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NPO may refer to:

  • Nil per os, Latin for "nothing by mouth", a medical instruction to withhold oral intake of food and fluids
  • Nonprofit organization
  • National Ports Organisation, former part of the UK Department for Transport
  • National Preservation Office, part of the British Library
  • Nauchno-Proizvodstvennoye Obyedineniye (Научно-производственное объединение) ("Scientific and Production Establishment"), designation of many former Experimental Design Bureaus (OKBs)
  • Nederlandse Publieke Omroep (organization) ("Netherlands Public Broadcasting"), governing body of the Netherlands (Dutch) Public Broadcasting System
  • Nederlands Publieke Omroepbestel ("Dutch public broadcasting system"), the public broadcasting service in the Netherlands
  • Netherlands Pathfinder Organisation (Nederlandse Padvinders Organisatie), one of the organisations that evolved into Scouting Nederland, the national Scouting organisation
  • North Pacific Oscillation, a teleconnection pattern in atmospheric conditions over the North Pacific
  • NP optimization problem, an optimization problem that is NP-hard
  • NPO UK Ltd., a chain of stationery and book shops in Northern Ireland, now part of Eason & Son