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Japan Broadcasting Corporation
Native name
Nippon Hōsō Kyōkai
FormerlyTokyo/Osaka/Nagoya Broadcasting Station (1925–1926)
Company typeStatutory corporation chartered under the Broadcasting Act of 1950
IndustryBroadcast radio, television and online
PredecessorTokyo Broadcasting Station
FoundedAugust 6, 1926; 97 years ago (1926-08-06) (original incarnation)
June 1, 1950; 74 years ago (1950-06-01) (current incarnation)
Area served
Key people
  • Nobuo Inaba (president)
  • Tatsuhiko Inoue (executive vice president)
OwnerGovernment of Japan
Number of employees
10,333 (2019) Edit this on Wikidata
SubsidiariesNHK Media Holdings
Japan International Broadcasting
NHK Publishing
NHK Technologies
NHK Culture Center
Footnotes / references

The Japan Broadcasting Corporation[2] (Japanese: 日本放送協会, Hepburn: Nippon Hōsō Kyōkai), also known by its romanized initialism NHK,[a] is a Japanese public broadcaster.[3][4] It is a statutory corporation funded by viewers' payments of a television license fee.

NHK operates two terrestrial television channels (NHK General TV and NHK Educational TV), three satellite television channels (NHK BS; as well as two ultra-high-definition television channels, NHK BS Premium 4K and NHK BS8K), and three radio networks (NHK Radio 1, NHK Radio 2, and NHK FM).

NHK also provides an international broadcasting service, known as NHK World-Japan. NHK World-Japan is composed of NHK World TV, NHK World Premium, and the shortwave radio service Radio Japan (RJ). World Radio Japan also makes some of its programs available on the Internet.

NHK was the first broadcaster in the world to broadcast in high-definition (using multiple sub-Nyquist sampling encoding, also known as Hi-Vision) and in 8K.[5]



NHK's earliest forerunner was the Tokyo Broadcasting Station (東京放送局), founded in 1924 under the leadership of Count Gotō Shinpei. Tokyo Broadcasting Station, along with separate organizations in Osaka and Nagoya, began radio broadcasts in 1925. The three stations merged under the first incarnation of NHK in August 1926.[6] NHK was modelled on the BBC of the United Kingdom,[4] and the merger and reorganisation was carried out under the auspices of the pre-war Ministry of Communications.[7] NHK's second radio network began in 1931, and the third radio network (FM) began in 1937.

Radio broadcasting


NHK began shortwave broadcasting on an experimental basis in the 1930s, and began regular English- and Japanese-language shortwave broadcasts in 1935 under the name Radio Japan, initially aimed at ethnic Japanese listeners in Hawaii and the west coast of North America. By the late 1930s, NHK's overseas broadcasts were known as Radio Tokyo, which became an official name in 1941.[citation needed]

In November 1941, the Imperial Japanese Army nationalised all public news agencies and coordinated their efforts via the Information Liaison Confidential Committee.[citation needed] All published and broadcast news reports became official announcements of the Imperial Army General Headquarters in Tokyo for the duration of World War II. The famous Tokyo Rose wartime programs were broadcast by NHK.[4] NHK also recorded and broadcast the Gyokuon-hōsō, the surrender speech made by Emperor Hirohito, in August 1945.[8]

Following the war, in September 1945, the Allied occupation administration under General Douglas MacArthur banned all international broadcasting by NHK, and repurposed several NHK facilities and frequencies for use by the Far East Network (now American Forces Network). Japanese-American radio broadcaster Frank Shozo Baba joined NHK during this time and led an early post-war revamp of its programming. Radio Japan resumed overseas broadcasts in 1952.[citation needed]

A new Broadcasting Act [ja] was enacted in 1950, which made NHK a listener-supported independent corporation and simultaneously opened the market for commercial broadcasting in Japan.[9] NHK started television broadcasting in 1953, followed by its educational TV channel in 1959 and color television broadcasts in 1960.

NHK opened the first stage of its current headquarters in Japan's capital city's special ward Shibuya as an international broadcasting center for the 1964 Summer Olympics, the first widely televised Olympic Games. The complex was gradually expanded through 1973 when it became the headquarters for NHK. The previous headquarters adjacent to Hibiya Park was redeveloped as the Hibiya City high-rise complex.

