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NS Class 8600/8700/9400/9500
Two coupled VIRM units at Amsterdam Bijlmer ArenA
VIRM Nieuw 2klas.jpg
Downstairs interior of a fourth-generation VIRM train.
In service1994–present
ManufacturerTalbot, part of Bombardier Inc.
Number built178 sets
Formation6 cars (8600/8700)
4 cars (9400/9500)
Capacity8600/8700 – 129 (1st), 442 (2nd)
9400/9500 – 61 (1st), 330 (2nd)
Operator(s)NS Reizigers
Maximum speed140 km/h (87 mph) (service) 160 km/h (99 mph) (design)
Power output2,388 kW (3,202 hp) (8600/8700)
1,592 kW (2,135 hp) (9400/9500)
Electric system(s)1.5 kV DC Catenary; all units have extra space for equipment to operate on 25 kV AC Catenary
Current collection methodPantograph
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) standard gauge

VIRM trains, full name Verlengd InterRegio Materieel (Lengthened interregional rolling stock), are a series of electric multiple unit (EMU) double-deck trains operated by Nederlandse Spoorwegen or NS (Dutch Railways), the principal railway operator in the Netherlands. NS has 178 of these double-deckers – 98 four-carriage sets, and 80 six-carriage sets. The trains were built between 1994 and 2009 – for the most part by Talbot, part of Bombardier Inc., with some railcars built by De Dietrich.

The VIRM trains evolved out of the previously existing DD-IRM series (DubbelDeks InterRegio Materieel or Double-deck interregional rolling stock). The first batch of 81 VIRM trains was created by lengthening all the existing DD-IRM combinations by one or two railcars. Three-unit trainsets were augmented by one carriage to transform them into a four-unit VIRM, and the four-unit sets received two more carriages, to create six-unit VIRM trains.


  • VIRM (Verlengd InterRegio Materieel)
  • DD-IRM (Dubbeldeksinterregiomaterieel)
  • Regiorunner (express train, never used)

First generation[edit]

The first generation of DD-IRM were delivered from 1994 to 1996 as three and four car units. The three car units were delivered in the 82xx class and the four car units delivered as 84xx. The first batch of 290 double deck coaches (individual) were delivered. The first 47 were built by De Dietrich and from then on by Talbot.

As the coaches were individual but would run as a unit, they are individually numbered. Collectively they have a set number e.g., 8201, having coach number 380 8001. However, there are no double numbers, for example there can not be an 8201 and 8401 at the same time.

In 2000 an order was placed for new coaches. The 3 car sets were to be upgraded to 4 car sets, and the four car sets upgraded to 6 car sets. This is why they are now called VIRM (V = verlengd – extended). These were renumbered into the 94xx series and the 86xx series. These sets were formed between 2001 and 2005.

Second and Third generation[edit]

Complete view of four carriage unit.

The second and third generation of VIRM were new sets built to the 4 and 6 coach formations, at the same time as the first generation were rebuilt. These were numbered 95xx (4 car units) and 87xx (6 car units). These sets featured different seats, which were also in the new coaches placed inside the first generation sets.

Fourth generation[edit]

These sets were delivered from June 2008 and these are all 4 car units. They are numbered 9547–9597. These sets differ in that they do not feature the catering lift, meaning the stairs could be wider and the destination screens inside the coaches have disappeared, where instead information screens with travel information have been fitted.


Refurbished 8637 at Bergen op Zoom

Starting in 2015, the VIRM-1 sets were being refurbished and fitted with new interiors similar to those seen in the DDZ trainsets, and with new-style liveries. These sets are officially referred to as VIRMm1.


vehicle type DD-IRM
Short Trainsets
Long Trainsets
8201...8281 (34)
8401...8481 (47)
9401...9481 (34)
8601...8681 (47)
9502...9525 (13)
8701...8723 (12)
8726–8746 (21)
9544–9597 (51)
mBvk1/2 290 8501–8662 (162) 8663–8712 (50) 8713–8754 (42) 8759–8861 (103)
ABv3/4 380 8001–8081 (81) 8101–8125 (25) 8126–8146 (21) 8147–8197 (51)
ABv5 380 8201–8247 (47) 8248–8259 (12) 8260–8280 (21)
ABv6 380 8301–8381 (81) 8382–8406 (25) 8407–8427 (21) 8428–8478 (51)
mBv7 260 8801–8847 (47) 8848–8859 (12) 8860–8880 (21)
  • 34 trainsets in 9401–9481, no double numbering with 47 trainsets in 8601–8681
  • 12 trainsets 8701...8723 only odd numbers[1] plus 13 trainsets 9502...9525 remaining numbers
  • mBvk1/2 8755–8758 are reserve carbodies, 8755 has become replacement 8718
  • mBvk1/2 8829 was built as a replacement vehicle for an older trainset

