NGC 3195

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NGC 3195
Emission nebula
Planetary nebula
A Hubble Space Telescope (HST) image of NGC 3195.
Observation data: J2000 epoch
Right ascension10h 09m 20.910s[1]
Declination−80° 51′ 30.73″[1]
Distance6,440 ly (1,975 pc)[2] ly
Apparent magnitude (V)11.6[3]
Apparent dimensions (V)1.33[2]
DesignationsCaldwell 109, Hen 2-44, Sa2-57, PK 296-20.1, PN G296.6-20.0, ESO 19-2[4]
See also: Lists of nebulae

NGC 3195 (also known as Caldwell 109) is a planetary nebula located in the southern constellation of Chamaeleon. It is the most southern of all the bright sizable planetary nebula in the sky, and remains concealed from all northern observers. Discovered by Sir John Herschel in 1835,[3] this 11.6 apparent magnitude[3] planetary nebula is slightly oval in shape, with dimensions of 40×35 arc seconds, and can be seen visually in telescopic apertures of 10.5 centimetres (4.1 in) at low magnifications.[5]

Spectroscopy reveals that NGC 3195 is approaching Earth at 17 kilometres per second (11 mi/s), while the nebulosity is expanding at around 40 kilometres per second (25 mi/s). The central star is listed as >15.3V or 16.1B magnitude. An analysis of Gaia data suggests that the central star is a binary system.[6] Distance is estimated at about 1.7 kpc.


  1. ^ a b Kerber, F.; et al. (September 2003). "Galactic Planetary Nebulae and their central stars. I. An accurate and homogeneous set of coordinates". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 408 (3): 1029–1035. Bibcode:2003A&A...408.1029K. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20031046.
  2. ^ a b Stanghellini, L.; et al. (2008). "The Magellanic Cloud Calibration of the Galactic Planetary Nebula Distance Scale". The Astrophysical Journal. 689: 194–202. arXiv:0807.1129. Bibcode:2008ApJ...689..194S. doi:10.1086/592395.
  3. ^ a b c Seligman, Courtney. "New General Catalogue objects: NGC 3150 - 3199". Retrieved 27 September 2019.
  4. ^ "NGC 3195". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2007-04-17.
  5. ^ O'Meara, Stephen James (2014), Deep-Sky Companions: The Messier Objects, Deep-sky companions, Cambridge University Press, p. 499, ISBN 978-1107018372
  6. ^ Chornay, N.; Walton, N. A.; Jones, D.; Boffin, H. M. J.; Rejkuba, M.; Wesson, R. (2021). "Towards a more complete sample of binary central stars of planetary nebulae with Gaia". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 648: A95. arXiv:2101.01800. Bibcode:2021A&A...648A..95C. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202140288. S2CID 230770301.

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