Jump to content

NGC 1999

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
NGC 1999
Reflection nebula
Hubble/WFPC2 captures the void in 2000
Observation data: J2000 epoch
Right ascension05h 36m 27.00s
Declination−06° 43′ 18.0″
Distance1,500 ly
Apparent dimensions (V)1.5 arcmins
Physical characteristics
Radius~0.3 ly
See also: Lists of nebulae
The overall nebula with smaller hole shown in context

NGC 1999, also known as The Cosmic Keyhole,[1][2] is a dust-filled bright nebula with a vast hole of empty space represented by a black patch of sky, as can be seen in the photograph. It is a reflection nebula, and shines from the light of the variable star V380 Orionis.

It was previously believed that the black patch was a dense cloud of dust and gas which blocked light that would normally pass through, called a dark nebula. Analysis of this patch by the infrared telescope Herschel (October 9, 2009), which has the capability of penetrating such dense cloud material, resulted in continued black space. This led to the belief that either the cloud material was immensely dense or that an unexplained phenomenon had been detected.

With support from ground-based observations done using the submillimeter bolometer cameras on the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment radio telescope (November 29, 2009) and the Mayall (Kitt Peak) and Magellan telescopes (December 4, 2009), it was determined that the patch looks black not because it is an extremely dense pocket of gas, but because it is truly empty. The exact cause of this phenomenon is still being investigated, although it has been hypothesized that narrow jets of gas from some of the young stars in the region punctured the sheet of dust and gas, as well as, powerful radiation from a nearby mature star may have helped to create the hole. Researchers believe this discovery should lead to a better understanding of the entire star forming process.[3][4]

It is located 1,500 light-years away from Earth in the constellation Orion.[5] HH 1/2, the first recognized Herbig-Haro Object, is located near NGC 1999.[6]


  1. ^ "Hubble Peers at Mysterious Cosmic 'Keyhole' - NASA Science". science.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2023-12-20.
  2. ^ information@eso.org. "Cosmic Keyhole". www.spacetelescope.org. Retrieved 2023-12-20.
  3. ^ "Telescope discovers surprising hole in space". NBC News by Space.com. 2010-05-11. Retrieved 2018-03-07.
  4. ^ Stanke, T; Stutz, A. M; Tobin, J. J; Ali, B; Megeath, S. T; Krause, O; Linz, H; Allen, L; Bergin, E; Calvet, N; Di Francesco, J; Fischer, W. J; Furlan, E; Hartmann, L; Henning, T; Manoj, P; Maret, S; Muzerolle, J; Myers, P. C; Neufeld, D; Osorio, M; Pontoppidan, K; Poteet, C. A; Watson, D. M; Wilson, T (2010). "Hier ist wahrhaftig ein Loch im Himmel". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 518: L94. arXiv:1005.2202. Bibcode:2010A&A...518L..94S. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201014612. S2CID 118725991.
  5. ^ "Fast Facts: Hubble Takes a Close-up View of a Reflection Nebula in Orion". Retrieved 2008-03-15.
  6. ^ Bally, John; Heathcote, Steve; Reipurth, Bo; Morse, Jon; Hartigan, Patrick; Schwartz, Richard (May 2002). "Hubble Space Telescope Observations of Proper Motions in Herbig-Haro Objects 1 and 2". The Astronomical Journal. 123 (5): 2627–2657. Bibcode:2002AJ....123.2627B. doi:10.1086/339837. ISSN 0004-6256.

External links[edit]