Satellite broadcasting


NHK began experimental satellite broadcasting with the NHK BS 1 channel in 1984, followed by NHK BS 2 in 1985.[10] Both channels began regular broadcasts in 1989. In April 2011, BS 1 was rebranded while BS 2 channel ceased broadcasting and was replaced by "BS Premium" which broadcasts on the channel formerly used by BShi.

International satellite broadcasts to North America and Europe began in 1995, which led to the launch of NHK World in 1998. It became free-to-air over the Astra 19.2°E (Astra 1L) and Eurobird satellites in Europe in 2008.

Digital television


NHK began digital television broadcasting in December 2000 through BS Digital, followed by terrestrial digital TV broadcasts in three major metropolitan areas in 2003. NHK's digital television coverage gradually expanded to cover almost all of Japan by 24 July 2011, when analog transmissions were discontinued & ended (except in three prefectures that were heavily affected by the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunamiIwate, Miyagi, Fukushima – where it was discontinued on 31 March 2012).

Studies of Broadcasting

Studies of Broadcasting
DisciplineBroadcasting science
Publication details
Standard abbreviations
ISO 4Stud. Broadcast.
OCLC no.474034025

From 1963 to 1999, NHK published the journal Studies of broadcasting: an international annual of broadcasting science.[11]



NHK is a dependent corporation chartered by the Japanese Broadcasting Act and primarily funded by license fees. NHK World broadcasting (for overseas viewers/listeners) is funded by the Japanese government.[citation needed] The annual budget of NHK is subject to review and approval by the Diet of Japan. The Diet also appoints the twelve-member board of governors (経営委員会 keiei iinkai) that oversees NHK.

NHK is managed on a full-time basis by an executive board (理事会, rijikai) consisting of a president, executive vice president and seven to ten managing directors who oversee the areas of NHK operations. The executive board reports to the board of governors.


  • NHK Enterprises, Inc. (NHKエンタープライズ, abbreviated NEP): Established on 1 April 2005.[12]
  • NHK Educational Corporation (株式会社 NHKエデュケーショナル): Established on 30 May 1989.
  • NHK ART, Inc. (株式会社NHKアート): Established on 10 July 1961.
  • NHK Publishing, Inc. (NHK出版): Established on 1 April 1931.
  • Japan International Broadcasting Inc. (株式会社日本国際放送)/JIB: Established on 4 April 2008.
  • NHK International, Inc. (一般財団法人NHKインターナショナル): Established on 1 July 1980.
  • NHK Global Media Services, Inc. (株式会社NHKグローバルメディアサービス): Established on 1 April 2009, by merging NHK Joho Network, Inc. ((株)NHK情報ネットワーク) (established on 1 January 1989) and Japan Teletex Co. Ltd. (日本文字放送) (established in 1985).[13]
  • NHK Cosmomedia America, Inc.: Created by merging Japan Network Group (Media International Corporation) and NHK Enterprises America, Inc. on 1 April 2010,[14] but its licence was granted on 12 November 2008.[15] The company's logo was filed on 23 March 2010 and registered on 13 December 2011.[16]
  • NHK Cosmomedia (Europe) Limited: Created by merging JSTV (company founded on 8 November 1989)[17] and NHK Enterprises Europe in April 2010.
  • NHK Technologies, Inc. (株式会社NHKテクノロジーズ): Established on 1 April 2019, by merging NHK Integrated Technology Inc. (株式会社NHKアイテック) and NHK Media Technology, Inc. (株式会社NHKメディアテクノロジー).[18]
  • Broadcasting Satellite System Corporation (株式会社 放送衛星システム)/B-SAT: Established on 13 April 1993.
  • NHK Engineering System, Inc. (一般財団法人NHKエンジニアリングシステム): Established on 22 December 1981.
  • NHK GAKUEN (学校法人 NHK学園): Established in 1962-10-01 (学校法人日本放送協会学園). It was renamed to its current name on 1 April 2018.[19]
  • NHK Symphony Orchestra, Tokyo (公益財団法人 NHK交響楽団): Established on 27 April 1942, as Japan Symphony Orchestra (財団法人日本交響楽団). On 1 August 1951, it was renamed to NHK Symphony Orchestra (財団法人NHK交響楽団). It became a public interest-incorporated foundation and was renamed to its current name on 1 April 2010.[20][21]
  • NHK Public Welfare Organization/NHK HEARTS (社会福祉法人NHK厚生文化事業団): Established on 31 August 1960.
  • NHK Promotions Inc. (株式会社NHKプロモーション)/(株式会社エヌエイチケイプロモーション): Established on 1 October 1977, as NHK Promote Service Inc. (株式会社NHKプロモートサービス). It was renamed to its current name in October 1989.
  • NHK CULTURE CENTER (株式会社エヌエイチケイ文化センター)/(NHKカルチャー): Established on 1 December 1978.
  • NHK SERVICE CENTER, INC. (一般財団法人 NHK サービスセンター): Established on 28 February 1951.
  • NHK BUSINESS SERVICES INC. (NHK営業サービス株式会社): Established on 17 January 1990.
  • BS Conditional Access Systems Co., Ltd. (株式会社 ビーエス・コンディショナルアクセスシステムズ)/B-CAS (ビーキャス): Established on 22 February 2000.
  • NHK Business Create Inc. (株式会社 NHKビジネスクリエイト): Established on 1 April 2009, by merger (株式会社NHKオフィス企画), (株式会社NHK共同サービス).[22]
  • NHK-Communications Training Institute (一般財団法人NHK放送研修センター): Established on 8 August 1985.

