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Principle of the hierarchical modulation for NOMA

NOMA (Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access) is a proposed multiple access technique for future cellular systems.

In this, same time, frequency, and spreading-code resources are shared by the multiple users via allocation of power. The entire bandwidth can be exploited by each user in NOMA for entire communication time due to which latency has been reduced and users' data rates can be increased. For multiple access, the power domain has been used by NOMA in which different power levels are used to serve different users.


Origins of NOMA go back into methods multi-resolution modulation (MRM) and hierarchical modulation (HM) (since 1995 in the literature the MRM scheme has been referred to as the HM scheme)[1][2][3].

3GPP included prototype of NOMA in LTE-A due to its spectral efficiency and is known as multiuser superposition transmission (MUST) which is two user special case of NOMA[4].

See also[edit]


  1. ^ K. Fazel, M. Ruf, "Combined multilevel coding and multiresolution modulation", Proc. Tech. Program Conf. Rec. IEEE Int. Conf. Commun. (ICC), vol. 2, pp. 1081-1085, May 1993.
  2. ^ V. Engels, H. Rohling, "Multi-resolution 64-DAPSK modulation in a hierarchical COFDM transmission system", IEEE Trans. Broadcast., vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 139-149, Mar. 1998
  3. ^ H. Sun, C. Dong, S. X. Ng, L. Hanzo, "Five decades of hierarchical modulation and its benefits in relay-aided networking", IEEE Access, vol. 3, pp. 2891-2921, 2015.
  4. ^ "TELCOMA GLOBAL | Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA) for 5G Systems". Retrieved 2018-09-13.


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