Different liveries[edit]

9524 in OV chipkaart livery.
  • 8733 – This featured adverts between the two decks, advertising that it was the 300th VIRM set built. Livery no longer carried.
  • 9514 – This carries adverts for Lekker lezen in de trein, Comfortable reading in the train.
  • 9525 – This carried the adverts for the NS/Olympic partnership.
  • 9522 – This sported a white/magenta livery advertising the OV-Chipkaart.
  • 9524 – This carried advertising liveries for Mamma Mia and The Lion King. As well as that, it sported a completely white/magenta livery, advertising the OV-chipkaart similar to unit no. 9522.
  • 9520 – This carried an orange/blue livery advertising Queen Beatrix Wilhelmina Armgard resigning from the throne.
  • 9556 – This carries a blue/yellow dotted livery on the middle of the train which makes it look like it is green, it is called the "Groene trein", Green train, for advertising the cooperation between NS and Eneco. Livery was designed by two students.
  • 8707 – This carried adverts for Lekker lezen boven in de trein, Comfortable reading in the upper deck of the train, for a short period in 2016. The adverts were removed because it was said they were not fireproof enough.
  • 9411 – This is the prototype for the midlife-revision of the VIRM-1 series.
  • 8741 – This is the prototype for the midlife-revision of the VIRM-2/3 series.

Services operated[edit]

The VIRM is now the main intercity train and can be seen across most of the NS network.