Former subsidiaries

  • NHK Integrated Technology Inc. (株式会社NHKアイテック): Established on 23 July 1969, as NHK Integrated Technology Inc. (全日本テレビサービス株式会社). It was merged into NHK Technologies, Inc. on 1 April 2019.
  • NHK Media Technology, Inc. (株式会社NHKメディアテクノロジー): Established in April 2008 by merging NHK Technical Service (株式会社NHKテクニカルサービス) (established 9 October 1984) and NHK Computer Service (株式会社NHKコンピューターサービス). It was merged into NHK Technologies, Inc. on 1 April 2019.





It maintains three radio stations available nationwide:

  • NHK Radio 1 – Organized mainly on news, information, drama, and entertainment programs. Simultaneous broadcasting with BBC Radio 4 and LRA Radio Nacional is also conducted (24-hour broadcast).
  • NHK Radio 2 – Organized mainly on educational and liberal arts programs. Weather forecasts, stock market conditions, news in foreign languages, etc. are also broadcast (broadcast from 6:00 a.m. to late at night. Broadcast end times vary by day).
  • NHK-FM Broadcasting – Organizes various music programs, but mainly classical music. Simultaneous broadcasting with Radio 1 is also conducted (24-hour broadcasting).

All of them can also be tuned through the Internet, within the national territory.



It manages two open signal channels through digital terrestrial television. Since Japan has a television network system, it schedules territorial disconnections in each of its centers. However, the NHK brand is common for the whole country.

  • NHK General TV (NHK-G) – Pioneer of television in Japan, it began its broadcasts on 1 February 1953. Its offer is general and public service.
  • NHK Educational TV (NHK-E) – Educational and cultural channel, designed especially for children. It has been broadcasting since 10 January 1959.

All of them can also be tuned through the Internet, within the national territory. It also has one exclusive satellite channel, as well as two in ultra-high definition.

  • NHK BS (previously as NHK BS 1 and NHK BS Premium) – Specialized in information, international documentaries, sports broadcasts, cultural and entertainment programming. It was founded on 12 May 1984. Renamed as NHK BS on 1 December 2023.
  • NHK BS Premium 4K (previously as NHK BS Premium and NHK BS4K) – Cultural and entertainment programming in 4K. It was founded on 1 April 2011 and relaunched on 1 December 2023 (merger with NHK BS4K).
  • NHK BS8K – 8K programming, launched on 1 December 2018.

