NPO may refer to:
- Nil per os, Latin for "nothing by mouth", a medical instruction to withhold oral intake of food and fluids
- Nonprofit organization
- National Ports Organisation, former part of the UK Department for Transport
- National Preservation Office, part of the British Library
- Nauchno-Proizvodstvennoye Obyedineniye (Научно-производственное объединение) ("Scientific and Production Establishment"), designation of many former Experimental Design Bureaus (OKBs)
- Nederlandse Publieke Omroep (organization) ("Netherlands Public Broadcasting"), governing body of the Netherlands (Dutch) Public Broadcasting System
- Nederlands Publieke Omroepbestel ("Dutch public broadcasting system"), the public broadcasting service in the Netherlands
- Netherlands Pathfinder Organisation (Nederlandse Padvinders Organisatie), one of the organisations that evolved into Scouting Nederland, the national Scouting organisation
- North Pacific Oscillation, a teleconnection pattern in atmospheric conditions over the North Pacific
- NP optimization problem, an optimization problem that is NP-hard
- NPO UK Ltd., a chain of stationery and book shops in Northern Ireland, now part of Eason & Son
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