Series Train type Route Material Notes
800 Intercity SchagenHeerhugowaardAlkmaar Noord AlkmaarCastricumZaandamAmsterdam SloterdijkAmsterdam CentraalAmsterdam AmstelUtrecht Centraal's-HertogenboschEindhovenWeertRoermondSittardMaastricht VIRM This train runs only towards Schagen during rush hours. This train runs only between Amsterdam Centraal and Maastricht at Sundays and after 8:00 pm.
1400 Nachtnet Utrecht CentraalAmsterdam CentraalSchipholLeiden CentraalDen Haag HSDelftRotterdam Centraal VIRM, ICM
1700 Intercity Den Haag CentraalGoudaUtrecht CentraalAmersfoortApeldoornDeventerAlmeloHengeloEnschede
2100 Amsterdam CentraalAmsterdam SloterdijkHaarlemHeemstede-AerdenhoutLeiden CentraalDen Haag Centraal VIRM This train only runs until 10:00 pm and Sundays after 11:30 am.
2200 Vlissingen - Vlissingen SouburgMiddelburgArnemuidenGoesKapelle-BiezelingeKruiningen-YersekeKrabbendijkeRilland-BathBergen op ZoomRoosendaalDordrechtRotterdam Blaak - Rotterdam CentraalSchiedam CentrumDelft - Den Haag HS - Den Haag Laan van NOI - Leiden Centraal - Heemstede-Aerdenhout - HaarlemAmsterdam SloterdijkAmsterdam Centraal
2400 Lelystad Centrum - Almere Buiten - Almere Centrum - DuivendrechtAmsterdam Zuid - Schiphol AirportLeiden Centraal - Den Haag Laan van NOI - Den Haag HS - Delft - Schiedam CentrumRotterdam CentraalRotterdam Blaak - Dordrecht This train only runs until 10:00 pm and Sundays after 11:30 am. This train will not drive between Lelystad Centrum and Duivendrecht at Sundays and after 8:00 pm.
2800 Rotterdam CentraalRotterdam AlexanderGoudaUtrecht Centraal VIRM, DDZ This train only runs until 21:00 and Sundays after 11:30
3000 Den HelderDen Helder ZuidAnna PaulownaSchagenHeerhugowaardAlkmaar NoordAlkmaarHeilooCastricumZaandamAmsterdam SloterdijkAmsterdam CentraalAmsterdam AmstelUtrecht Centraal (– Driebergen-Zeist) - Veenendaal-De KlompEde-WageningenArnhem CentraalNijmegen VIRM This trains stops only at Driebergen-Zeist after 9:00 pm and Sundays until 11:30 am.
3100 Schiphol AirportAmsterdam ZuidAmsterdam Bijlmer ArenAUtrecht CentraalDriebergen-ZeistEde-WageningenArnhem CentraalNijmegen This train only runs until 9:00 pm and Sundays after 11:30 am
3500 Schiphol AirportAmsterdam ZuidAmsterdam Bijlmer ArenAUtrecht Centraal - – 's-HertogenboschEindhovenWeertRoermondSittardHeerlen This train disconnects at Eindhoven with train 13500 towards Venlo. This train runs only between Schiphol and Utrecht Centraal after 9:30 pm.
3600 ZwolleDeventer - Zutphen - Dieren - Arnhem Centraal - Nijmegen - Oss - 's-Hertogenbosch - Tilburg - Breda - Etten-Leur - Roosendaal VIRM, DDZ
3900 Amsterdam CentraalAmsterdam AmstelUtrecht Centraal's-HertogenboschEindhoven VIRM This train only runs on Wednesdays. This train continues as 14500 towards Enkhuizen during rush hours.
4500 EnkhuizenBovenkarspel FloraBovenkarspel-GrootebroekHoogkarspelHoorn KersenboogerdHoornAmsterdam SloterdijkAmsterdam Centraal VIRM, DDM-1
8800 Leiden CentraalLeiden Lammenschans - Alphen aan den Rijn - Bodegraven - Woerden - Utrecht Centraal VIRM, ICM
13500 Eindhoven - Helmond - Deurne - Horst-Sevenum - Blerick - Venlo VIRM This train (dis)connects at train 3500 towards Schiphol Airport at Eindhoven.
14500 EnkhuizenBovenkarspel FloraBovenkarspel-GrootebroekHoogkarspelHoorn KersenboogerdHoornAmsterdam SloterdijkAmsterdam Centraal VIRM, DDM-1 This train only runs during rush hours and directions (in the morning rush hour towards Amsterdam Centraal, at the afternoon rush hour towards Enkhuizen). This train continues as train 3900 towards Eindhoven, only at Wednesdays.
21400 Nachtnet Rotterdam Centraal - Dordrecht - Breda - Tilburg - Eindhoven / Utrecht Centraal's-HertogenboschEindhoven VIRM This train only runs at Friday & Saturdaynight.

Green Train[edit]

In 2015, NS hopes to let 50% of their trains run on electricity powered by windmills. By 2018, all the trains should be running on "clean" electricity.[2] To celebrate this and the fact that the first Dutch railway line was opened 175 years ago, NS and Eneco Energy held a competition. Designers had to design a green train.

The winners were two students from the Technical University in Delft. Their names are Michiel van Sinderen and Steffen de Jonge. Their design was to have the train be checkered with small black and blue squares. From even a small distance the train appears to be green. Michiel van Sinderen said it was the most beautiful thing he had ever made.[3] This design was brought on VIRM number 9556. It was named De Groene Trein which means The Green Train. The difference between this train and other VIRMs is the paler shade of yellow and white arrows on the doors, similar to those on DDZ trains and modernized ICRm railway cars.

The train debuted on September 20, 2014. Its maiden voyage was an extra trip from Amsterdam Centraal to Haarlem. Now it can be spotted and ridden anywhere in the Netherlands.

Accidents and incidents[edit]

Collision involving a NS VIRM unit (right)



  1. ^ "Picture Gallery – Directory: /pix/nl/electric/emu/IRM". railfaneurope.net. Retrieved 23 September 2016.
  2. ^ "Welkom op de website van NS – NS". ns.nl. Archived from the original on 6 November 2014. Retrieved 23 September 2016.
  3. ^ Double You Media (19 September 2014). "NS Groene trein preview". Retrieved 23 September 2016 – via YouTube.
  4. ^ Pieters, Janine (28 April 2017). "DUTCH TRAIN DERAILS NEAR BELGIUM BORDER, INJURING ENGINEER". NL Times. Retrieved 30 April 2017. In July 2017 a VIRM collided with a lorry in Heiloo Forrest.

External links[edit]