License fee


NHK is funded by reception fees (受信料, jushinryō), a system analogous to the license fee used in some English-speaking countries. The Broadcasting Act which governs NHK's funding stipulates anyone with equipment able to receive NHK must pay. The fee is standardized,[23] with discounts for office workers and students who commute, as well a discount for residents of Okinawa prefecture. For viewers making annual payments by credit card with no special discounts, the reception fee is 13,600 yen per year for terrestrial reception only, and 24,090 yen per year for both terrestrial and broadcast satellite reception.[24]

However, the Broadcasting Act specifies no punitive actions for nonpayment; as a result, after a rash of NHK-related scandals including an accounting one, the number of people who had not paid the license fee surpassed one million watchers. [citation needed] This incident sparked debate over the fairness of the fee system.[25] In 2006, the NHK opted to take legal action against those most flagrantly in violation of the law.[26]

This fee and how it is charged is unpopular with some citizens. This led to the formation of the NHK Party (NHK党, NHK tō),[27] also known as N-Koku (N国),[28] a single-issue political party, which has protested this fee with representatives in the upper house.

TV programming


NHK broadcasts a variety of programming.



NHK offers local, national, and world news reports. NHK News 7 airs daily and is broadcast bilingually with both Japanese and English audio tracks on NHK General TV and NHK's international channels TV Japan and NHK World Premium. The flagship news program News Watch 9 is also bilingual and airs on NHK General TV and the international channels and NHK World Premium. World News, a program which airs bulletins from international broadcasters interpreted in Japanese, is aired on NHK BS1 with Catch! Sekai no Top News in the morning and International News Report at night, with the latter also airing on NHK World Premium. News on NHK BS1 is aired at 50 minutes past the hour except during live sports events.

NHK also offers news for the deaf (which airs on NHK Educational TV), regional news (which airs on NHK General TV) and children's news. Newsline is an English-language newscast designed for foreign viewers and airs on NHK World.

In his book Broadcasting Politics in Japan: NHK and Television News, Ellis S. Krauss states: 'In the 1960s and 1970s, external critics of NHK news were complaining about the strict neutrality, the lack of criticism of the government, and the 'self-regulation in covering events'. Krauss claims that little had changed by the 1980s and 1990s.[29] After the Fukushima nuclear disaster in 2011, NHK was criticised for underplaying the dangers from radioactive contamination.[failed verification]

Emergency reporting


Under the Broadcasting Act, NHK is under the obligation to broadcast early warning emergency reporting in times of natural disasters such as earthquakes and tsunamis. Their national network of seismometers in cooperation with the Japan Meteorological Agency makes NHK capable of delivering earthquake early warnings seconds after detection, as well as a more detailed report with Shindo intensity measurements within two-to-three minutes after the quake. They also broadcast air attack warnings in the event of war, using the J-Alert system.[30]

All warnings are broadcast in Japanese, with tsunami warnings also delivered in four foreign languages: English, Mandarin Chinese, Korean and Portuguese (Japan has small Chinese, Korean and Brazilian populations). The warnings were broadcast in these languages during the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami.[31]



NHK broadcasts sumo wrestling, baseball games, Olympic Games, soccer games, and a range of other sports. Their broadcast of the last two days of October 1952's autumn sumo tournament became the first ever televised sports broadcast in Japan.[32]



The NHK Symphony Orchestra, financially sponsored by NHK, was formerly (until 1951) the Japanese Symphony Orchestra. Its website details the orchestra's history and ongoing concert programme.[33] Since 1953, NHK has broadcast the Kōhaku Uta Gassen song contest on New Year's Eve, ending shortly before midnight in PIX System.



A sentimental morning show, a weekly jidaigeki and a year-long show, the Taiga drama, spearhead the network's fiction offerings.

NHK is also making efforts at broadcasting dramas made in foreign countries as overseas drama (海外ドラマ, Kaigai Dorama).



The longest running children's show in Japan, Okaasan to Issho (おかあさんといっしょ, With Mother), started broadcasting in 1959[34] and still airs to this day Monday to Friday at 17:36–18:00 JST, Sunday at 17:30–17:54 JST, with rebroadcasts Tuesday to Sunday at 5:00–5:24 JST on NHK World Premium.[35]

Employee and internal issues


Insider trading ban


In 2007, three employees of NHK were fined and fired for insider trading. They had profited by trading shares based on exclusive NHK knowledge.[36]

On 11 July 2008, NHK introduced a ban prohibiting stock trading by employees, numbering around 5,700, who had access to its internal news information management system. The employees were required to pledge in writing that they would not trade in stocks, and were required to gain approval from senior staff to sell shares they already held. NHK banned short-term stock trading completed in periods of six months or less for all other employees.[37]

