Telescope Planetary Camera Images of NGC 1316 (Fornax A)". The Astronomical Journal. 111: 2212. arXiv:astro-ph/9603056. Bibcode:1996AJ....111.2212S. doi:10.1086/117955. ISSN 0004-6256. S2CID 119337718.
  7. ^ NOWAK N.; SAGLIA R.P.; THOMAS J.; BENDER R.; et al. (2008). "The supermassive black hole of Fornax A.". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 391: 1629–1649. arXiv:0809.0696. Bibcode:2008MNRAS.391.1629N. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2008.13960.x. S2CID 16677289.
  8. ^ Goudfrooij, Paul; Alonso, M. Victoria; Maraston, Claudia; Minniti, Dante (November 2001). "The star cluster system of the 3-Gyr-old merger remnant NGC 1316: clues from optical and near-infrared photometry". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 328 (1): 237–256. arXiv:astro-ph/0107533. Bibcode:2001MNRAS.328..237G. doi:10.1046/j.1365-8711.2001.04860.x. S2CID 11981354.
  9. ^ NASA Astronomy Picture of the Day: Central NGC 1316: After Galaxies Collide (25 January 2021)
  10. ^ McNeil-Moylan, E. K.; Freeman, K. C.; Arnaboldi, M.; Gerhard, O. E.. (2012). "Planetary nebula kinematics in NGC 1316: a young Sombrero". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 539: A11. arXiv:1201.6010. Bibcode:2012A&A...539A..11M. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201117875. S2CID 54215156.
  11. ^ H. C. Ferguson (1989). "Population studies in groups and clusters of galaxies. II - A catalog of galaxies in the central 3.5 deg of the Fornax Cluster". Astronomical Journal. 98: 367–418. Bibcode:1989AJ.....98..367F. doi:10.1086/115152.
  12. ^ "Supernova 2006dd and 2006mr in NGC 1316". Retrieved 2020-02-03.

External links[edit]