The ban did not extend to employees' families, nor did NHK request any reports on their transactions.[36]

Overwork death


On 24 July 2013, a reporter at NHK Metropolitan Broadcasting Center died of congestive heart failure. In May 2014, the Shibuya Labor Standards Inspection Office of the Tokyo Labor Bureau certified it as a karōshi (overwork death). Although NHK did not report on this matter, it was announced in October 2017. Ryōichi Ueda, the chairman of NHK, visited the reporter's parents' home and apologized to them.[38][39][40][41]

On-air issues


Criticism over comments about Japanese wartime history


NHK has occasionally faced various criticisms for its treatment of Japan's wartime history.[42]

Katsuto Momii (籾井 勝人), the 21st Director-General of NHK, caused controversy[43][44] by discussing Japan's actions in World War II at his first press conference after being appointed on 20 December 2013. It was reported that Momii said NHK should support the Japanese government in its territorial dispute with China and South Korea.[45] He also caused controversy by what some describe as the playing down of the comfort women issue in World War II, according to the Taipei Times, stating, "[South] Korea's statements that Japan is the only nation that forced this are puzzling. 'Give us money, compensate us', they say, but since all of this was resolved by the Japan–Korea peace treaty, why are they reviving this issue? It's strange."[46] It was subsequently reported by The Japan Times that on his first day at NHK Momii asked members of the executive team to hand in their resignation on the grounds they had all been appointed by his predecessor.[47]

A number of civil society groups protested against Momii's continued tenure as Director-General of NHK.[48] On 27 January 2014,[49] the Viewers' Community to Observe and Encourage NHK (NHKを監視・激励する視聴者コミュニティ) issued a public letter calling for Momii's resignation on the grounds that the remarks he made at his inaugural press conference were explosive. The letter stated that if Momii did not resign by the end of April, its members would freeze their licence fee payments for half a year.[48] While Momii did not resign, he was not reappointed and retired after serving only one term of three years.[50]

On 17 October 2014, The Times claimed to have received internal NHK documents which banned any reference to the Nanjing Massacre, to Japan's use of wartime sex slaves during World War II, and to its territorial dispute with China in its English-language broadcasting.[51]

Black Lives Matter video


On 10 June 2020, NHK apologized and took down an 80-second video about the Black Lives Matter movement and George Floyd protests that was criticized for its "crude" animation of protesters and its focus on economic inequality rather than police brutality.[52][53][54] An official statement signed by Yuichi Tabata, head of NHK's International News Division, was released through NHK's official website.[55]

Olympics documentary claims


On 9 January 2022, NHK issued an apology over false allegations made in Director Naomi Kawase's Tokyo Olympics documentary. Kawase was selected by the IOC in 2018 to cover Japanese reactions to the event and later during the COVID-19 pandemic. Footage and captions in the documentary alleged that protesters were being paid money to attend anti-Olympics rallies. One of the men interviewed later stated he was "unsure" if he had actually attended any anti-Olympics rallies. NHK Osaka cited "editorial oversights" and "deficiencies in research," issuing an apology. Some anti-Olympic activists demanded that the documentary should be removed. Some activists were concerned that the misinformation was spread by NHK to silence those who opposed the Tokyo Olympics during the pandemic.[56] NHK denied that the footage was deliberately fabricated to mislead the public.[57][58] On 13 January 2022, the NHK Osaka director Terunobu Maeda apologized during a press conference, admitting that the captions "should not have been included." Once again, he denied that the incident was a fabrication.[59]



In December 2023, Japan's Broadcasting Ethics and Program Improvement Organization (BPO) concluded that NHK had breached broadcasting ethics in its "News Watch 9" program, where people believed to have died from COVID-19 vaccine injury were treated as if they had died from COVID-19. Regarding the incident as an inappropriate way of reporting, NHK stated that it would take measures to avoid the repetition of the misconduct.[60]

Logo history


See also




Explanatory notes

  1. ^ Pronounced in Japanese as Enu Eichi Kei (エヌ・エイチ・ケイ)


  1. ^ "日本放送協会平成17年度業務報告書]" [NHK Business Report 2005] (PDF). p. 42. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 November 2006.
  2. ^ NHKの概要
  3. ^ "NHK: Profile". NHK. Archived from the original on 14 May 2008.
  4. ^ a b c Sidensticker, Edward (1990). Tokyo Rising: The City Since the Great Earthquake. p. 67.
  5. ^ "The history of Super Hi-Vision | 8K Super Hi-Vision". NHK. Archived from the original on 13 April 2023.
  6. ^ "NHK Corporate Information: History". NHK. Archived from the original on 18 November 2022. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
  7. ^ "Regular Radio Broadcasting Begins". NHK. Archived from the original on 8 June 2002. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
  8. ^ Allen, Thomas B.; Polmar, Norman (7 August 2015). "The 4-Minute Radio Broadcast That Ended World War II". The Atlantic. Retrieved 12 July 2023.
  9. ^ "Broadcast Law: Broadcasting for the Public". NHK. Archived from the original on 18 October 2015. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
  10. ^ "History of Broadcasting Technology". NHK. Archived from the original on 25 September 2012.
  11. ^ Studies of broadcasting: an international annual of broadcasting science. OCLC. OCLC 474034025.
  12. ^ "NHK関連団体について" (in Japanese). NHK. Retrieved 18 August 2021.
  13. ^ Company Profile
  14. ^ Corporate History
  15. ^ ULS License – Industrial/Business Pool, Conventional License – WQJN734 – NHK Cosmomedia America Inc.
  16. ^ NHK COSMOMEDIA AMERICA – Trademark Details
  18. ^ 株式会社NHKテクノロジーズ発足のおしらせ Archived 30 October 2020 at the Wayback Machine
  19. ^ 沿革
  20. ^ 財団概要
  21. ^ NHKSO Outline
  22. ^ 沿革
  23. ^ "NHK受信料の窓口-英語" [NHK reception fee window-English]. NHK. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
  24. ^ "NHK Corporate Information: Receiving Fee System". NHK. Archived from the original on 6 October 2022. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
  25. ^ "Turned off: Fee falling: Viewers are not only boycotting their NHK payments, they are now also seeking a complete overhaul of the system at the public broadcaster". IHT/Asahi. 24 February 2005. Archived from the original on 18 February 2014.
  26. ^ "Summary of Press Conference (November 2006): On the demanding of fee payment through legal proceedings". NHK. Archived from the original on 11 April 2013.
  27. ^ "Japan lawmaker who sparked scandal with Russia war remarks to join anti-NHK party". The Japan Times Online. 29 July 2019. ISSN 0447-5763. Retrieved 30 July 2019.
  28. ^ "After stunning election win, anti-NHK party sets higher goal". The Asahi Shimbun. Archived from the original on 28 July 2019. Retrieved 30 July 2019.
  29. ^ Krauss, Ellis S. (2000). Broadcasting Politics in Japan: NHK and Television News. Cornell University Press. pp. 39–40.
  30. ^ Corkill, Edan (20 March 2011). "Planning pays off as NHK takes its quake news global". The Japan Times. p. 9.
  31. ^ "Japan earthquake & Tsunami warning systems - 11 Mar 2011 on TV (part2of2)". Archived from the original on 4 August 2011 – via YouTube.
  32. ^ "50 Years of NHK Television: Competing with the Best". NHK. Retrieved 11 February 2022.
  33. ^ "NHK Symphony Orchestra". NHK. Archived from the original on 26 August 2010. Retrieved 24 November 2010.
  34. ^ "50 Years of NHK Television". NHK. p. 45. Retrieved 13 September 2009.
  35. ^ "NHKワールド・プレミアム" [NHK World Premium] (in Japanese). NHK.
  36. ^ a b "NHK Bans Stock Trading for Many Employees". JCN Newswire. Jiji Press. 11 July 2008. Archived from the original on 20 October 2014. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
  37. ^ "NHK bans stock trades by reporters". The Japan Times. Kyodo News. 12 July 2008. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
  38. ^ "NHK会長、過労死記者の両親に直接謝罪" [NHK chairman directly apologizes to parents of deceased reporter]. The Asahi Shimbun (in Japanese). 6 October 2017. Archived from the original on 6 October 2017.
  39. ^ "NHK会長が両親に謝罪 女性記者の過労死で". The Nikkei (in Japanese). Kyodo News. 6 October 2017.
  40. ^ "【NHK記者過労死】NHK会長、両親に謝罪 31歳女性記者の過労死で 働き方改革の決意伝える" [NHK reporter's death due to overwork: NHK president apologizes to his parents] (in Japanese). Sankei Digital Inc. 6 October 2017.
  41. ^ "過労死: NHK会長、記者の遺族に謝罪" [Death from overwork: NHK apologizes to reporter's family]. Mainichi Shimbun (in Japanese). 7 October 2017. Archived from the original on 27 January 2021.
  42. ^ Henry Laurence (April 2005). "Censorship at NHK and PBS". JPRI Critique. XII (3). Japan Policy Research Institute.
  43. ^ "Japan NHK boss Momii sparks WWII 'comfort women' row". BBC News. 26 January 2014. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
  44. ^ Japan TV chief dismisses wartime sex slavery - Asia-Pacific. Al Jazeera English. Retrieved on 29 July 2014.
  45. ^ "New NHK chief: 'comfort women' only wrong per 'today's morality'; programming must push Japan's territorial stances". The Japan Times. 25 January 2014. Archived from the original on 25 January 2014. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
  46. ^ "NHK chairman says fuss over 'comfort women' perplexing". Taipei Times. Reuters. 27 January 2014. Retrieved 21 November 2014.
  47. ^ "NHK chief 'asked senior management to quit' on first day in office". The Japan Times. Kyodo News. 22 February 2014. Archived from the original on 26 February 2014. Retrieved 22 February 2014.
  48. ^ a b Nagata, Kazuki (2 May 2014). "Viewers target NHK chief Momii". The Japan Times. Archived from the original on 3 May 2014. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
  49. ^ "NHK籾井会長に辞任要求/放送法に反すると市民団体". The Shikoku Shimbun (in Japanese). 27 January 2014. Archived from the original on 27 September 2023. Retrieved 27 September 2023.
  50. ^ Sato, Junji (2019). "公共放送のあり方と財源: NHK受信料訴訟最高裁判決を受けて". Journal of Mass Communication Studies (in Japanese). 95: 99–100. doi:10.24460/mscom.95.0_87. ISSN 1341-1306.
  51. ^ Parry, Richard Lloyd (17 October 2014). "Japan's 'BBC' bans any reference to wartime 'sex slaves'". The Times. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
  52. ^ Kanter, Jake (9 June 2020). "Japan's NHK Apologizes & Deletes Animation On Black Lives Matter Protests After Backlash". Deadline. Retrieved 20 July 2021.
  53. ^ Watatsuki, Yoko; Cheung, Eric; Guy, Jack (9 June 2020). "Japanese broadcaster takes down controversial Black Lives Matter anime". CNN. Retrieved 16 June 2020.
  54. ^ Denyer, Simon; Kashiwagi, Akiko (9 June 2020). "U.S. slams Japanese broadcaster for 'offensive' cartoon about Black Lives Matter protests". The Washington Post. Retrieved 16 June 2020.
  55. ^ "6月7日の放送についておわび" [Apologies over the 7 June broadcast] (PDF). NHK. 24 June 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 June 2020. Retrieved 20 July 2021.
  56. ^ "NHK apologizes after airing report on the official film of Tokyo Olympics". Arab News Japan. 12 January 2022. Retrieved 12 January 2022.
  57. ^ "NHKの河瀬直美さんの五輪番組、字幕に不確かな内容 21年放送". Mainichi Shimbun (in Japanese). 9 January 2022. Retrieved 10 January 2022.
  58. ^ "NHK、事実確認せず不適切字幕「金もらって」「五輪反対デモ参加」". The Asahi Shimbun (in Japanese). 9 January 2022. Retrieved 10 January 2022.
  59. ^ "NHK字幕問題 大阪放送局長陳謝「入れるべきではなかった」". Mainichi Shimbun (in Japanese). 13 January 2022. Retrieved 14 January 2022.
  60. ^ "NHK found to have breached ethics with COVID vaccine news segment". The Japan Times. Jiji Press. 6 December 2023.

General sources